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THE LIBRARY 

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THE UNIVERSITY 
OF CALIFORNIA- 



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THE 




Cfjromcle, 



FOR 1807: 

CONTAINING A 

GENERAL AND BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY 

OF 

THE ROYAL NAVY 

OF THE 

UNITED KINGDOM; 

WITH A 

VARIETY OF ORIGINAL PAPERS 

ON 

NAUTICAL SUBJECTS: 

UNDER THE GUIDANCE OF SEVERAL 

LITERARY AND PROFESSIONAL MEN. 



VOLUME THE EIGHTEENTH. 
(FROM JULY TO DECEMBER.) 



ENGLAND EXPECTS THAT EVERY MAN WILL BO HIS DUTY." 

NELSON AND BRONTE. 



Hon'Don : 

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MDCCCVII. 



TO 

JOHN MACNAMARA RUSSEL, Esc*. 

VICE-ADMIRAL OF THE BLUE SQUADRON, 
&C. &C. &C. 

THIS EIGHTEENTH VOLUME OF THE 

jftaual C&ronicie 

IS RESPECTFULLY DEDICATED 
BY THE PROPRIETOR AJCD EDITORS. 



PLATES IN VOLUME XVIII. 

From Original Design*, 



PLATB Pag* 

HEAD PIECE to Vol. XVIII. is an Engraving on Wood, by 
NESBIT, from a Drawing by POCOCK, representing the 
situation of the Arrow, commanded by Captain Richard 
Budd Vincent, when sinking - 1 

CCXXXV. PORTRAIT of Sir JOHN THOMAS DUCKWORTH, K.B. Vice- 
Admiral of the White Squadron. Engraved by COOK, from a 
Draw! ng by BOWYER -- -- 1 

CCXXXVI. VIEW of the NEW MOLE, at Gibraltar. Drawn and 

engraved by BEN NET 53 

CCXXXVII. PORTRAIT of CHARLES HOWARD, Eurl of Nottingham, 
Lord High Admiral of England. Engraved by COOK, from a 
Painting by F. ZUCCHERO -- - 89 

CCXXXVIII. VIEW of his Majesty's ships Swiftsure and Emerald, off 
the Tower of Mirabou, near Alexandria, in Egypt. Engraved 
by HALL, from a Drawing by JOHN TIII.OPHILUS LEE, Esq. 140- 

CCXXXIX. PORTRAIT of GEORGE MURE AY,. Eq, Rear-Admiral of 
the White Squadron. Engraved by COOK, from an original 
Drawing ... _ 177 

CCXL. VfEW of CHARLESTOWN, Soutli Carolina. Engraved by 

BENNIT, from a Drawing by POCOCK 213 

CCXLI. PORTRAIT of Captain WII.I.IAM JOHNSTON F.HOPE. Engraved 
by COOK, from a Miniature in the possession of Lady Anne 
Hope 26? 

CCXLII. VIEW of NEWCASTLF.-UPON-TTNE. Engraved by HALL, 

from a Drawing by AMOR 312 

CCXLIII. PORTRAIT of Sir HENRY TROLLOPE, Knt. Vice-Admiral of 
the Blue Squadron. Engraved by COOK, from a Painting by 
BOWYER 353 

CCXIJV. VIF.W of the HAVANNA. Engraved by Br.xNET, from a 

Drawing by Pocrcit 392 

CCXLV. VIEW of BF.ACUY HEAD. Engraved by WELLS, Drawing- 
Master to Christ's Hospital, from a Drawing by J. W 473 

CCXLVI. VIEW of Cronstadt, in Russia. Engraved by HALL, from 

a Drawing by the late F. GIBSON, Esq. F.A~S 485 

CCXLVII. 'Jhe Frontispiece to this Volume is an aoruiMte Representation 
ot a Monument erected to the Memory of the lute Captain We*t~ 
cott, iu Su Paul's Cathedral, drawn and engraved by Hi LI.. 




PIRIEFACE 

TO THE EIGHTEENTH VOLUME. 

JlijVERY Englishman will feel the powerful appeal to his 
heart, which has been made to the Declaration of Russia,* and, 
we trust, will shew that he feels it. This is not the tirst time 
that the little island has been left alone to chasten the overween- 
ing insolence and calumnies of France : and, whatever our fore- 
fathers accomplished, we trust their posterity, with such an ex- 
ample before them, and such ample resources in their possession, 
will not fail, with the blessing of Heaven, to do likewise. 

We dread only the violence of party, and that inclination which. 
so many of our countrymen indulge, to attach themselves rather to 
particular men, and the support of particular opinions, than to the 
general cause which calls so loudly for unanimity. It is in vain 
that our naval heroes strive to exceed each other in zealous and 
patient service, for the good old ship the BRITANNIA, if the 
different admirals and captains cannot agree among themselves : 
and cheerfully agree, to take a long pull, a strong pull, and a. 
pull altogether. And then, my masters, what signifies argufying 
and dealing out speeches a fathom long, when the boatswain 
pipes all hands, and whistles till his lungs are ready to crack ? 
Melhinks ye want the mate of the watch among ye ; for it is 
coming on to blow, and if your time is occupied ia making 
speeches, and attacking each other, some surly old seaiuan will 
exclaim, as he turns his quid, " here's hell to pay, and n-o pitch 



* See uge 487 of this volume. 



VI P REPACK. 

Tlie strange conduct of Russia is highly derogatory from the 
character of its Emperor, and will occasion a considerable 
change in the naval war \ve are carrying on with so much 
energy. Of all the ambassadors which were sent to Peters- 
burg from this country, we know, from good authority, that no 
one ever possessed the confidence of the Sovereign more than 
Admiral Sir John B. Warren did that of Alexander; and it is 
to be lamented he was not at Petersburg when the late events 
took place. French manners and French influence are para- 
mount in that metropolis ; and the plain open character of a 
British seaman was alone able occasionally to counteract the 
calumnies which the emissaries of the French circulated in an 
astonishing manner. To him the Emperor constantly unbosomed 
himself, and was in the habits of attending to the admiral's ad- 
vice, vi hen new and unforeseen events required that monarch to 
deviate from the wonted policy of his ancestors. 

W e are sorry to find that some of our friends have lately 
entertained an idea, that the CHRONICLE is become the decided 
partizan of the present ministers : it is the duty of a work pur- 
posely established for the use and recreation of his Majesty's 
Navy, to direct its endeavours, however feeble, towards the 
support of government, and those servants whom our Sovereign 
has selected to conduct it : but, as we have elsewhere observed 
in the present Volume, we deprecate all idea of undue or pre- 
judiced attachment to any set of men whatever. The pages of 
the CHRONICLE have been, and ever will be open, to all who 
honour them with their remarks, whether they belong to 
ministers or their opponents. 

We a'so beg leave to remind our numerous readers, that a 
periodical work, from its very nature, will not every month be 
r::u:il!y interesting, or valuable. We cannot look into the list of 
admirals, and captains, and lieutenants, and give what memoirs 
v.e please. From the natural shyness and modesty of naval 
men, we sometimes find it a very arduous task to prepare this 
jioition of the CHRONICLE, and to render it as interesting and 
important as we could wish : frequently, when, owing to the 
promises of the relatives or friends of officers, we expect to be 
enabled to gratify the public in this respect, time and the press, 



PREFACE. Vll 

Ifke the tide, make us hasten on board, and put to sea with 
whatever cargo is ready : and, when too late, we find that the 
purser has shipped bad tobacco, yellow tallow candles, and 
worse slops. We mention this, because much fault has been 
found, and sometimes very deservedly, with our engravings ; and 
although those persons who blame us do not seem to recollect 
the price at which our numbers continue to be published, we 
still so much wish to preserve their good opinion, that we have 
given a great many of the beautiful designs that have lately been 
got ready for the CHRONICLE, to Mr. Bennet, a pupil of Mr. 
Westall's, who has already engraved some in a new and excellent 
snanner. 

The Biography of the present Volume illustrates the important 
services and professional characters of Vice-Admiral Sir T. 
Duckworth, K. B. of Rear-Admiral George Murray (page 
177); of Captain William Johnstone Hope (page 269) ; of Vice- 
Admiral Sir Henry Trollope (page 353); and of Rear-Admiral 
Sir Edward Pellew, Bart, (page 441). As a contrast between 
the exploits of these officers, and those of former times, we 
gave, from no common sources, at page 89, a memoir of the 
celebrated Earl of Nottingham, Lord High Admiral in the 
reign of Queen Elizabeth. 

In addition to these, we are endeavouring to collect materials 
For a biographical memoir of Admiral Holloway, Sir Thomas 
Troubridge, and other distinguished naval officers. We should 
feel ourselves greatly obliged, if any of our friends would also 
assist us with the professional lives of Admiral Keates, Admiral 
Montague, Captain Sir T. M. Hardy, Bart, the Hon. Captain 
C. Boyle, Captain J. Foote, and that young officer, of whom 
Lord Nelson had so high an opinion, Captain Host, of his 
Majesty's ship Amphion. It is at least of service to mention 
these names, that even thus far, we may mark the reputation and 
high character of these distinguished seamen. 

The limits of a preface will not allow us to notice the whole 
of the favours we have received in this Volume. Our memoir 
of Admiral Russell has received an interesting addition by the 
favour of C. D. L. (page 45). The " Poetical Sketches of various 
I^iits of the World," by an officer in the navy, are inserted at 



Vill PREFACE. 

pages 59, 146, CCO, and 326. Our thanks are also due to a 
Subscriber, for the journal of the passage of the Dardanelles, 
(page 139). To J. C. for an extract from Commodore Bar- 
net's letters in May, 1744 (page 209). To a Constant Reader, 
for a correct copy of the loss of the Ganges East rndiaman, 
(page 216). To S. C. S. for an official statement of ships, &c. 
in commission in July, 1762 (page 293). To Z. Z. for his 
biographical sketch of the late Lieutenant Warton, grandson to 
Dr. Warton, (page 385). And to a Constant Reader (page 386), 
for his account of the introduction of lemon-juice into the navy. 

In Naval Literature \ve can only notice the outline of a Plan 
for the better Security and Defence of the British West Indies, 
by Captain Layman, of the royal navy, 8vo. 

We lament exceedingly that so injudicious and intemperate a 
paper, as the preface to Sir Home Popham's trial, should have 
been laid before the public : especially as, to every candid and 
unprejudiced mind, it must be evident that the elements of a 
spirit, of which the said preface affects to accuse the officers 
who remonstrated against ceding their rank to him, are more 
strongly shewn by dangerous and unfounded reflections on as 
respectable and honourable a court martial as ever was 
assembled. 

At the moment when this sheet went to press, the public 
mind was much divided respecting the news that had arrived 
from Portugal ; and an idea seemed to prevail, but on what 
authority we could not discover, " that by evacuating Portugal, 
the wishes of the usurper have been gratified, who may now 
immediately give the vacant kingdom to one of his minions; and 
was only afraid, that the Brazils would have been taken possession 
of by the English." This probably is merely the language of 
party, and, if true, may easily be answered. Tke plunder of the 
country, and its ships, are out of the power of the Corsican chief; 
and a new market in SouthAmerica is opened to our manufactories. 
In the midst of all these events, the rumour of peace prevails : 
but we fear the rumour is treacherous, and that we must prepare 
our good old ship, the BRITA N NI A, against a hurricane. How- 
ever, we all know our stations, and our duty ; and rely on that 
good Providence, uhich has hitherto in so wonderful a manner 
upheld the independence and renown of the united kingdom, 




SIB JOHN THOMAS 



DUCKWORTH.KB. 



AJ&.W .V.fiA /0r/ tyj. Grid 203. She c Lane. t<mj<r 




Situation of the Arrow * when sinking. Engraved by NESSIT, irom a drawing 
by N. POCOCK, Esq. 



BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIR OF 

SIR JOHN THOMAS DUCKWORTH, K.B. 

VICE-ADMIRAL OF THE WHITE SQUADKON. 



" FlI'.M ARE THE SONS THAT Bl'ITAIN LEADS 
To COMBAT ON HIE MAIN." I'VE, 

"^TICK-ADMIRAL Sir John Thomas Duckworth is one of 
those brave officers whose professional services have shed 
such lustre on the maritime county of Devon. 

Sir John is the descendant of an ancient and highly respect- 
able, though not opulent, family in that county. His father 
was a clergyman, whose living, as is too frequently the case with 
the undignified part of the profession, was not very productive ; 
but who, by means of a strict economy, was enabled to provide 
for his family, and to live in a respectable manner. Being 
extremely well qualified for siicji a task, he educated the 
subject of this memoir, and fitted him for the service to which 
he has since done so much honour. 

* See Naval Chronicle, Vol. XVLL page 231. 
J!5ab. C&ron. OJol.XVIII. B 



BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIR OF 

The first account which \ve find of our young seaman is, 
while he was serving as a Midshipman on board of the Kent, 
of 74 guns, Captain Charles Fielding. He was in that ship 
when her aftermost magazine blew up, on the 4th of July, 
1774. While saluting the Admiral, as she was sailing out of 
Plymouth Sound, the wadding from the guns of the Kent com- 
municated with some powder in an ammunition-chest on the 
poop, which instantly took fire, and blew up all that part of the 
ship. The beams of the quarter-deck were forced in ; and 
many others, in different parts, w ere much shattered and broken. 
By this distressing accident, almost all the men on the poop, 
and after-part of the ship, were blown overboard, and about 
fifty of them were killed and dreadfully wounded. 

Mr. Duckworth, we" believe, remained in the Kent till the 
beginning of the year 1776, when he accompanied Captain 
Fielding into the Diamond frigate, of 32 guns, and sailed with 
him to America, for the 'purpose of convoying a large detach- 
ment of British and foreign troops. He continued with Cap- 
tain Fielding, in America, until the spring of 1779, during a 
part of which time that officer was Commander in Chief at 
Halifax. Under his auspices, he acquired much professional 
knowledge ; and, in fact, became a thorough seaman.* 

* Captain Fielding was the second son of Charles, the third son of 
Basil Fielding, fourth Earl of Denbigh, and third Earl of Desmond, in the 
Kingdom of Ireland, by his lady, Hester, daughter of Sir Basil Firebrass, 
Knight and Baronet. He was made Post, in the Flamborougb, of 20 guns, 
on the 27th of August, 1760. In 1762, he commanded the Unicorn, of 
28 guns; and, in 1770, the Achilles, of 60 guns, under Vice-Admiral 
Geary, then Port- Admiral at Portsmouth. (Fide NAVAL CHRONICLE, 
Vol. XVII. page 185.) As soon as the prospect of a rupture with Spain had 
passed away, he was removed into the Rainbow, of 44 guns, a ship then 
equipping for service at Chatham, where he remained nearly two years. 
He next commanded the Kent, a guard-ship, at Plymouth, in which he con- 
tinued for the period usually allotted to such service. Early in 1776, as we 
have already seen, he went to America, in the Diamond. At the end of 
1779, aftfer his return to England, he was appointed to the Namur, of 90 
guns; and was sent out, on a Channel cruise, as commanding officer of a 
small squadron, consisting of she ships of the line, one of 50 guns, and five 
frigates, or sloops of war, for the purpose of intercepting a Dutch merchant 
fleet, and its convoy, reported to be laden with naval stores, and bound to 



SIR JOHN THOMAS DUCKM'ORTII, K.U. 

On the 15th of March, 1779, Mr. Duckworth was pro- 
moted to the rank of Lieutenant, in the Princess Royal, of QB 
guns, then Vice- Admiral Byron's flag-ship, on the West India 
station. He was consequently present, during the action with 
Count d'Estaing, off Grenada, on the 6th of July following. 
At the beginning of July, the Vice- Admiral had .received 
intelligence, that the French fleet, in very great force, had been 
discovered from St. Vincent's. He immediately put to sea in 
pursuit of them ; and, on his passage to Grenada, he was 
informed that that island was attacked by a force not exceeding 
nineteen ships of the line. On the 6th of the month, having 
arrived off St. George's Bay, where the enemy lay at anchor, 
immediate measures were taken to bring them to a close and 
decisive action. The French fleet, however, when completely 
formed, was found to consist of twenty -seven ships of the line, 
instead of nineteen. Notwithstanding this great superiority, 
(the whole of the English force amounting to only twenty-one 
sail, seven or eight of which were of 64 guns, while very few of 
the French ships carried less than 74) M. d'Estaing most 
industriously avoided a close action ; a circumstance in which he 
was favoured, from his ships being all clean, and in general 
faster sailers than the English. The encounter, of course, pro- 
duced nothing decisive, though an immense number of lives 
was sacrificed. The English had 183 killed, and 346 wounded; 

some of the enemy's ports. This service was satisfactorily performed. 
Captain Fielding was soon afterwards removed into the Minerva, a new 
frigate, of 38 guns, supposed at that time to he the finest vessel of her class 
in the British navy. In the Minerva, in March 1781, he accompanied 
Vice-Admiral Darby to the relief of Gibraltar. Towards the close of that 
year he was some time out of commission, till the Ganges, of 7-J i^nns, one 
of the ships presented to Government by the East India Company, w:is 
launched. Early in 178? he was appointed to that ship ; and, in the 
month of September, proceeded in her, with Lord Howe, to relieve 
Gibraltar. In the skirmish which took place with the combined fleft?, on 
the 20th of October following, Captain Fielding had the misfortune to be 
wounded in the arm by a splinter. The hurt was apparently slight, and no 
ill consequences whatever were tbought likely to ensue; but, owing to a 
bad habit of body, the wound unfortunately turned to a gangrene, which 
terminated his life in a few weeks after his return to England. 



4 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIR OF 

while the loss of the French, at the lowest estimate, was 2,700, 
of which the slain amounted to 1,200. This vast slaughter was 
attributed to the great number of troops, which were crowded 
on board the ships.* 

The Princess Royal, although the loss which she sustained 
was not so extensive as that of some of the other ships, was very 

* As an illustration of Naval History, we here subjoin a list of Vice-Admiral 
Byron's fleet, in the engagement with Count d'Estaing, on the 6th of July, 
1779 : 

Shipt. Guns. Commanders. Killed. Wounded. 

T> i n ? Vice-Admiral Byron 7 

Princess Royal ...... 98 { Captain Blair ' } 3 6 

Albion ............ . 74 - George Boy cr 3 

T, . ,, , . < Rear-Admiral Barrington 7 

PnnceofWales ...... 74 $ Captain Hill \ 26 

Medway ........... 60 - Wm. Affleck 4 

r, ,,. ,, - , { Commodore llowley ) ' 

Suffolk ............. 74 * 7 25 



Captain Christian 

.-, -. C Rear- Admiral H. Parker 7 

Conqueror .......... 74 J Capfain ^^ J 

Magnificent ......... 74 - Eluhinstone 8 11 

Boyne ........ ..... 74 Sawyer 12 30 

Sultan .............. 74 - Gardner 16 39 

Grafton (much damaged) 74 - Col!ing-ood . 35 63 

Lion (lost all her masts) 64 -- Cormvallis 21 31 

Cornwall ........... 74 - T.Edwards 16 27 

Fame .............. 74 - Barber 4 9 

Vigilant ............ 64 - Sir D. Dsnt 

Trident ............ 64 - Molloy 3 6 

Royal Oak .......... 74 . - T. Burnet 4 12 

Elizabeth ........... 74 - Maitlanrt 1 2 

Yarmouth ........... 64 - F. Parry 

Stirling Castle ....... 64 Carket " 2 6 

Monmouth .......... 64 - Fanshaw 5 38 

Nonsuch ............ 64 - W.Griffith 

Ariadne, 20 guns, Captain Pringlo, to reprat signals. 

OFFICEHS KILLFP. 

Lieutenant Bowen Parry, of the Koyal Oak. 
-- John Ilutchins. of the Grafton. 
--- John Veale, of the Sultan. 
Mr. Nicholas Bowcn, Gunner, of the Grafton. 

OFFICERS WOUNDED. 

Vice-Admirnl Barrington. 

Lieutenant Brett, of the Grafton. 

- - Richards (Marines) of the Royal Oak. 

- Caldwell (do.) of the Sultan. 

"" Bowdens, (do.) of the Magnificent. 



SIR JOHN THOMAS DUCKTVOUTH, K.B. 5 

warmly engaged ; and, in the course of the action, a piece of a 
black man's skull (Peter Allen's) -was forced by a cannon ball 
against the breast of Lieutenant Duckworth, while all his 
clothes were literally covered with the brains. 

Mr. Duckworth afterwards proceeded to St. Christopher's, 
with Vice- Admiral Byron; and, on the 16th of July (1779) he 
was made Master and Commander in the Rover sloop, remain- 
ing on the same station. While there, he was accustomed to 
cruise off Martinique, and to look into Fort Royal harbour 
every day. 

Captain Duckworth's promotion appears to have been 
unusually rapid; as, on the 16th of June, 1780, he was made 
Post, in the Terrible, of 74 guns. From the Terrible he was 
very speedily removed, and appointed Captain of his old ship, 
the Princess Royal, then destined for the flag of Rear-Admiral 
Rowley. He conducted her to Jamaica, where he remained 
until the month of February, 1781, when he returned to 
England, in. the Grafton, of 74 guns, with a convoy. 

His passage home was long and tempestuous ; a circumstance 
which served to display his humanity in a very conspicuous and 
honourable point of view. The crew of the Grafton being 
extremely sickly, Captain Duckworth was in the daily habit of 
sending his fresh meat and wine to the invalids ; and we have 
been assured, that, if any thing else were brought into the cabin, 
he would not taste it until those on the Doctor's list had been 
first served. Thus he lived chiefly on such salted provisions as 
are usually served out to the men. 

It will be recollected that, soon after this period, a peace 
took place, which lasted until the breaking out of what we 
have denominated the War of the Revolution, in 1793. Cap- 
tain Duckworth, who had been all the time out of commission, 
then found immediate employment, by being appointed to the 
Orion, of 74 guns. This ship was attached to the Channel 
fleet, under the orders of Earl Howe ; and, consequently, Cap- 
tain Duckworth was in the three memorable actions of the 
28th and 29th of May, and 1st of June, 1794. 

Into the particulars of those engagements, so glorious to the 



8 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIR OF 

English name and nation, it is here unnecessary for us to enter ; 
having already fully detailed them, in our respective memoirs of 
Earl Hovwe, Lord Gardner, Lord Bridport, Sir Thomas 
Paisley, Sir Roger Curtis; the Admirals Berkeley, Payne, 
Caldvvell, JBazely, and Domett ; the late Captain Harvey, &e.* 
In the first volume of our Chronicle -f* also appears an 
interesting article, under the head " Proceedings of His 
Majesty's Skip the Orion, John Thomas Duckworth, Esq. 
Commander) and his Observations during the Actions of the 
ZSth and 2$th of May, and 1st of June, 1794." To this it is 
only requisite to add, that, on the present occasion, the Orion 
had 5 men killed, and 24 wounded ; that Captain Duckworth 
was one of the eighteen Commanders, who were specially dis- 
tinguished by Lord Howe, in his official despatches, as having 
particular claim to his Lordship's attention ; that, consequently, 
he was honoured with a gold medal and ribbon ; and that, in 
common with the" other officers of the fleet, he received the 
thanks of both Houses of Parliament. 

Having been refitted at Plymouth, the Orion sailed from St. 
Helen's, on the 3d of September following, with the fleet under 
Earl Howe, on a cruise in the Bay. She continued in that ser- 
vice during the whole of the winter, occasionally returning to 
Spithead, Torbay, and Plymouth, to refit and water. 

Early in January, 1795, accounts were received by Govern- 
ment, that a French fleet, consisting of thirty-two sail of the 
line, and several frigates, had escaped from Brest. On the 14th 
of the ensuing month, Captain Duckworth accompanied Lord 
Howe from Torbay, with the Channel fleet, which was joined 
the next day off Plymouth, by Rear-Admiral Parker, and a 
squadron of Portuguese ships of war. The French, however, 
having sustained considerable damage in a heavy gale of wind, 
in which le Revolutionaire, one of their three-deckers, foun- 

* Vide NAVAL CHRONICLE, Vol. I. page 1; Vol. VIII. page 177; Vol.. 
I. page 265; Vol. IV. page 349 ; Vol. VI. page 261 ; Vol. XII. page 89; 
Vol. IN. page 1; Vol. XI. page 1; Vol. XIV. page 177; Vol. XV. page 1; 
Vol. IlL page 241 ; &c. 

i Page 293. 



SIR JOHtf THOMAS DUCKWORTH, K.-B. 7 

tiered, Were obliged to return into Brest; and Lord Howe, 
after seeing the East and West India convoys safe out of the 
Channel, and ascertaining that the enemy's fleet was actually in 
port, came back to Spithead. 

This, we believe, was the last cruise which Captain Duck- 
worth had in the Orion, and with the Channel fleet.* 

On the 2,5th of March, in the same year, he sailed in the 
Leviathan, of 74 guns, with the squadron under the command 
of Rear-Admiral Mann, for the Mediterranean ; but parted 
company off Cape Finisterre, and, with the Hannibal and 
Swiftsure, proceeded with a convoy to the West Indies. 

Captain Duckworth remained a considerable time at Jamaica ; 
and, on the 22d of March, 1706^ he was employed, under 
Rear-Admiral William Parker, with the following squadron, iu 
an unsuccessful attack on the town of Leogane, at St. 
Domingo : 

Ships. Guns. Commanders. 

r Wm. Parker, Esq. Rear-Admiral 
Swiftsure 74 j of the Red. 

I Captain R. Parker. 

Leviathan 74 J. T. Duckworth. 

Africa 6i Rod. Home. 

Tphigeuia 32 F. F. Gardner. 

Ceres 32 J. Newman. 

Lark 16 W. Ogilvy. 

Cormorant 26 F. Collingwood. 

Serin 16 D. Guerin. 

The ships which covered the landing, and brought up 
against the enemy's batteries, lost some men. The Leviathan 
had 5 killed, and 12 wounded; and the Africa, 1 killed, and 7 
wounded. 

In the month of August, 179G, Captain Duckworth hoisted 
his broad pendant, in the Leviathan;*)- and, as he was much 
employed in cruising, he participated in the capture of a great 
number of the enemy's privateers and merchant vessels. 

* Sir James Saumarez succeeded Captain Duckworth in the command 
of the Orion. 

t Captain J. Bingham was appointed to serve under him. 



8 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIR OF 

In 1797, he returned to England; in the early part of 1798, 
he was employed in the Channel fleet, under the command of 
Admiral Lord Bridport ; and, in the month of August follow- 
ing, having joined Earl St. Vincent, in the Mediterranean, he 
again hoisted his broad pendant in his old ship, the Leviathan.* 

The reduction of Minorca being deemed an object of con- 
siderable importance, Commodore Duckworth was, about this 
time, appointed to the command of the following squadron, for 
the purpose of effecting it : 

Ships. Guns. Commanders. 

T , , C J. T. Duckworth, Esa. Commodore. 

Leviathan 74 ] > 

t Captain H. Digby. 

Centaur 71 John Markham. 

Argo 41 J. Bovren. 

Aurora 28 J. G. Caulfield. 

Cormorant 20 Lord Mark Kerr. 

Calcutta, armed 1 _ T> m 

f . >24 R. Plouden. 

frigate j 

Coromamlel,do. 24 R. Pressland. 

Ulysses, do 24 Lieutenant W. Simmonds. 

Petterel . .16 



Constitution, 1 , wt . . 

> 14 . uhisten. 

cutter j 



With this force, accompanied by the late General Stuart, 
brother to the Marquis of Bute, as Commander of the troops, 
Commodore Duckworth arrived off Minorca, on the 9th of 
November. He immediately landed a body of troops at 
Addaya Creek, near Fournella, without opposition from the 
enemy, who blew up their magazines, spiked their guns, and 
evacuated the fort. The troops proceeded on their march to 
Mercadal, which they entered without resistance, the enemy 
having retired to Cindadella, and thence to Mahon; the 
squadron, in the ntean time, blocking up the different bays and 
creeks, to prevent supplies being thrown into the island, from 
Majorca. In the course of the same day, a detachment of 300 
men, under the command of the Hon. Colonel Paget, arrived 

On this occasion, il. Digby, Esq. was the Captain under him. 



Sift JOJIN THOMAS DUCKTVOHJH, K.B. 

Srt Muhon, and compelled Fort Charles to surrender ; by which 
the Colonel was enabled to remove the boom which obstructed 
the entrance of the harbour, and to open a free passage for the 
Aurora and Cormorant) which Commodore .Duckworth had 
ordered upon that service. 

On the evening of the .2th, four Spanish frigates* were 
observed standing over from the island of Majorca; on the 
receipt of which intelligence, the Commodore instantly put to 
sea, with the Leviathan, Centaur, Argo, Calcutta, Ulysses, and 
Coromandel, in quest of them. At day-break the next morn- 
ing, five sail were seen standing for Cindadella, and the signal 
was made for a general chase; but the enemy observed it, and 
immediately hauled their wind for Majorca. The pin suit was 
continued, with little wind, till eleven at night, by which time 
the Commodore had arrived within three miles of the sternmost 
frigate ; but, fearful lest he might be drawn too far from 
Minorca, he directed Captain Markham, in the Centaur, to 
pursue the enemy, and returned off Cindadella, to co-operate 
with the army, if necessary. On his arrival off that place, he 
received the agreeable intelligence from General Stuart, that 
the whole island had surrendered to His Majesty's arms, by 
capitulation, on the 1 jlh. 

On the same morning, Commodore Duckworth was joined 
by the Argo, Captain Bowcn, who, in the chase on the 13th, 
had re-captured the Petcrel, which had been taken on the pre- 
ceding day by the Spanish frigates. Captain Markham also 
rejoined the Commodore, but without having had the good for- 
tune to come up with the enemy. 

During the proceedings at Minorca, a detachment of 150 
seamen was landed, to assist and to co-operate with the army, 
under the direction of Captain Bowen ; but, other essential 
service rendering it necessary that that officer should return to 
his ship, the command of the seamen devolved on Mr. William 
Buchannan, the second Lieutenant of the Leviathan, wjiose 



The Flora, Camilla, Pomona, and Proserpine, of 10 gun? c:ic-j. 



Id BIOGRAPHICAL MESfOTR OF 

general conduct on the occasion was entitled to much praise.* 
Indeed, all the captains, officers, seamen, and marines, who 
were employed, either on shore, or in covering the landing of 
the troops and military stores, displayed the greatest zeal and 
activity. 

Thus the conquest of Minorca was effected, withont the loss 
of a single man ; although the Spanish troops, including officers, 
amounted to between three and four thousand ; and had the 
means, in every respect, of making a stout resistance. A great 
quantity of ordnance and military stores was taken in the 
forts. In the arsenal, at Mahou, was found abundance of naval 
stores ; the keel and stern-frame of a man of war brig on the 
stocks, with her timbers, part of her stores, rigging, &c. four- 
teen gun-boats, hauled up, with all their rigging complete ; and" 
thirteen other large boats, from twenty to thirty-six feet keel, 
with their rigging in good order, and fit for service. Two 
large merchant ships, a zebeck, and four tartans, were taken in 
the harbour .*j- 

Whilst Commodore Duckworth remained in this quarter, he 
also captured several merchant vessels, some of which were of 
considerable value. 

His presence being no longer necessary at Minorca, he 
returned to the Mediterranean, where . he continued till the 

* $s a proof of the sense which General Stuart entertained of the meri- 
torious behaviour of Lieutenant Buchannan, and his party, he sent the 
following letter: 

" SIR, Before Cindadelhiy Nov. 18, If93. 

* : I have the honour to return you, and the gentlemen employed on shore 
under your command, my sincere thanks for your activity, zeal, and 
assistance in forwarding the light artillery of the army; neither can too 
much praise be given to the seamen for their friendly and cheerful exertions 
under very hard labour exertions which were accompanied with a pro- 
priety of behaviour which I greatly attribute to your management, and 
which will ever merit my acknowledgments, and affords me tire satisfaction 
of assuring you, that I am, with sincere regard, 

Yours, Sue. 

Lieutenant Buchannan. CHARLES STUART. 

t V'uii XAVAJL CHRONICI.B, Vol. I. pigcs 78 aud 35C, 



SIR JOHN THOMAS DUCKWORTH, K.B. II 

month of June, 1800, first under tlie orders of Earl St. Vin- 
cent, -with whom, we believe, he has ever lived on terms of 
great intimacy and friendship; and, subsequently, under Vice- 
Admiral Lord Keith. 

lu the interim, however, on the 14th of February, 1799, 
Commodore Duckworth was promoted to the rank of Rear- 
Admiral of die White Squadron. 

On the 6'lh of February, in the latter year, previously to his 
receiving his flag", he was on a cruise off the coast of Catalonia, 
in company with the Argo, Captain Bowen; when two large 
Spanish frigates were discovered at anchor, near a fortified 
tower, on the south point of the Bahia d'Alcude. Immediately 
on perceiving the British ships, the Spaniards cut their cables, 
and made sail to the north-east. Chase was instantly given, 
under all the canvass which the Leviathan and Argo could bear j 
but, as it blew a strong gale, the Commodore's ship unfortu- 
nately carried away her main-top-sail-yard, by which accident 
she dropped so much astern as to be soon out of sight of the 
Argo. At the close of the day the Spaniards separated : Cap- 
tain Bowen, however, by judicious management and skilful 
manoeuvres, kept sight of one of the frigates, which he got 
alongside of at midnight ; and, the Leviathan coming up at the 
same time, she surrendered after the first broadside. The prize 
proved to be the Santa Theresa, commanded by Don Pablo 
Perez, mounting 42 guns, and manned with G80 seamen and 
marines, beside 250 soldiers.- The frigate which made her 
escape, was the Proserpine, of the same force. 

On the ICith of the same month, the Leviathan, with the 
Centaur, Argo, and Cormorant, attacked the town of Com- 
brelles; and, having driven the Spaniards from the batteries, the 
boats of the squadron we/e sent in, under the command of 
Lieutenant Grosset, who dismounted the guns, burnt live setters, 
and took three others, and two tartans laden with wine.. 

The vigilance of Rear-Admiral Duckworth was now on the 
eve of experiencing a very solid remuneration. On the oth of 
April, 1800, while on a cruise in the Straits, with the Suift- 
Captain Hallowell, and the Emerald, Caplaiu Walkr^ hs. 



12 . BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIR OF 

bad the good fortune to fall in with a valuable Lima convoy* 
After a short running fight, he, the next day, succeeded in cap- 
turing two of the frigates, and eleven of the merchantmen ; the 
whole of which, richly laden, were carried safely into Gibraltar, 
It was reported at the time, that the Rear- Admiral's share alone 
would amount to not less than 75,000/.* 

In the month of June, 1800, Rear-Admiral Duckworth pro- 
ceeded from the Mediterranean to the Leeward Islands, as the 
successor of the late Vice- Admiral Lord Hugh Seymour ; who, 
on his arrival, went down to relieve Sir Hyde Parker, in the 
command at Jamaica. 

The Leeward Island squadron, when the Rear-AdmiraJ 
assumed the command^ stood as follows : 

Ships. Guns. Commanders. 

.. . em, ,T f Vice-Adm. Lord Hugh Seymour. f 

Prince of Wales ........ 98 ir * A p 

( Captam A. Kenou. 

Sans Pareil ............ Si - C. N. Penrose. 

Rear-Admiral J, T. Duckworth, 



Leviathan ..... ....... 74 J> Carpcnter> 



Invincible;}; ___ 1. ...... 74 - W. Cayley. 

Tromp (armed en fiute) . 54 - : T. O'Neil. 

Severn.. ...... . ...... 44 - John Whitby. 

Magnanime ........... 44 - AVilliam Taylor, 

Seine ................ 42 - I). Milne. 

A polio ............... 38 - - - P. Halket. 

Diana ................ 38 . - Alex. Fraser. 

Hydra ........ *...,., 38 - Sir J. Laforey, Bt. 

Tamer .......... ---- , 38 - Thomas Western, 

Unite ................ 38 - J, P. Beresford. 

Crescent ....... ..... 3S - W. G. Lobb. 

Glenmore ............. 36 - - George Duff. 

Melampus ... ......... 36 - - Graham Moore, 

Aimable.., ..... ..., 32 - - II. Rapcr, 

* For the official particulars of the capture, the reader is referred to the 
$hird voliunc of the NAVAL CHRONICLE, page i07. 

t Shifted his ilig into tlie Sans 1'areil, in which he sailed to Jamaica. 
The Prince of Wales returned to England. 

* Returned to England in August. 
$ Went ;Q Jamaica. 



SIR JOHN THOMAS DUCKWORTH, IC.B. |$ 

S/u'p*. Guns. Commanders. 

Southampton 32 Captain John Harvey. 

Syren 32 T. Le M. Gosslin, 

Amphion 32 R. H. A. Bennett.* 

Decade 36 James Wallis.* 

Juno . 32 George Dundas.* 

Lapwing 28 Thomas Harvey, f 

Circe 28 . Isaac Wolley. 

Bourdelois 28 Thomas Manby. 

Daphne 20 R. Mafson. 

Gaiete 20 . E. D. K}ng, 

Tisiphonc 20 C. Grant. 

Hind _ 20 J. Larcom. 

Cayenne 18 II. Matson. 

Scourge 18 S. Warren. 

Surinam 18 Christopher Cole. 

Bittern . . 16 : Edward Kitoe.J 

Calypso 16 Jos. Baker.* 

JIawke 16 Edward Rotheram.S 

Hornet 16 . J. Nash. 

Busy 16 J. A. Omaney. jj 

Fairy - 16 F. Warren. 

Drake (brig) 14 Geoffce Younghusband. 

Zephyr 14 William Champuin.^ 

Republican (schooner) .,. 18 Lieutenant 

Campheon (do.) 16 II. Thwaits. 

Rcsolu (brig) 10 

Pedro (schooner) 8 

Harlequin (do.) 8 

Frederick 10 T W. Edwards, 

Danphinjloyal(schooner) 8 

Campbell (do.) 8 

Barbara (do.) 8 

Alexander (tender) 6 

Garland (do.) 6 F. Banks. 

Crache Fen (gun-vessel) . 

* Went to Jamaica. 

t Afterwards Captain Edward Rotheram. The Lapwing returned t 
England in September. 

+ Returned to England in August. 

Afterwards Captain F. M. Gamier. The Hawke went to Jamaica, 

|| Afterwards Captain Viscount Falkland. 

5 Returned to England. 



14 BIOSJlAPIUCAt MEMOIR Of 

The only circumstance deserving of notice, which occurred 
on this station, after the arrival of Rear-Admiral Duckworth, in 
1800, was the capture of le Quiproquo, a French armed sloop, 
of 8 guns (six and nine-pounders) and Q8 men, by the Gipsey 
schooner, commanded by Lieutenant Croyndon Boger. The 
Gipsey, which mounted 10 four~pounders, and carried 42 men, 
was employed as a tender to the Leviathan. On the 7th of 
October, she fell in with le Quiproquo, off the north end of 
Guadaloupe, and, after a very gallant and severe conflict, com- 
pelled her to strike. Eighty of le Quiproquo's men were 
Guadaloupe chasseurs and cannoneers, commanded by M. 
Tourpie, formerly a Capitaine de Vaisseau. He and four of 
his men were killed, and eleven wounded. The Gipsey had 
one man killed ; and Lieutenant Boger, and ten 'of his men, 
\vere wounded.* 

In the month of January following, the Rear-Admiral'* 
cruisers were very actively employed, in protecting the trade and 
annoying the enemy. The Bourdelois, Captain Manby, par- 
ticularly distinguished herself, in the capture of le Curieuse, 
French corvette. f On the 18th of that month, the boats of the 
Daphne and Cayenne, commanded by Lieutenants M'Kenziei 
and Peachy, succeeded, in rather an extraordinary manner, in 
capturing 1'EcIair, a, French armed schooner, of 4 guns, and 56 
tnen. L'Eclair was moored to the shore, at Trois Rivieres, 
and protected by a very strong battery, which kept up an 
incessant fire upon the boats ; notwithstanding which, the 
officers, and boats' crews, boarded her in the most gallant man- 
ner, and cut her out, with the loss of only two men killed and 
three wounded. The enemy had three killed; and the Cap- 
tain, two Lieutenants, and .six men wounded. 

At the period of the Northern Confederacy that Confederacy 
which the gallant Nelson had the glory of annihilating before 
the walls of Copenhagen- Rear-Admiral Duckworth was 
r _ ^ 

* Vide NAVAL CHRONICLE, Vol. V. pa<re 165. 

4 For the interesting official account of this capture, see Captain Man- 
by 's Uazctte Letter, NAVAL CHEOXICLE, Vol. V. page 349. 



SIR JOHX THOMAS DUCK-WORTH, K.B. IS 

rdered, in conjunction with Lieutenant-General Trigge, to 
seize upon the Ssvedish and Danish possessions in the West 
Indies. Accordingly, a body of land forces having been 
collected and embarked, the following squadron put to sea, for 
the island of St. Bartholomew, on the iGlh of March: 

Ships* Guns Commanders. 

T . ,, , $ Rear- Admiral Duckworth. 

.LeYiathan.... . .... 7-1 \ 

(. Captain Ji. D. Ki!!g. 

Diana 38 J. P. Beresford. 

Unite ,. 38 Thomas Harvey. 

Southampton 32 John Harvey. 

Andromeda 32 James Brad by. 

Amphitrite 28 Charles Ekins. 

Hornet 16 J. Nash. 

Drake (brig) 10 Geo. Youngliusband. 

Eclair (schooner) .. 10 

Fanny (brig) 10 Lieutenant Frissel. 

Alexandria 10* 

In consequence of variable winds and calms, the squadron 
did not reach its place of destination till the 'JOth of the month; 
on the morning of which they arrived off Griuid Saline Bay. 
1 he necessary arrangements were immediately made for disem- 
barking the troops, and for proceeding to the at.acl. ; previously 
to which, to prevent delay, Captain King, of the Leviathan, and 
Brigadier-General Fuller, were sent with a formal summons to 
the Governor; accompanied by a letter to the American mer- 
chants, resident on the island, cautioning them not to claim any 
of the property which, in justice, would become forfeited to the 
crown of Great Britain. After some little hesitation, the 
summons was acceded to by the -Governor, and the island 
capitulated. 

Having detached the Alexandria and Andromeda to watch 
St. Thomas's, it was next determined to attack the island of St. 
Martin, where the squadron arrived at day-light, on the morn- 



* The Coromanrlel, armed ship, of 21 guns, Captain J Mortimer; and 
the Proselyte, of 32 guns, Captain George Fowke, joined the squadron oo 
the 23d and 24th of the month; \\ith reinforcements of troops, 



16 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIR Of 

ing of the '24th . The Governor not complying with the surh- 
mons to surrender, 3, 500 troops were immediately landed, 
under the command of Brigadier-Generals Maitlandand Fuller, 
assisted by a detachment of 200 seamen, commanded by Cap- 
tain Ekins, of the Amphitrite, covered by the Proselyte and 
Drake. After a smart skirmish, in which the enemy lost two 
field pieces, and had fifty or sixty men killed and wounded, the 
heights in the approach to the town of Philipsbourg were 
carried. Convinced that all opposition would be vain, and 
must lead to destruction, the enemy now agreed to a verbal 
summons, sent in by General Maitland ; and, by midnight, the 
terms of capitulation were signed and exchanged. 

These conquests having been properly secured, the squadron 
sailed la prosecute the farther object of the expedition. Ou 
the 28th of the month, the islands of St. Thomas and St. John, 
with their dependencies, submitted to the British arms ; and, on 
the 31st, the island of Santa Cruz followed their example.* 

On the 6th of June following, Rear-Admiral Duckworth had 
the honour of being nominated one of the Knights Companions 
of the Bath ; probably the chief advantage which he derived 
from the above-mentioned captures ; as, at the dissolution of the 
armed neutrality, the foreign islands were restored to their for- 
mer possessors. For some time he was also a Colonel of 
Marines. 

Sir John Duckworth retained the command on the Leeward 
Island station till the winter of 1801, when he returned to 
England ; and, we believe, was not again employed till the 
renewal of hostilities, in 1803. 

At that period, he obtained the important and lucrative 
appointment of Commander in Chief at Jamaica. From the 
time of his arrival, to the close of the year, an astonishing number 
of captures was made by his cruisers.-f- The respective har- 
bours of the island of St. Domingo were also closely blockaded ; 
and, in addition to the usual duties of his station, Sir John had 

* For the official details of these captures, the reader is referred to the 
Fifth Volume of the NAVAI. CHRONICLE, from page 44<2 to 4 -16. 
1 Vide NAVA! CiiiioMcLE, Vol. XL p ages ISO, SCO, &c. 



Sill JOHN THOMAS DUCKWORTH, K.B. 17 

to conduct a very troublesome negociation with General 
Rochambeau,* the commander of the French forces in that 
island. Rochambeau, surrounded by insurgent negroes, of 
whose just vengeance he entertained the utmost fear, his 
own troops being in the most wretched situation from famine 
and disease, was extremely anxious to quit the island, and 
effect his escape ; but in this he was prevented by the vigilance 
of Sir John Duckworth's squadron. The same vigilance pre- 
vented his receiving any supplies from France ; so that, to avoid 
the horrible fate which his crimes deserved, he at last found 
himself under the necessity of throwing himself upon the 
generosity of the British, by agreeing to such terms of capitula- 
tion as they thought proper to propose.-f 

Sir John Duckworth, who was promoted to the rank of 
Vice- Admiral of the Blue squadron, on the 23d of April, 1804,$ 
continued at Jamaica until the spring of 1805, when he was 
succeeded in the command by Rear- Admiral Dacres. During 
his stay, he was unusually successful in capturing an extraor- 
dinary number of the enemy's vessels; and, by a judicious dis- 
tribution of his force, he effectually protected the commerce and 
coasts of the island. The estimation in which his conduct was 
holden, by the inhabitants, will be sufficiently seen from the 
following resolution of the House of Assembly, of Jamaica., 
dated December the 7th, 1804; which we transcribe from a 
Jamaica paper now before us : 

Agreed to, neni. con. that the thanks of the House he presented 
to Vice- Admiral Sir John Thomas Duckworth, K.B. for the 
effectual protection afforded to the commerce and coasts of this 
island, by his able and disinterested distribution of His Majesty r s 
forces under his command : 



* This officer, notorious for his inhuman atrocities toward the blacks, 
died a short time ago in England,. 

f For the whole of the proceedings respecting; St. Domingo, vide NAVAL 
CHRONICLE, Vol. X. pages 333, 334, 335, and 499; and Vol. XI. pages 60, 
160, and from 242 to 250. 

J He received the same rank in the White Squadron, on the 9th of 
November, 1805. 

, ouxvill. j> 



18 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIR OF 

v 

And that he be requested to accept a sword, as a testimony of 
the high sense entertained by this House of the eminent services he 
has thereby rendered to the country. 

Mr. Speaker was accordingly ordered (continues the paper 
from which we quote) to transmit to Vice- Admiral Sir John Tho- 
mas Duckworth, K.B. a copy of the above resolution. 

He was also instructed to remit to Edmund Pusey Lyon, Esq. 
the agent of this island, the sum of one thousand guineas, for the 
purpose of purchasing a sword, to be presented to Vice-Admiral 
Sir J. T. Duckworth. 

This sword is of the most exquisite workmanship. The lion- 
headed pommel denoting fortitude, must be allowed to be an 
appropriate emblem, while the bow consists of a snake, repre- 
senting wisdom. Instead of rings, the scabbard, which is covered 
with blue, is ornamented with the alligator, \vhich is the crest of 
the island of Jamaica ; while at the top is a figure of Neptune, 
surrounded by naval trophies. In the centre is a medallion, 
representing Commerce, with a cornucopia in one hand, while the 
other bears a crown of laurels, which she is offering to the British 
navy, for the protection afforded to the chief of the West India 
islands. 

Shortly after his return to England, Sir John Duckworth 
was appointed second in command of the Mediterranean fleet*, 
in which he hoisted his flag on board of the Superb, of 74 
guns. Towards the close of 1805, he was detached, by Lord 
Collingwood, in quest of a French squadron, which was known 
to be at sea.* With the progress of his cruise, his falling in 
with the French in St. Domingo Bay, and the result of the 
action which ensued, the reader is already well acquainted .f 
In our memoir of Sir Thomas Louis,^ we observed, that 
<e never was victory more complete or decisive ; yet, in conse- 
quence of the superiority of two ships, which the English 

* While at the Island of St. Christopher, after his junction with llear- 
Admiral Cochrane, a very loyal and animated Address was presented to all 
the officers of the squadron, by the House of Assembly. Vide XAVAJ. 
CHRONICLE, Vol. XVI. page 387. 

t Vide NAVAL CHRONICLE, Vol. XV. page 242, 254, 380, and 450; and 
Vol. XVI. page 189. 

J NAVAL CHRONICLE, Vol. XVI. page 177. 



SIR JOHX THOMAS DUCKAVORTH, K.B. 19 

possessed, it made a somewhat fainter impression on the public 
mind than might have been expected, or, indeed, than the 
achievement deserved. But as, in gazing upon the sun, the eye 
is dazzled^ and rendered- incapable of estimating the lustre of 
inferior luminaries ; so, in contemplating the unprecedented 
victory of Trafalgar, the mind became absorbed, and lost its 
power of appreciating exploits, which, otherwise, would have 

been extolled amongst the most heroic acts 

One circumstance, par- 
ticularly deserving of notice, is, that Sir J. T. Duckworth pur- 
sued the French squadron, under the expectation of having to 
contend, not \vith an inferior, but with a superior force ; and, 
had his expectation been answered, there is no reason to suppose 
that the issue of the contest would have been less successful 
than it proved ; though, of course, the glory of the British arms 
would have been greater. However slightly the affair might be 
estimated at home, by those who knew nothing of the danger 
and chances of battle but by report, it is evident that the Com- 
mander in Chief, whose opinion in this case ought to be 
regarded as of some weight, considered it as no unimportant 
play of arms. ' When I contemplate,' says he, ( on the result 
of this action, zchen Jive sail of the line had surrendered, or 
were apparently destroyed in less than tKO hours, I cannot, 
though bound to pay every tribute to the noble and gallant 
efforts of the Honourable Rear-Admiral Cochrane, , Rear- 
Admiral Louis, the captains, officers, seamen, and royal 
marines, under my command, be vain enough to suppose that, 

WITHOUT THE AIDING HANI) OF PROVIDENCE, Slick 

result could have been ejj'tcted 3 and with a lost so comparatively 
small: " 

The total loss of Sir John's squadron, in this engagement, w r as 
74 killed, and C64 wounded ; of which his flag-ship, the Superb, 
had 6 killed, and 06 wounded. 

\Vith the three prizes which he preserved (I'Alcxandre, le 
Jupiter, and le Brave) Sir John proceeded to Port Rojai, in 
Jamaica, where he was received -with raptures by the inha- 
bitants. 



50 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIR OT 

At home, the intelligence of this victory was greeted with th 
usual public demonstrations of joy ; and, on the 26th of March, 
in the House of Commons, Mr. Grey (now Lord Howick), 
after some prefatory observations, moved for a vote of thanks, 
in the following form : 

That the thanks of this House be presented to Vice-Admiral Sir 
John Thomas Duckworth, Knight of the Bath, for the distinguished 
valour, ability, and conduct shewn by him in the action which 
took placs on the 6fh of February, off St. Domingo, between His 
Majesty's ships under his command, and a fleet of the enemy ; in 
which action all the enemy's ships that were of the line of battle 
were either taken or destroyed. 

That the thanks of this House be presented to Rear-Admirals 
Cochrane and Louis, and to the several Captains and Officers of 
the Fleet, for the bravery and guod conduct with which they so 
'much contributed to the success of that day. 

That this House do highly approve of, and acknowledge, the 
good conduct of the Seamen and Marines on board the fleet, in 
the said action. 

These resolutions were carried, nemine dissentiente ; and a 
vote, to the same effect, was passed in the House of Peers, on 
the motion of Lord Grenville, whose remarks on the occasion 
were, in substance, as follows : 

It was scarcely necessary, indeed, (said his Lordship) to make 
any comment upon the subject, or any preface to his motion. A 
series of the most splendid achievements had raised the character of 
our navy to the highest point of pre-eminence, whilst they proved 
the uurivalld skill and valour of our officers, and the irresistible 
bravery of our seamen. 

The victory recently obtained by Sir J. T. Duckworth in the 
West Indies, evinced that the gallantry and skill of our officers, 
and the bravery of our seamen, were un diminished. A circum- 
stance had attended this success, which very seldom happened in 
any of our victorious contests with the enemy, that we had a 
trifling superiority of force ; but this could not in the least lake 
away from the brilliancy of the victory, or the merits of those by 
whom it was achieved. Every thing had been done that could be 
effected ; every thing had been done that was admitted of by the 
possibility of the case. 



SIR JOHN THOMAS DUCKWORTH, K.B. 21 

The enemy's force consisted of five ships of the line, and five 
ships of the line were taken and destroyed. He was one of those 
who thought that the thanks of the House ought not to be givea 
except in those cases where such a vote was called for by great and 
exalted merit ; that so high an honour ought only to be granted 
where it was eminently deserved : thus rendering the reward 
greater by the rarity with which it was conferred. He thoughtj 
however, that this was one of those cases, which called upon their 
Lordships to confer that high honour ; and that so brilliant a vie- 
tory entitled those who had achieved it to the thanks of the House, 
for the skill and bravery they had evinced in thus diminishing the 
means of the enemy, and adding to the security of the country. 
He conceived it unnecessary to comment any further upon the 
subject; to enter into any lengthened detail would, he thought, 
derogate from the splendour of the achievement. 

This was not the only honour in reserve for Sir John Duck- 
worth. The Corporation of London voted him their thanks, 
with the freedom of the city, and a sword valued at two hun- 
dred guineas ; and the Patriotic Fund, at Lloyd's, presented him 
with a vase, of the value of four hundred pound?, ornamented 
with emblematical devices, and an appropriate inscription. 

We now approach towards a period in this officer's life, which, 
to him, perhaps, is more unsatisfactory and vexatious, than any 
by which it had been preceded. We allude to the late unfor- 
tunate affair before Constantinople. 

Soon after his return to England, from the West Indies, Sir 
John Duckworth was appointed to the ^Royal George, of 110 
guns, in the Mediterranean fleet. His command was the same 
as that which he held previously to the battle off St. Domingo ; 
second under Lord Collingwood. He was afterwards detached 
by his Lordship on art important service. On the IQth of 
February, he passed the Dardanelles ; * and, on the same day, 
agreeably to his orders, Sir Sidney Smith destroyed the Turkish 
protecting squadron. On the evening of the 20th, Sir John 
Duckworth came to an anchor, near the Prince's Island, about 
eight miles from Constantinople ; and immediately " despatched 

* Vide NAVAL CHRONICLE, Vol. XVII. page 426 to 432; and page 
463 to 467. 



BIOGRAPHIC At, MEMOIR OF 



Captain Cape!, in the End\mion, to anchor near the town, if 
the wind, which was light, would permit the siiip to .stem the 
current, to convey the Ambassador's despatches to the Sublime 
Porte in the morning by a flag of truce." Captain Capel, 
however, found it impracticable to get within four miles of 
Constantinople. From this period, until the 08th of the month, 
the time was employed in a fruitless negotiation ; and, on the 
1st of March, finding that a longer stay would be pregnant with 
danger, Sir John came to the determination of re-passing the 
Dardanelles. At that time, as we learn from his official letter 
of the (5th of March, the whole line of the Turkish coast pre- 
sented a chain of batteries ; twelve line-of-battle ships, and nine 
frigates, filled with troops, were ready, with their sails bent, be- 
jide fire-vessels, and an immense number of small craft ; and 
nearly 200,000 troops were understood to be in the town of 
Constantinople. Against such a vast accumulation, and combi- 
nation of force, it is evident that Sir John had net the means of 
combatting, with any prospect of success. His re-passing of the 
Dardanelles was also a measure replete with danger ; but Sir 
John was in one of those predicaments, in which two evils were 
the only objects of his choice. He naturally submitted to the 
smaller ; and, escaping from his perilous situation, proceeded to 
Alexandria, in Egypt, whence he has since returned to 
England* 

The failure of this expedition has been the subject of much 
conversation ; and it was at one time generally understood, 
cither that Sir John Duckworth would be brought to a court 
martial by government, or that he would himself demand a trial 
of that nature, in order that his conduct might be exhibited 
through a correct medium. 

Whether any state reasons may have intervened, to render 
such an investigation impolitic ; whether His Majesty's present 
Ministers may have approved of Sir John Duckworth's con- 
duct ; and whether Sir John may rest satisfied with such appro- 
bation, if it have been given, are points to which we are wholly 
incompetent to speak. His conduct was never before im- 
peached by any party or set of men ; but certain it is, that the 



SIR JOHN THOMAS DUCKWORTH, K.B. 23 

friends of the late Ministers still most vociferously insist, that 
their orders, respecting the proceedings of the squadron before 
Constantinople, were not obeyed. As a proof of this assertion, 
\ve here subjoin a statement, which has appeared in one of those 
newspapers which are devoted to the interests of the late 
Administration : 

Orders were sent out to Lord Collingwood, whose sagacity and 
zeal in the public service had already anticipated them in some 
measure, by detaching three sail of the line under Admiral Louis. 
Upon receiving the orders of Government, upon the 20th January, 
he appointed Vice-Admiral Duckworth to the command of tha 
squadron destined for this important service. Admiral Duckworth 
parted company on the 15th of that month, furnished with the 
most clear and precise instructions. He was ordered to proceed 
with the utmost expedition to Constantinople, and to take the 
best position from which he might act offensively against it, if hos- 
tilities should become necessary. Upon this subject, he was to 
communicate zcUJi Mr. Arbuthnot, our Minister ; and upon 
receiving intimation of his opinion, that hostilities ought to com- 
mence., he was to demand the surrender of the Turkish fleet, with 
a menace of immediate operations against the town in case of 
refusal: and in the event of an absolute refusal, he was instructed 
either to cannonade the town, or attack the fleet, as he should 
judge most practicable. It was farther expressly recommended to 
him, that if, upon this demand of the surrender of the fleet, any 
negociation should be proposed by the Turkish Government, no 
negotiation should be continued more than half an hour, as it 
would probably be proposed to gain time for preparing resistance 
or securing their ships. And the Vice-Admiral was finally 
instructed, that the success of the enterprize depended upon the 
promptitude with which it was executed. 

The instructions which had been sent to Mr. Arbuthnot were to 
the same effect. 

On the morning of the 19th February, the squadron entered the 
Dardanelles, and on the evening of the following day came to an. 
anchor near the Prince's Island, about eight miles from Constan- 
tinople. From the copies of correspondence published by the 
French Government, it appears, that the same evening, or next 
day, Admiral Duckworth demanded the surrender of the Turkish 
flctt, and granted half an hour for consideration. Instead of this 
measure being carried into execution* the negociation, by con- 



24 BlbGRAfHICAL MEMOIR F 

ferences and corresportdences, was continued till the 28th of 
February, being no less than eight days of protracted, unavailing 
negotiation. On the 1st of IVfarch the squadron weighed anchor, 
and proceeded to repass the Dardanelles, under the circumstances 
which are unfortunately so well known. 

In our present state of information, we do not presume to fix 
the blame either on the Admiral, or on Mr. Arbuthnot. But we 
affirm, that the plan and instructions furnished to them were not 
carried into execution ; and no satisfactory reason or explanation 
has been assigned why they were not executed. In order to 
assist such an explanation, if it can be furnished, we should beg to 
know why the squadron came to an anchor off Prince's Island, 
instead of proceeding at once to Seraglio Point, under the 
European shore ? 

Whether the current from the Bosphorus do.., not set back- 
ward with an eddy, which would have favoured the entrance of 
the squadron ? 

Whether, with the advantage of a side wind, the squadron, even 
after an anchoring at Prince's Island, mi^ht not have crossed to a 
position close to the town ? And '.vhether this was not particularly 
practicable within the two first days after the squadron came to 
an anchor ? 

With respect to some of the latter queries, we think they are 
fully answered, in Sir John Duckworth's letter of the Gth of 
March. Why did the squadron come to an anchor off Prince's 
Island^ instead of proceeding at once to Seraglio Point, under 
the European shore r Answer. " My letter of the 21st (of 
February) is dated at an anchor eight miles from Constantinople, 

THE WIND NOT ADMITTING OF A NEARER APPROACH." 

This is a simple answer to a simple question. Sir John pro- 
ceeds : u but the Endymion, which had been sent ahead with 
flag of truce, at the. request of the Ambassador," [thus it 
appears that the Admiral was acting, in some measure, 
subordinately to the Ambassador] " was enabled to anchor 
within four miles. Had it been then in our power we should 
have taken our station off" the town IMMEDIATELY, but as that 
could not be done from the rapidity of the current, I was 
rather pleased than otherwise with the position we had been 
forced to take." Whether the current from the Bosphorus does 



SIR JOHN THOMAS DUCKWORTH, K.B. 25 

hot set backward with an eddy, which would have favoured the 
entrance of the squadron . ? Whether, with the advantage of a 
side wind, the squadron, even after anchoring at Prince's 
Island, might not have crossed to a position close to the town ? 
And whether this was not particularly practicable within the two 
first days, after the squadron came to an anchor ? Anszver. 
<f From the moment of our anchorage till we weighed, on the 
morning of the 1st of March, such was the unfortunate state of 
the weather, that it teas not at ANY time iu our power to have 
occupied a situation zchich wo,uld have enabled the squadron to 
commence offensive operations against Constantinople" 
<( The strength of the current from the Bosphorus, with the 
circuitous eddies of the port, rendered it impracticable to place 
ships for an attack without a commanding breeze ; which, 
during the ten days I was off the town, it was not my good for- 
tune to meet with." 

There is a circumstance relating to this expedition, which 
must attract the notice of every person. There were no land 
forces on board. How is this to be accounted for ? Was it an 
oversight, or was it expected that the Turks would accede to the 
terms of the English, immediately that they should be proposed? 
If there had been a sufficient number of troops on board of 
the squadron, they might have been landed, in detachments ; and, 
as the forts of the Dardanelles were unprotected on the land 
side, they might thus have been speedily demolished, or at least 
have been rendered incapable of injuring any ship which might 
attempt the passage.-- The castles of Sestos and Abydos were 
particularly deserving of attention in this respect. The advan- 
tages which would have resulted from such a mode of proceed- 
ing must be obvious to every one. Had the forts which pro- 
tect the passage of the Dardanelles been dismantled, Sir John 
Duckworth's squadron might have remained in the sea of 
Marmora as long as he had pleased ; and might also have been 
in the constant and regular receipt of such supplies and rein- 
forcements as it should have been deemed expedient to send. 
Thus, the expedition must, ultimately, have experienced a 
favourable termination. 



26 BlOGnAPHICAL MEMOIR OS* 

Sir John Duckworth's professional character, as we have 
already observed, had never before been impeached ; and, 
judging from such information as is at present before the pub- 
lic, we perceive no reassn for supposing, that it will not tfili 
bear the strictest investigation. 

* # * Since the preceding pages were prepared for the press, 
we have received the following additional particulars of the 
worthy Admiral and his family, which may be depended on as 
being accurate. The same friend that furnished us with this 
account, has also favoured us with afac-sitnile of the signature 
of Sir J. T. Duckworth, which we have had engraved, and 
placed at the end of this communication. 

Sir John Thomas Duckworth, K.B. born at Letherhead, in 
the county of Surrey, and baptized there 28th February, 1747-8 ; 
appointed a midshipman in the royal navy, 20lh February, 
17<5Q ; lieutenant, 1 6th June, 1770;* commander, 1 6th July, 
1779; post captain, 1 6th June, 1780; commodore, serving at 
.St. Domingo, in July 1796; commander in chief, jointly with 
the Honourable Sir Charles Stuart, K.B. at the taking of 
Minorca in November 1798; rear-admiral of the while, 14lh 
February, 1799; commander in chief at Barbadoes and the 
Leeward Islands, from 9th May, 1800, to 10th January, 1802; 
cojTimander in chief at Jamaica, from 17th November, 1801, 
to 30th April, 1805; nominated a Knight Companion of the 
most Honourable Military Order of the Bath, 6th June, 1801, 
and installed by proxy in King Henry the 7th's Chapel at West- 
minster Abbey, 19th' May, 1803. 

He married in July 1776, Anne, only child and heir of John 
Wallis, of Trentonwoonwith, near Camelfoi d, in the county of 
Cornwall, gent. She died 21st August, 1797; buried at 
Chevick, in the county of Cornwall, 27th of the same month. 
He had issue by her, George Duckworth, his only son, born 
25th June, 1782, now a captain in the army; and an only 
daughter, Sarah Anne, married in November 1803, to Captain 
Richard King, of the royal navy, now Sir Richard King, Bart. 

* In page 3, we have erroneously stated ci at he was made a lieutenant 
in March 1779, in the Princess Royal. He was thea only appointed to 
that ship. 



SIR JOHN THOMAS DUCKWORTH, K.B. 

Sir John's father was the Rev. Henry Duckworth, Clerk, 
A- M. who was born at Middletou, in the county of Lancaster 
fin which this family appears to have resided since 1600), 22d 
January, 1711-12- He was curate of Leigh, Surrey, in 1740 ; 
vicar of Stoke Poges, in the county of Bucks ; one of the minor 
canons of Windsor, and rector of Fulmer, in the aforesaid 
county of Bucks : died 24th January, ] 794, aged 82. He married 
Miss Sarah Johnson, of Ickenham, in Uxbridge, in the county 
of Middlesex, who was buried at Stoke Poges, 24th May, 
1783. He had by her five sons and two daughters, all of 
whom, except the Admiral, are now dead. 

HERALDIC PARTICULARS. 

I 

ARMS.? Argent on a cheveron azure, between two ducks in 
chief, and an anchor erect in base proper, a bomb fired, or; 
accompanied by two cross patee of the field, on a chief of the 
second, a naval crown of the third between two estoiles of the 
first. 

CRKST. On a wreath a tower, the battlements partly demo- 
lished, from the top flames issuaut proper, on the sinister side a 
sea lion erect azure, the paws pressing against the tower. Granted 
by patent under the hands of Garter and Clarenceux Kings of 
Arms, 27th April, 1803. 

SUPPORTERS. On the dexter side a human figure proper; a 
mantle over the sinister shoulder flowing to the waist purpure 
from a belt, or; a sword pendant, in the dexter hand a club, in. 
the sinister a lion's skin, also proper ; the whole powdered with 
estoiles azure, in allusion to the constellation ORION, being the 
name of the ship commanded by Sir John Thomas Duckworth on 
the memorable first of June, 1794: and on the sinister a sailor 
habited proper, the exterior hand supporting a ilag-staff, thereon 
hoisted a broad pendant flowing to the dexter, gules. 

The above Supporters were granted by patent, under the hand 
and seal of Garter principal King of Arms, the 28th day of 
April, 1803. 

MOTTO. -Disctplind, Fide, Perseverantia. 



28 



NAVAL ANECDOTE?, 
COMMERCIAL HINTS, RECOLLECTIONS, &c. 

NANTES IN GURGITE VASTO. 
/ 

CAPTAIN WOODRIFFE. 

CAPTAIN WOODRIFFE, who so gallantly defended the 
Calcutta, belonging to the East India Company, and who 
was taken prisoner and sent to Verdun, has recently returned to 
England. The manner of his enlargement is singular. Captain 
"Woodriffe had made several applications to Talleyrand to procure 
his release, but without success. Some time in the last month, 
however, he received an order, signed by Buonaparte, in Poland, 
directing him to proceed immediately to England, and to take the 
route of St. Maloes, a town which no Englishman is permitted to 
enter. On Captain \V oodriffe's arrival at this place, he found his 
letters forwarded, by the French government, which had been 
directed to Verdun. At St. Maloes Captain Woodriffe proceeded 
to engage a vessel, or cartel, to convey him to England, for which 
he expected -to pay 40 or 50 guineas ; but was there told that a 
Tessel was provided for him by the French government, free of 
every expense whatever. Our government, not to be outdone in 
this unexpected generosity on the part of the enemy, immediately 
released a French officer, of equal rank with Captain Woodriffe, 
who has been since returned to France, on terms of equal 
liberality. 

THE MARINE OF BUSSIA. 

THE Russian Navy, though much augmented during the reign 
of the Empress Catherine, had greatly declined at the close of it. 
Paul, who was i'ond of maritime affairs, built many new ships, and 
introduced various improvements into this department. The navy 
is an object of attention in the administration of Alexander, and 
several new regulations have been made respecting the sea service. 
According to a report of the present minister of the marine, there 
ought to be in the black Sea, 21 ships of the line, and 8 frigates ; 
and in the Baltic, 27 ships of the line, and 26 frigates : but this 
number is as yet by no means complete. The galley fleet is com. 
posed of 20 vessels ; 40 gun-boats are stationed in the Black Sea; 
and there are two flotillas, one in the Caspian Sea 3 the other at 
Ochotsk. 



NAVAL ANECDOTES, &C. 29 

The mode of balloting for the promotion of officers, introduced 
by Peter the First,* has been modified by an ordinance of 1804, 
which limits it to the ranks from lieutenant to Rear-Admiral. By 
this alteration the minister has acquired the means of recompensing 
extraordinary merit. 

A school for pilots has been created, and their condition on 
board has been ameliorated. That of the sailors has also 'been 
improved. They are divided into two classes, that of recruits, and 
that of men who have already served. For recruiting, those 
governments are selected, -who have many lakes or great rivers, or 
border on the sea. The age of recruits was fixed at 25 ; but 
since 1803, boys from 12 to 20 are received in the provinces on 
the Baltic. 

The number of marines on board has been diminished, and that 
of sailors augmented. The corps of marine cadets has undergone 
several improvements. Much attention has been paid to the con- 
struction of ships after models sent from England. The Admiralty 
is engaged in procuring translations into the Russian language of 
the best works on the marine, and in the compilation of manuals 
fpr learners. The Emperor has approved of the formation of a 
committee for drawing up a system of the nautical sciences ; and 
the marine geometry has already been published. The organiza- 
tion of the Admiralty has been simpliiied, and the officers and 
sailors have received permission to enter into the merchant 
service. 

The port of Kronstadt, which is the centre of the Baltic fleet, 
has been improved. At Revel, the old harbour is left for com- 
merce, and a new one is constructing for the reception of 25 ships 
of the line. Roggersholm is the galley harbour, and will also 
admit ships of the line. On the Black Sea ships of war will be 
constructed at Cherson, fitted 6ut at Otshakof, and stationed at 
Achtiar or Sevastapol. Ships of the line can lie in safety in the 
road of Odessa. There are four admirals under the minister of 
marine, who have inspection of the ports. 

CAPTAIN LOVE. 

SOME recently-received American papers contain an article of 
some importance, relating to the Driver sloop, Captain Love, which 
arrived in Charleston harbour the beginning of May. It vriH be 
recollected that this is one of the vessels which was in company 
with the ship Leander, Captain Whitby, and in consequence 
thereof was ; by the proclamation of the President; ordered to 



30 XAVAL <ANECDOTtS, 

depart from the waters of the United States, and interdicted 
from ever again entering them, or receiving any aid or supplies. 
In consequence of that proclamation, the naval officer of Charleston 
warned the Driver to depart in twenty-four hours. Captain 
Love's answer, it will be seen, was most spirited. 

The following account of this circumstance is taken from the 

American papers : 

Charleston, May 4. 

The public have already been informed that the British sloop of 
war Driver, a vessel interdicted by the President from ever 
entering our harbours, anchored on Thursday last abreast of Fort 
Johnson. Two United States officers of that fort waited upon the 
Governor on Friday, to consult with him on measures necessary 
to be taken to expel her from the port ; his Excellency was not at 
home. On Saturday the commandant of Fort Johnson addressed 
a letter to the commanding officer of the said vessel, of which the 
following is a copy : 

Fort Johnson, Harbour of Charleston, 
"SIR, 4P.M.o/A%2. 

*' THE President of the United States of America having, by 
proclamation, bearing date 3d May, 1806, for ever interdicted 
His Britannic Majesty's sloop of war Driver from entering any 
port or harbour of the United States, and the said vessel having 
entered this port, in contempt of the said proclamation, my duty 
compels me to demand that the Driver sloop of war do depart 
from this harbour within 24 hours from the date hereof. 

" Need I add, Sir, how repugnant it would be to my feelings, 
should any blood be spilt, which must inevitably be the case if 
this communication be not complied with. 

li Lieutenant Windham, of the artillery, is charged with the 
delivery of this : h$ will receive your reply. 

" I am, Sir, your obedient servant. 

" MICHAEL KALTEISEX,'* 

Captain Commanding. 
To the Commanding Officer of His 
Britannic Majesty's sloop Driver. 

[ANSWER.] 

His Mttjestyt ship Driver, Retclfyn Roadt t 
tl > C/tar/eslon, May 3, 1307, 

" I HAVE received your letter ; and having some doubts as to, 
the authority by which it was written, 1 thought proper to satisfy 



COMMERCIAL HINTS, RECOLLECTIONS, &C. 31 

myself on that head before I should reply. By the threat it con- 
tains, you appear, like your government, to have something to 
learn. A British subject knows too well how to respect and, 
obey the laws of his own country, to offer, intentionally, an 
outrage on those of others, when once they arc known to be so ; 
but I have to observe, the proclamation you mention to have been 
issued in May, 1807, I know nothing of: of that which was issued 
in May, 1806, I have only to say, that so far from being either 
creditable or becoming in the president of a country, wishing to 
be ranked amongst the civilized nations of the world, it would, in 
the opinion of every liberal and enlarged mind, have disgraced 
even the sanguinary pen of Robespierre, or the most miserable 
petty state in Barbary. It appearing that the supposed offence is 
to be rendered by a repetition of the circumstances complained of, 
and that on those who, so far from having any thing to do with the 
supposed aggression, were not even on or near the American 
coast, at the time. And as Captain Whitby's trial may probably 
at this moment be pending, with the concurrence of the United 
States, and the proclamation resting on his being brought to jus- 
tice, it ought to have been thought of. However, as my proceed- 
ing to sea comes within the limit of my intentions, according to- 
the orders I am under, I shall do so whenever the pilot thinks 
proper which orders have for their view, the advantage of the 
American flag, as well as the protection of the British. But 1 
must observe, that the difficulty I have experienced in obtaining a 
sufficient quantity of water, for the purpose I wish, obliges me to 
have recourse to such methods as are completely within my power, 
which I otherwise should not have thought of. In the mean time, 
it is necessary to inform you, that His Majesty's ship under my 
command, is at all times ready to resist, and punish, any insult 
that may be oflvred to the flag she has the honour to bear, to the 
last drop of blood that shall remain, of the dutiful and loyal sub- 
jects of a beloved Sovereign, and an exalted country. 

" I have the honour to be. Sir, your hurnbie seavant, 
Tb Captain Kalte'uen, $c. "WILLIAM LOVE." 

Despatches, supposed to relate to this subject, have been 
forwarded to the government of the United States, by Lieutenant 
Windham, who is a passenger in the Semiraims. 

DANISH COLONIES. 

AN official paper of Copenhagen gives an account of the state 
of the Danish colonies in Greenland for the year 1804; from 



32 NAVAL ANECDOTE?, 

which it appears that there were in that year caught forty-seven 
whales, five thousand one hundred seals, six bears, and two hun- 
dred and ninety unicorns. Seven ships were employed in the 
trade, and exported goods to the amount of sixty-nine thousand 
one hundred and forty-five rixdollars. The total population of 
all the colonies was, as far as could be ascertained, up to June, 
1805, six thousand and forty-six persons, which is an increase of 
181 since the year 1802. 

CAPTAIN MOSSES ACCOUNT OF THE ISLANDS OF JUAN 
PERNAN1JEZ AND MASA FUERO, IN THE PACIFIC 
OCEAN. 

THE island of Juan Fernandez has frequently been described 
by the early navigators of the Pacific Ocean, who touched there 
for refreshments, and by the freebooters, who made it a place of 
resort for the rendezvous of their forces, or the division of their 
spoil. At a convenient distance from the coast of Peru, unsettled 
and unfortified, abounding in almost every requisite for refitting, 
rerictualling, wooding, and watering, it became not only a 
desirable station, but was long an unsuspected or despised retreat. 
The dormant vigilance, however, of the Spaniards was at length 
aroused, and a settlement was made in 1766 or 1767, upon the 
island of Juan Fernandez. In the latter year, Captain Cartcret, 
on his voyage round the world, upon opening Cumberland bay, 
was surprized to find the island in possession of the Spaniards, who 
had built a fort, on which the Spanish colours were flying, and 
some cannon mounted. Many cattle were seen on the hills, and 
about twenty houses on different parts of the island. Carterct 
neither anchored nor had any communication with the shore, but 
sailed immediately for Masa Fuero. Since that time no accounts 
have been given to the public respecting it : for, with the charac- 
teristic jealousy of the nation', access to its shores was denied to 
strangers almost without exception. An intelligent and zealous 
navigator, however, Lieutenant John Moss, of the royal navy, 
then commanding the ship William, on the southern whale and 
seal fishery, visited both Juan Fernandez and the adjacent island 
of Maa Fuero, in the year 1792. It is from his MSS. that the 
following account of the modern state of those islands is given, and 
may be not unacceptable to the public, contrasted with the accounts 
which have appeared of its former state, when uninhabited and 
uncultivated. 

Juan Fernandez lies iu latitude 33 40' S. and 80 30' W. from 



COMMERCIAL HINTS, RECOLLECTIONS, &C. 33 

Greenwich.* In making this island, Captain Moss first stood 
along the west side of it, and at noon came abreast of the north 
point. He was, not aware of its having been settled by the Spa-, 
niards, and went in the boat to see if there was a safe anchorage, 
and to catch fish. In haulms round the north-west point, he was 
surprized to find the place fortlfio;', and a small village in the 
valley. He immediately landed, and applied to the governor for 
leave to anchor and to fish. Neither request, however, was formally 
granted; but getting into a position where none of the guns could 
bear on the boat, he caught as many fish as served the whole 
ship's company. 

In making the island from the westward, it appears elevated at 
the north end, and slopes away towards the south, with a 
remarkable islet, or large rock, detached about half a mile off the 
south point. At a distance the whole island appears like an entire 
rock; but on a nearer approach the intersecting vallics discover 
themselves, and display a fine scene of verdure, being covered with 
wood. The west side affords no anchorage, nor any landing 
place, the cliffs rising almost perpendicularly from the sea. When 
abreast of the north-west point, the first valley or landing place 
opens, where there is anchorage in fourteen fathoms water, but 
quite in an open and exposed situation. Here tfie Spaniards have 
a guard-house and one gun. About half a mita to the east-north' 
is the great bay (Cumberland bay of the Buccaneers), which is 
land-locked from E. to N.W. by W. but there is no anchorage in 
less than forty fathoms till within half a cable's length of the 
shore. The town or village is very pleasantly situated in a fine 
valley, between two high hills. A battery of five guns is placed 
just round the west point of the harbour, and commands the road, 
though it is very possible to land without a gun being brought to 
bear on the boats. This battery is built of loose stones, piled up 
breast high, ami forming embrasures, without mortar or any kind 
of cement. On the left of the valley, on a little eminence, another 
battery was then constructing of masonry ; it has two faces, with, 
fourteen embrasures in each, one face pointing to the anchora^, 
and the other flanking the village; there were only five guns 
mounted on that side which faces the road, and one on I 1 .*; jther. 
By cutting a serpentine path along the side of <hc west r:i hill, 
. , , , , r-i_ 

* Dnmpicr assigns its situation in C4 45' soul!: latitude 81* west lon- 
gitude; but the publisher of Anson's voyage, as well as Captain i?harp, 
placing it iu the latitude of 33* 40', is continued by Captain I\los, 



3i KAVAL ANECDOTES, 

two small guns ha-e been got to the top of it. According to tfie 
report of the commandant, however, the whole force on the island 
in January 1792, consisted of six soldiers, and forty of the settlers 
armed and trained. Captain Moss was not at that time permitted 
to refresh his crew at Juan Fernandez. He saw great numbers of 
goats on the sides of every hill, and regretted much that he could 
not be allowed to stay, on account of the progress of the scurvy 
on board his ship, which would have been speedily arrested by the 
fresh venison, fish, and vegetables to be obtained there. 

On the 15th of Xov. 1792, however, he touched a second time 
at Juan Fernandez, and when within three miles of the great bay, 
went on shore to obtain the governor's permission tQ cnt wood, 
This time leave was most readily granted by the governor, Don 
Juan Calvo de la Canteza, who supplied all the wants of the 
English as much as was in his power. He ordered his own people 
to assist in cutting wood, and his oxen to draw it to the water 
side. A small present, which Captain Moss, from his nearly 
exhausted stock, made to the governor in return for his civilities, 
consisted of a dozen of wine, a dozen of plates, two dishes, half a 
dozen of wine glasses, a small pot of pickles, and a pair of new 
boots. In return he presented Captain Moss with a loaf of sugar, 
four fine sheep, a large quantity of vegetables, milk, and as much 
craw fish as he wanted. He also allowed him to purchase th* 
flesh of two bullocks jerked, which cost a mere trifle. 

There are about forty houses in the town, and several in 
different parts of the island. Every house has a garden, with 
arbours of grape vines, forming a delightful shade. Figs, cherries, 
plums, and almonds appeared, all green, and abundance of 
potatoes, cabbages, onions, thyme, and other vegetables and herbs ; 
but none of them in perfection, as a kind of grub is said in a great 
measure to destroy the kitchen gardens. 

The dress of the women is very singular ; they wear a petticoat 
which reaches only a little below the knee, and Avhich is spread 
out by a hoop at the bottom to a great distance round them, 
leaving the legs entirely exposed, and, were it not for the drawers 
they wear, all below -the waist might be seen when they stoop, 
They wear long hair, pknted into forty or fifty braids, which hang 
straight down the back. This dress, the governor stated, was 
likewise that of the ladies of Peru and Chili. In every house that 
Captain Moss entered he was presented by the women with mate, 
the infusion of the herb of Paraguay, which they suck up through 
a pipe or tube, which serves more than one person, and is handed 
over from one to the other. The M omen were in general hajjd- 



COMMERCIAL HINTS, KECOLLECTIO.VS, &C. St> 

tome, and every house swarmed with children. In one to which 
Captain Moss paid a visit, there was a young woman only twenty 
years of age, who had six children, and was again pregnant. 

Strangers who fall in with Juan Fernandez and Masa Fuero" 
may mistake the one for the other, as they both lie in the same 
latitude, though they are very different. Tin) north end of Juan 
Fernandez is highest, whilst Masa Fuero is lowest to the north. 
This circumstance, and the small island which lies off the south 
end of Juan Fernandez, are distinctive marks to be depended on. 
The two islands lie eighty miles from each other, but one has been 
seen from the other in a clear day. 

The island of Masa Fuero is uninhabited, except by seals and 
goats. It lies in latitude 33 41' south, and longitude 81 40' 
west. There is no practicable landing place on the north end of 
the island, on account of the prodigious surf; and on the east 
side, where Captain Moss landed, it is so bad, that the people were 
obliged to swim throitgh the surf, after procuring some boat loads 
of seal skins. Seals abound here, and the stores are covered with 
them. There is likewise plenty of wood, bat difficult to be got 
off: in one of the vallies four or five cords of wood were found, 
which the heavy surf prevented them from getting away, as it pro. 
bably had done the persons who cut it. The wood is principally 
a kind of red cedar, and a sort of hard yellow wood like box, 
capable of taking a fine polish. During the time the William 
remained at the island, goats enough were caught to afford the 
crew a constant supply of fresh provisions ; and abundance of fish 
may likewise be taken in a very short time. Captain Moss saw 
large and small hawks there : the smallest no bigger than a 
goldfinch, and something like it. Living wholly undisturbed by 
man in this distant spot, these birds were quite tame. A wild 1 
cabbage was found, but it would not boil soft : the sailors 
however ate it. The island is distant from the main land of South 
America one hundred and forty leagues, and eighty miles west of 
Juan Fernandez. The south end is the highest, its cliffs being 
almost perpendicular from the sea, and in the calmest weather it 
has a bad surf breaking on it. The north fcnd is also high, but a 
iine green low point stretches from the bottom of the cliff to the 
northward, a perfect level of at least a mile and a half. The east 
side of the island is the most pleasing, being split into vallies which 
are rich in verdure, covered with trees, and abounding with 
flowers of the lily and violet kinds. A copious stream of water 
runs down every valley, and expands in its descent amongst the 
rocks ijitQ several successive reservoirs, which hold large 



36 NAVAL ANECDOTES, 

But the seals play in these waters so far up the rallies, that the 
water has a bad taste, unless it is taken from above the places 
which they frequent. 

Masa Fuero yields all the refreshments that can reasonably be 
wished, and if it afforded good anchorage, it Mould be a very 
desirable place for ships to toux:h at; but it does not, though 
there are places where an anchor may be let go in foul ground. 
On a temporary visit, however, standing off and on answers every 
purpose, and nothing but great distress can warrant anchorage 
here. When under weigh, a vessel is ready to shift as the wind 
doi'S, thereby always keeping on the lee side of the island, for it is 
impossible to land on the weather side. All ships that come here 
for seals should have a strong built boat to anchor behind the 
surf, where she might be loaded by hauling them off. Captain 
Moss had his boats staved in one of his attempts to land, the surf 
funning so high, and breaking a considerable distance from the 
shore. On the east side there is a small inlet that has good land- 
ing when the wind is from S.W. to N.N.W. but the wind at S.E. 
blows right in. It is the only place they saw where a boat could 
be hauled up ; they got there 2, 100 soals in the few days of their 
stay. Captain Moss called this inlet Enderby's Cove, in compli- 
ment to one of his owners. ATIIENJEUM. 

CONSTANTINOPLE AND THE DARDANELLES. 

-AS an illustration of our memoir of Vice-Admiral Sir J. T. 
Duckworth, we present the following description of the 
approaches to Constantinople, by water, from the Archi- 
pclago : 

The strait of the Dardanelles, as the whole passage is usually 
called, unites the Archipelago with the little sea of Marmora. It 
is about twelve leagues in length. It separates Europe from 
Asia; but is in some places not wider than 3 or 400 fathoms. 
In other places it is 1,500 or 2,000 fathoms. At what may be con- 
sidered as the mouth of it, next the Archiprl;igo, are two forts on 
the opposite shores, distant about 1,500 fathoms; so that they can 
hardly be said to protect the passage. But, about three leagues 
within the strait is a kind of promontory projecting into the 
passage, and narrowing it to about 400 fathoms. On each side of 
this narrow stands a castle. These are the Dardanelles: their 
&inmm completely command the opposite shores : and very heavy 
pieces are mounted in them. These were for a long time the only 



COMMERCIAL HINTS, RECOLLECTIONS, &C. 37 

<!efences of Constantinople by water. Above this narrow, the 
passage winds, and shortly fortns another constriction, hardly so 
wide as the former. This is also now defended by forts. This 
being passed, the strait widens; but is again contracted before it 
enters the sea of Marmora, which is of considerable width, and at 
the bottom of which Constantinople is situated, without any other 
impediment to the approach of vessels. 

It may easily be conceived that the batteries and forts men- 
tioned, if well served, would be sufficient to defend a passage, 
which, whatever ship should attempt to force it, would be exposed 
to their fire whei 1 . advancing, when alongside, and when passed; 
in fact, in all directions: nevertheless, we must add the mention 
of another impediment of the greatest consideration, to those who 
attempt to enter from the Archipelago ; for the wafers of the 
Black Sea pouring through this narrow gullet into the Medi- 
terranean, form a current so powerful and so steady, that ships, 
without a favourable wind, can hardly stem it with all their sails 
set: and even with the wind in their favour, the pilotage requires 
skilful management. This is a grand obstacle to the navigation of 
this strait, as the currents are sometimes truly violent. The 
direction of these currents must regulate the steerage of the vessel 
sailing against them ; but this inevitably exposes the vessel to the 
fire of the forts. And it needs no remark, that a vessel with all 
her sails set, is an object not easily missed in such a contracted 
space. 

The Dardanelles arc ancient fortifications ; but the batteries on 
the headland called the Barber's Point, and those on Ac opposite 
shore, were constructed by Baron de Tott, in the year 1770. He 
also built others on another headland, called the Mill Point, 
nearer to the Dardanelles, on the European shore. These were 
visited and augmented by Major (now Sir Charles) Holloway, and 
Major Hope, the engineers who accompanied General Koehler on 
the mission sent to assist the Turks against the French, when they 
were in possession of Egypt. Having been favoured with the 
perusal of private journals kept during the whole of that mission, 
we have had an opportunity of knowing that the British officers 
did not think De Tott's constructions were very capital works ; 
for they made several alterations in them, enlarged them, and 
added very considerably to their strength and importance. T)K-V 
mounted a number of heavy guns, and directed a. general course of 
repairs, which, after all, however, were only executed a la Turqtie. 
The Baron, indeed, tells us that he made his batteries twenty-two 
feet thick: but he also informs us that the plague sometimes 



38 SfAVAL ANECDOTES, 

carried ofT twenty of his labourers in a day is it surprising that 
his works were imperfectly executed ? The battery at Mill 
Point was finished by a pi-irate Turk, whose patriotic spirit con. 
side red his expenses and labour as a work of merit. The whole 
of the works opposed to an enemy an uninterrupted fire for the 
entire space of seven leagues. 

The Baron gives the following account of a part of the 
defence : 

On the side of the castle the Turks had placed an enormous 
piece of ordnance, which would carry a marble ball of eleven hun- 
dred pounds weight. This piece, cast in brass, in the reign of 
Amurath, was composed of t\vo parts, joined together by a screw, 
where the charge is contained, after the manner of an English pis- 
tol. It may be supposed that, as its breech rested against a massy 
itone work, it had been placed, by the means of large levers, 
under a small arch, which served as an embrasure. I could not 
make use of this enormous cannon in the outworks ; and, as they 
were disposed in such a manner as to prevent its bi;ing fired, the 
Turks murmured at my paying so little regard to a piece of 
artillery, which, no doubt, had not its equal in the universe. 

The Pacha made some remonstrances to me on that head. He 
agreed, with me, that the difficulty of charging it would not allow, 
in case of an attack, to fire it more than once ; but, he urged this 
iiugle discharge would be so destructive, and reach so far, that no 
one entertained a doubt but it would be alone sufficient to destroy 
the whole fleet of the enemy. It was easier for me to give way to 
this prejudice than overthrow it, and, without changing my plan 
of defence, I could, by cutting through the epaulment, in the 
direction of this piece, allow it room to be fired ; but I was willing 
Lrst to judge of its eflcct. 

The crowd about me trembled at this proposal ; and the oldest 
among them asserted, there was a tradition that this piece, which 
liad never yet been discharged, would occasion such a shock , x 
as must overturn the castle and the city. It was, indeed, 
possible it might shake some stones out of the wall, but I assured 
them they would not be regretted by the Grand Seignior; and that 
the direction of this piece would not allow me to imagine the city 
would suffer by the explosion. 

Never certainly had any cannon so formidable a reputation. 
Friends and enemies were alike to suffer from its fury. A month 
liad now etopscd since it was determined to load this piece of 
artillery, which required no less than three hundred and thirty 
pounds weight of powder; and 1 sent to the Jjeaxl engineer to pre* 



COMMERCIAL HINTS, RECOLLECTIONS, &C. 30 

pare a priming. All who heard me give this order immediately 
disappeared, to avoid the predicted danger. The Pacha himself 
was about to retreat, and it was with the utmost difficulty I per- 
suaded him that he ran no risk, in a small k'iosk, near the corner 
of the castle ; from whence he might, notwithstanding, observe the 
effects of the ball. 

Having succeeded in this, nothing remained but to inspire the 
engineer with courage; who, though he was the only one who 
had not fled, shewed no great resolution in the remonstrances he 
made to excite my pity ; I at last rather silenced than animated 
him, by promising to expose myself to the same danger. I took 
my station on the stonework, behind the cannon, and felt a shock 
like that of an earthquake. At the distance of three hundred 
fathoms I saw the ball divide into three pieces, and' these fragments 
of a rock crossed the strait, rebounded on the opposite mountain, 
and left the surface of the sea all in a foam through the whole 
breadth of the Channel. This experiment, by dissipating the 
chimerical fears of the people, the Pacha, and the engineers, 
proved to me likewise the terrible effects of such a ball ; and I 
cut through the epaulment in the direction of the piece. 

The defences of the Dardanelles consist of forts, in pairs. The 
first pair is at the mouth; on the European side, the fort of 
Setilbar Kalessi; on the Asiatic side, the Sand Castle, Konni 
Kale : both these were built by Baron de Tott. 

A second pair of forts, or rather batteries, are constructed ta 
defend a very narrow part of this strait. 

The third pair of -forts are the castles of the Dardanelles, usually 
called the Old Castles ; and distinguished as being the Dardanelles 
of Europe, or Dardanelles of Asia. 

Where the strait, after widening, shews another narrow 
passage, are two forts also : that on the European side is adjacent 
to the village of Gallipoli, and commands the best, if not the only 
anchorage in the passage. 

The Dardanelles of Asia are called by the Turks Sonlfaine 
Kalessi. The little town which adjoins this castle is almost 
entirely peopled by Jews, who to the profits of an extensive com- 
merce unite also those of a very lucrative commission, by ren- 
dering themselves necessary to the vessels of every nation which 
are obliged to stop here, in order to be v^ited, and to produce 
their firmans. 

Above the Soultaine Kalessi is a promontory which girts almost 
the coast of Asia, projects into the canal, and seems to close thi* 
entry of it towards the sea of Marmora. The Turks call it 



40 NAVAL ANECDOTES, &C. 

Nagara Bouroud. Some ruins are still visible on it, which I sup- 
pose must be those of the ancient Abydus, since the distance 
between the Barber's Point and Nagara is exactly that assigned by 
Strabo to the interval between Dardanus and Abydus. 

Opposite Abydus, on the European coast, is Ak Bachi Liman 
(port of the white head) the ancient Sestus. Strabo relates that 
Xerxes threw a bridge across the Hellespont from between Sestus 
and Abydus, for the passage of his army. One end of this bridge 
abutted on the shore above Abydus, towards the Propontis, the 
other fielow Sestus, towards the /Egean Sea. 

The courageous enterprise of Leander, which gave occasion to 
the charming poem of Musaeus, and has furnished, during many 
ages, a subject to the poetical talents of heroic authors, has in it 
nothing wonderful to the inhabitants of the Dardanelles. They 
have seen, but lately, a young Jew cross this strait in the very 
same place and manner, to obtain the hand of his mistress of the 
same nation, who had consented to marry him on those terms. 

Strabo says that the Cynoseme, or tomb of Hecuba, was 
opposite the mouth of the Rhodius, on the opposite bu.uk of the 
Hellespont : it occnpied, without doubt, tho spot where now 
stands the European castle, a castle called by the Turks Kelidir 
Bahar (the padlock of the sea) ; as Euripides formerly called the 
Bosphorus the key of the Pontus Eu?flnus. 

One of the two promontories which terminate the Thracian 
Chersonesus, and forms one side of the Hellespont, still retains the 
name of Uelles, or Eles Bouroun (Cape Eles); not far from it is 
the city of Eleus. 

.Not far from the mouth of the Dardanelles is the small island of 
Tenedos, above which is good anchorage for large ships. Any 
fleet riding here has the command of the straits. 

The depth of water in the Propontis diminishes gradually, as 
appears from the lakes a liitie south of Constantinople, now called 
Kutchuk Tcheknudgc (little .bridge), and Borouk Tcheknudge 
(great bridge), which fermVrly were gulfs of the Propontis : the 
same is observed in the Euxinc. The island of Cyzicus is now a 
peninsula, and the neck of land which uuitcs it to the main land 
is inhabited. The lake of Nicea also proves the fact, LJT 
PANORAMA. 



41 
CORRESPONDENCE. 



MR. EDITOR, 

E following authentic narrative contains an additional 
charge of unprovoked cruelty committed by a Spanish 
officer on a British subject, in the memorable year 1 790 : 

Captain James M'Donald, commander of the ship Trelawncy 
P'anter, sailed from Martha Brae, Jamaica, on the 21st of July 
last, bound for London, with orders from his owners to join (he 
convoy to windward of Port Anthony, if practicable, by the 23d 
of that month. After beating to windward for 24 hours, and the 
ship gaining no ground, the wind at the same time blowing very 
strong, and the current adverse, Captain M'Donald, with the 
advice of his officers, thought it prudent to bear away for the 
passage through the gulf of Florida, which is the usual passage of 
loaded ships from Jamaica, particularly from the leeward parts of 
the island. 

Nothing material happened till the 5th of August, at 4 P.M. 
when the man at the mast-head discovered a fleet astern ; which 
proved to be a Spanish convoy, consisting of about twelve sail. 
Captain M'Donald then hoisted his colours at the mizen-top-mast 
head, and kept them flying near two hours, but was never 
answered by the Spanish man of war, or any of the merchant 
ships, which is the usual compliment expected on such occasions. 

On the 7th of August, the Spanish convoy still in sight, about 
a league to windward, drifting together with the gulf stream along 
the Florida shore; at 3 P.M. having all the small sails set, and a 
light breeze, sailing faster than any of the Spanish merchant ships ; 
got to windward, and passed on a-head of the whole Spanish con- 
voy. At six Captain M'Donald observed the frigate making more 
sail, and seeing no ship a-head, conceived she might wish to speak 
to him, and thought it prudent to back his mizen-top-sail to allow 
her to come easily up with him. 

It is the custom, even in time of war, when one ship chases 
another, and wishes to bring her to, to fire a gun to leeward ; if 
that has not the desired effect, to fire a shot athwart her fore-foot; 
when, if she does not shew shorter sail, the other consider them- 
selves at liberty to fire a broadside into her, or take any otht:r 
steps in' their power to bring her to. In the present case, when 



42 'CORRESPONDENCE. 

Captain M'Donald was lying with his mizen-top-sait to the mast, 
and not running from the frigate, she came elose under his lee 
quarter, (within half a ship's length) and, without hailing, wan- 
tonly fired two shot athwar{ the 1 Trelawney Planter's stern, so 
close that it made all her cabin windows rattle, and very nearly 
struck her. 

As soon as Captain McDonald had brought his ship to, they 
hailed, (in Spanish) ordering him to hoist out his boat immediately 
and come on board ; to which Captain M'Donald replied, it was 
impossible to hoist out his long-boat, as it was night, and he but 
M-eakly manned, and the pumps requiring constant attendance : 
that, however, he would keep close under the frigate's stern till 
next morning, and then hoist out his boat and come on board, if 
practicable. The reply was, that unless he hoisted out his boat 
and came on board instantly, he would pour in a broadside and 
sink the ship. 

This happened between seven and eight o'clock in the evening ; 
and Captain M'Donald was obliged to comply. When he arrived 
on board the frigate, he was ordered into the cabin, where he 
found her commander, who began immediately to abuse him in 
Spanish, for not hoisting .out his boat and coming on board 
agreeably to his orders, telling Captain M'Donald, that he had no 
right to navigate in those seas, as they belonged to the King of 
Spain, his master. 

Captain M'Donald very justly replied, that those seas were as 
free to him, a British subject, as to the Spaniards : for they were 
then out of soundings, and one side (the Bahama islands) belonged 
to the King of Great Britain, the other (the Florida shore)' to the 
King of Spain. 

Captain M'Donald was now ordered on the quarter deck, 
where he was confined all night between two guns. About six 
o'clock in the morning the frigate's boat was manned with two 
officers and 17 men, and sent on board the Trelawney Planter, 
taking a Spanish negro with them who spoke English, as an 
interpreter. On their arrival on board the ship, the Spanish 
officers took the charge of her from the mate, who, together with 
the seamen, now considered themselves as certainly captured. 

The Spanish officers and seamen then rummaged the ship, 
searching every place they could get at; taking, however, nothing 
from the ship but four more of her crew, whom they detained 
near an hour on board the frigate, then ordered them back, with 
instructions to return with the boat, on the first signal being mad 
from the frigate, which was complied with. 



CORRESPONDENCE. 43 

Prior to this, Captain M'Douald was carried by the commander 
of the frigate, from the place where he had been confined all 
night, forward to the forecastle, under a guard of marines, at 
which place there were two large pieces of timber, each about 
fourteen feet long, and six inches thick where they joined ; having 
places made in them for the neck and legs, with a hinge at one 
end, and a clasp and padlock at the other. The Spanish comman- 
der then ordered Captain M'Donald to be stripped of his coat, 
waistcoat, neckcloth, and hat; after that was done, he was laid on 
his back on the deck, and his neck put into the case of timber, 
which, by the thickness of the lower piece of wood, raised his 
head about six inches from the deck near the foremast, and his feet 
to the lee guiwale of the frigate, sailing on the starboard tack, 
and the sun (which was extremely hot) shining direct in his 
face. 

As soon as Captain M'Donald observed the intention of the 
Spanish commander, and previous to his being thus confined, he 
laid open his breast, and requested the commander would order 
his marines to shoot him, rather than offer such an indignity to the 
master of a British ship, by confining him in a situation so shock- 
ing and disgraceful to humanity ; but without effect. 

Captain M'Donald was kept in the above state of confinement 
about three hours and a half, enduring the most excruciating pain, 
as the place where his neck and shoulders were confined was so 
small, that he was nearly strangled, and the upper piece of timber 
pressing hard upon his breast, he could only breathe with great 
difficulty ; his body, being also raised the thickness of the lowest 
piece of timber off the deck, was extremely painful to him, and he 
must inevitably have, perished under such a complication of tor- 
ture, had it not been for the humanity of some of the Spanish 
sailors, who perceiving the pain he was in, took frequent oppor- 
tunities of relieving him, when their officers were not in that part 
of the ship. In this state Captain M'Donald was kept (ill past 
eleven o'clock in the forenoon, when it appearing he could not 
much longer survive under the torments he suffered, an officer 
came forward, and ordered his neck and shouideis to be released, 
and his legs confined, in consequence of which the stocks were 
unlocked, and his orders obeyed. This confinement, though bad 
-enough, was a paradise compared with the last; and Captain 
M'Donald now recovered by degrees his strength and recollection, 
which had nearly abandoned him. In this situation he remained 
till about twelve o'clock, when the frigate made the .signal for the 
Trelawaey Planter's boat to come alongside, which being complied 



44 CORRESPONDENCE. 

with, Captain M'Donald was released an;l conducted into the 
cabin, so very weak that he could scarcely creep along. Here the 
commander of the frigate was at dinner with his officers, and Cap- 
tain M'Donald was again interrogated where he was bound to, 
\vbat course he intended to take, &c. for his papers had neither 
been looked at, nor even inquired for, although he had taken them 
on board in his pocket for the purpose of being examined. Captain. 
M'Donald replied to the commander, and complaining of his 
inhuman treatment, informed him that he intended making the 
best of his way for the English channel, if h<- was allowed to 
depart. The Spanish commander then ordered him away, saying, 
if he caught him near his convoy, he would carry him to Old, 
Spain. Captain M'Donald answered, that he might act in that 
respect as he pleased, for he Avas now in his power, but he 
certainly would not use him worse than he had already done. 

Before Captain M'Donald's departure, he requested to know 
the name of the frigate, and who commanded her ; which the 
Spanish captain peremptorily refused : but whilst under confine- 
ment he understood from a Spanish negro, belonging to the frigate, 
who spoke English, that the frigate was, a King's ship, of 36 guns, 
called the Roussillion, commanded by Don Francisco Vidal ; that 
there were two register ships in company, with money on board, 
and about twelve sail of merchant ships : that they had been from 
the Havanna only four or five days, and came /rom ihencc in com- 
pany with twenty sail of vessels^ but some of them had parted 
company. 

At one P.M. Sunday, the 8th of August, 1790, Captain 
M'Donald parted company with the Spanish convoy. Jat. 28 38', 
long. 79, and arrived in London without further accident, on the 
19th of September following. 



INQUIRY RELATIVE TO THE FRENCH NAVAL 
COMMAN0EB., COUNT KUIillGAROU. 

MR. XD1T011, 

iE perusal of your very interesting memoir of that brave and 
spirited officer, Admiral ilussell, has recalled to my mind 
some indistinct ideas respecting his antagonist, Count Krcrgarou. 

That nobleman was Izcice taken by tiie English. I am without 
dates; but, from tho circumstances of the case, his capture, by 
Captain .Russell, must evidently have been the second tiuie th^t he 
was destined to yield to English superiority. 



COtt RESPONDENT. 4i> 

Whilst a prisoner in England, Count Krcrgarou conceived a ten- 
tSresse for a young lady, whose family and connexions were highly 
respectable. He made a formal application to her father, for per- 
mission to address the object of his affection ; a request which was 
refused, somewhat rudely perhaps, by a declaration from the old 
gentleman, that his daughter should never marry an enemy to his 
country, 

Much chagrined at this treatment, the Count afterwards vowed, 
that he icoulcl never again be taken prisoner by the people of a 
country in ichich he hud met zzilh so illiberal a repulse. 

This circumstance though it can form no apology for his fight- 
ing under false colours may in some measure account for th6 
obstinacy of his defence in ta SyLillc. 

If any of your Correspondents, Mr. Editor, should be able to 
throw additional lie;ht upon the subject, by fixing the date of 
Count Krergarou's former capture, and by whom; by pointing 
out the family alluded to ; or by ascertaining whether the Count 
be yet living ; it would be a curious, and an amusing, if not aa 
important, illustration of your memoir of Admiral Russell. 

I am, &c. C. D. L. 



Journal of the Proceedings of a Squadron of his Majesty's Ships? 
tinder the Command of Sir JOHN J ERVIS, K.B. employed in 
conjunction "Kith a Body of Troops^ -under the Command of Sir 
CHARLES GUEY, K.B. to reduce the French Colonies in tht 
Leexard Islands ^ 1794 ami 1795. 

[From the MSS. of a Naval Officer.] 
[Concluded from Fol. XVII. page 479.] 

AT Fort Royal, during the siege of Fort Bourbon, several 
courts martial were assembled on board the Vengeance, 
Commodore Thompson ; some on subjects of small moment, but 
ethers on crimes of a very serious nature : doubts arose about the 
legality of those courts ; as none were summoned to sit, or did 
attend to take their seats, but the captains of such ships as were at 
Fort Royal ; which were the Vengeance, the Irresistible, the 
Boyne, the Veteran, and the Asia; the commodore being presi- 
dent. But the objections were overruled : and, as little doubt was 
made that the strictest justice would attend the decisions of the 
court (though not composed strictly' according to law), and as 
the exigencies of the service would have made it very unwise to 



46 CORRESPONDENCE. 

call from their duties the captains of the different ships, Avho were 
detached from the flag, (though in sight at Cul de Sac, Cohe, and 
at Case Navire) the courts were holden without farther delay. 

I myself cannot help thinking, that according to the meaning 
and interest of the statutes, the captains of those ships that were in. 
sight at Case Navire, and the Cul de Sac de Cohe, should have 
attended. First they did not form (what is meant, in the articles 
of war, by the word detachments) any separate and distinct com. 
mantl, being within sisht; and the admiral clearly did not under-, 
stand or mean that they should be separated from him and his 
command, having frequently made their signal from the Boyne, 
which they repeated and answered, as they nrght very well, being 
within four or five miles of the flag. If ships in such a -.ituation 
form detachments, the admiral has the pouer of packing a court 
martial whenever it pleases him ; and I do not understand what, is 
meant by the articles of war, which strictly limit the numbers, and 
point out the proper people who shall absolutely form such courts, 
and which seem intentionally to provide in such cases against the 
abuse of power which an admiral might assume, of forming courts 
martial of his own creatures and dependants only. 

The articles say, that all the thirteen senior captains shall 
assist, and compose the court the thirteen senior captains then 
present. And now this brings to my memory an irregularity in 
the Conduct of the commander in chief, which I always thought 
rery unwarrantable; though, in the midst of service, and till it 
was wholly fulfilled, I, 1 as one concerned, did not choose to tako 
notice of it : as, if any thing had 'happened to have rendered us 
unsuccessful in our attempts upon these islands, I know on such 
occasions the commanders are always ready to catch at any, the 
most trifling circumstances, to throw the blame of their own mis- 
conduct upon any one they find in their way 

A broad pendant was given to Captain Rogers at Case Navire, 
which was kept flying during the siege, in sight of the whole fleet; 
half of which were senior captains to him 

But to proceed to other subjects. When sailors arc ordered 
upon this kind of service with the army, it would be proper, as 
already hinted, to have a very different species of slops issued to 
them, consisting chiefly of flannels, which in hot, as well as cold 
climates, are absolutely necessary. Flannel shirts, as well as 
drawers, worsted stockings, and strong coarse bine jackets, are 
the only clothing fitted for the nature of their service. I myself 
wore thick flannel in the midst of all the heats, and during the 
whole campaign on shorc 3 as well as on board, and found that 



MARINE DESIGN'S, &C. 47 

with it I could endure the greatest fatigue. I never found it 
immoderately hot, nor experienced any inconvenience from the 
flannel: on the contrary, I am convinced, that I was preserved 
by it from colds and fevers. Long marches in the heat of the day 
in a broiling sun never affected me; the flannel prevented the 
violent perspiration from being checked, and kept it up amidst 
dews and rains. 

Our sailors were provided with flannel sheets, but unluckily 
they had only one each a change would have been very necessary, 
and is almost indispensable. 

*.* This was written before the rainy season set in, which 
destroyed such numbers in despite of all precautions. 



MARINE DESIGNS, NAVAL PORTRAITS, &c- 

IN THE 

EXK&ITION OF THE ROYAL ACADEMY. 

M,DCCC,VII. 
THE THIRTY-NINTH. 

(. T 5e ns ; n S* ans ; 

a *v9(W7TOJ. AXX' OTy T6* 



iu9. H. 



R. A. Royal Academician. A. Associate. H. Honorary. 

A MISSIONARY of the United Brethren conversing with the 
Esquimeaux : Scene in the Terra Labrador, month of June ; 
with a distant view of Nain. Aliss Spihbury. 

View of the British fleet, commanded by Lord Nelson, and of 
the combined fleets of France and Spain, as they appeared at the 
close of the battle of Trafalgar, October 21, 1805. Taken from, 
the north-east. N. Pocock. 

A sea storm, an Italian scene, with a ship making signal for a 
pilot. P. J. De Loutherbourg, R. A. 

Neptune's Grotto, contiguous to Tivoli : and at a considerable 
depth amongst rocks of immense magnitude, is situated this cavern, 
from which issues the Auio ; after disappearing for some time under 
ground. R. Fre claim. 



48 MARINE DESIG-XS. &C. 

t 

The Wizard. J. /. Halls. 

" Tis thine to sine; ho-.v, fraiinnp hideous spells, 
In Sky's lone isle the gifted wizard sits, 
And points the fated bark his destin'd prey." 

Collins' s OJc on the Superstitions of Scotland. 

Sketch on the Thames. C. Town. 

Portrait of Lord Nelson. A. IV. De'cis. 

Portrait of Earl St. Vincent. Sir W. lieechy, R. A. 

View on the Thames. E. Childe. 

Portrait of Captain Hancock, royal navy. If. Ho-card, A. 

A coast scene. A. IV. Cullcott. A. 

Wyndandermere ferry. J. Caulton. 

Keswick lake. Sir C. Beaumont, II. 

Pembroke castle, looking towards Milford Ilaron. 

P.Sandty, R. A. 

Keswick lake. J. Constable. 

.A gale of wind, with a brig making for the port. 

Rev. C. A. Moysey, II. 

A fleet collecting after a storm. R. U. Hoppner, II. 

A water-mill near Humvcll. Miss IL Gouldsmith) II. 

Light-house and entrance to Ramsgate harbour. IV. Pickctt. 

An effect on the s 'a-shore at Aldborotigh, Suiroik. G. Arnold. 

Portrait of Miss II. Nelson. J. Pocock. 

Sailors disputing on naval tactics. G. Arnold. 

A view of the old, or St. Gedrgc's dock, at Liverpool. 

./. T. Scrres. 

A fisherman of Scotland. T. Thomson. 

Sun rising through vapour; fishermen cleaning and selling fish. 

J. M. W. Turner, R. A. 

Fishermen coming a-shore. G. Arnold. 

The ferry at Twickenham : Moonlight. W. Murlow. 

A gale : Ship coming to anchor ; boats going off. 

R. B. Hoppner, II. 

View of the British squadron, under Rear-Admiral Sir H. 
Nelson, K. B. at the commencement of his attack on that of the 
French, as it lay moored in line of battle in the bay of Aboukir, 
on the 1st of August, 1798. N. Pocock. 

The sketch of a monument for perpetuating the memory of the 
late Lord Nelson. B. IVcst, R. A. 

His Majesty, on the 10th of Dec. 1805, having signified hi* 
commands t<r the Royal Academy, by his secretary of state, the 
Right IIou. Lord Ilawkesbury, for the members of that body t 



DESIGNS, &e. 49 

consider the best mode of perpetuating the memory of Lord Nelson : 
in obedience to that command this design was made, composed of 
the three branches of art which constitute the Academy : Painting 
being best calculated, by its powers of combining imagery, to give 
allegorical figures their full effect, and to form a composition ex- 
pressive of Lord Nelson's nautical achievements, and the immor- 
tality of his greatness. The leading point in the picture repre- 
sents Victory presenting the dead body of the hero to Britannia, 
after the battle of Trafalgar, from the arms of Neptune, with the 
trident of his dominions. Britannia sits in shaded gloom, aa 
expressive of that deep regret which overwhelmed the united king- 
dom at the loss of so distinguished a character. In the other parts 
of the picture are seen the concomitant events of his life, and the 
sons and daughters of the union preparing the mournful sable to his 
memory. The winged boys around his body are figurative, that 
the influence of his genius still exists. The sculptured part of this 
design is best calculated to give the sepulchre its appropriate cha- 
racter ; it is a plain stone of considerable magnitude, and of a 
double cube in form, M'ithout ornaments or inscription, except 
the honoured name of Nelson, encircled with ttie emblem of eter- 
nity. The supporters of this honoured stone, on the right, "are a 
group of Briii>h seamen, as seen when opposed to the enemy in 
battle, inspired by the genius of Nelson, and ready to defend 
their country's cause: on the left, another group, composed of 
marines from the three nations which now form the united king* 
dom, reflecting, and participating with their country, in the loss 
of so great a commander. Architecture, ever denoting civilization, 
has inscribed on its frize the honours which parliament decreed to 
the family of Nelson ; over which is the tablet, containing the 
number of battles he had been in, and terminated by his crest, 
surrounding which are the insignia of Victory and Virtue, and the 
spoils of the vanquished enemy, with the hulks of the San Josef 
and San Nicolas, which Lord Nelson boarded and captured. The 
columns rising from the base, on which are the pro\vs of British 
men of war, are figurative of that glorious immortality which the 
general design of this sketch of a monument exhibits. 

The model for the monument which is to be executed for per- 
petuating the memory of Lord Nelson, having been decided on 
by the Committee of Taste, Mr. West, after making this design, 
painted this picture, to accompany his other works on the subject 
of Lord Nelson's victories. 

Portrait of Sir Samuel Hood. /. lloppner^ R. A. 



5d MARINE DESIGNS, &f. 

Lord Nelson, when second lieutenant of the LowesiofFe frigate, 
Captain Locker, going to take possession of an American letter 
of marque, during a streug gale of wind, and a heavy sea, the 
fifst lieutenant hating returned, and declared it impracticable. 

JR. West all, R. A. 

Lord Nelson, when commanding the Captain-, of 74 guns, with 
a broad pendant, R. W. Miller, Esq. commander, in the action. 
dffCape St. Vincent, February 14, 1797, receiving the sword of 
the dying Spanish commodore, after having boarded the San Nico- 
las, followed by Lieut. Berry, and Capt. Pearson : they imme- 
diately after boarded a.nd took the San Josef. JR. Westull, R. A. 

Part of the broken tower of Conway-castle, with a ballad-singer 
relating the doleful end of Gellert to the Welch neighbours. 

P. J. De Loutherbourg, R. A> 

The immortality of Nelson. B. West,- R. A. 

Rear-Admiral Nelson, when in his barge, with its usual com- 
plement of men, during the blockade of Cadiz, July 3, 1797, at- 
tacking a Spanish launch, with 30 men, which, after a severe con- 
flict, he succeeded in carrying. On this occasion Capt. Frccmantle 
nobly supported the admiral; and his cockswain, John Sykes, re- 
peatedly saved his life. R. Wot all, R. A. 

Admiral Sir Horatio Nelson in the act of landing on the mole 
of Teneriffe, in July, 1797, dangerously wounded by a cannon- 
shot in his right arm, which Avas afterwards amputated. Upon 
this occasion, his life was saved by the attention and presence of 
wind of his son-in-law, now Capt. Nesbit. Owing to the absence 
ef this gentleman, his portrait is left unfinished. R. Wextatt, R. A. 

Portrait of the Earl of Northesk. T. Phillips, A. 

Representation of the situation of the British fleet under the 
command of Lord Nelson, and of the combined fleets of France 
and Spain, at the close of the battle of \Trafalgar, October 21, 
1805, takeufrom the south-east. A*. P.ocock. 

A calm. 71 Thomson. 

Scene on the old Brent river : Caf tie waterin. C. 



ANTI-ROOM. 

Embarkation of troops, J. A. Atkinson. 

Melrose Abbey, on thy river Tweed; Melrosc-bridge, and the 
Pavilion, the seat of the Right Hon. Lord Somerville : in thcclis- 
rtee the Selkirkshire hills. J . Ward. 

View on the water of Leith. P. Gibson* 

hospita!, towards the river. Rev. W. II. Curr, U. 



MARINE BESIGNSj &C. 61 

A Butch boat getting under weigh in a squall of -wind and rain; 
a ship of the line at anchor, and other vessels in the offing. 

J. T. Serrcs. 

Andromeda Love whispering consolation in despair. S. Williams. 

The fisherman's hut. G, Joncff. 

The shipwreck. T. Whitcomle. 

Littleden tower, on the Tweed ; Merton. the seat of Hugh 
Scott, Esq. and the Eildon hills, at the 1'oot of which stands Mel- 
jrose. J. Ward. 

A boat leaving the shore. F. Sartor ius, 

COUNCIL-ROOM. 

Conway castle, Caernarvonshire. J. De Fleury f 

View on the river Plym, Devon. J. //. IVilliums. 

View in the Ernie, above Ivy bridge, Devon. J. II. Williams. 

High Force Cataract ; a fall of the river Tees. G. F. Robson. 

Viewf Rochester castle, bridge, and part of the town. IV.Pickett. 

The disconsolate sailor. G. Clint. 

" A handkerchief held all the treasure I had." 

A gentle breeze. //. Morton, II. 

Scene in the Gill, near Ambleside. G. Arnold. 

" Xor can the tortur'd wave here find repose ; 
But raging still amidst the shaggy rocks, 
Aslant the hollow channel rapid darts; 
And falling fast from gradual slope to slope, 
\Vith wild infracted course and lessen'd roar, 
It gains a safer bed. 1 ' Thomson's Summer. 

Hazy moruing on the cpast of Kent. J. ]j(tporte 

Boats in a heavy sea. J. Oxen* 

An officer's lady, imagining she has descried the ship in which 
she expects the arrival of her husband^ / R- Smith. 

Shipping : A fresh breeze. G. ll'cbxtcr. 

A cutter bearing up. T. Thomson. 

Santa Maria, on the road to Naples, with a distant view of V e,. 
suvius and the bay. J. E. IL ttobinsun. 

Unlading the cargo of the brig George, 180 tons, laden with 
iron, hemp, &c. stranded on the coast near Deal, in the dreadful 
on the 18th and 19th February, 18Q7. J. 6'. IJdyzcard, 11. 

A view from Brighton beach. J. Emery , II. 

The wreck. //. 

A view of Drogheda, and the river Boyne, Ireland. 

Miss F. 

fc* piece, . ,">/. Pt 



52 MARINE DESIGNS, &C. 

Portrait of Lord Nelson. C. Hayter* 

ANTIQUE ACADEMY. 

The attack on the Danish line of defence and batteries off Co, 
penhagen, by the British squadron under the command of Vice- 
Admiral Lord Nelson ; in which battle the whole were taken or 
destroyed, April 2, 1801. N. Pocock. 

Embarkation of Rosabtlla from castle Rayensheuch. Vide 
Scott's Lay of the last Minstrel. A Lady, H. 

Vievr oh the coast of Corsica. W. Marlow. 

His Majesty's ship Teiqeraire, Sir E. Harycy, Bart, commander, 
boarded on each side by the Fogeux and Redoutable, both of which 
ships she engaged and captured in the battle of Trafalgar, October 
21, 1805. N. Pocock. 

Market boat on the Bolton Canal. W. M. Craig. 

Portrait of Lord Cochrane. P. E. Stroehling. 

Portrait of Sir T. Hardy, Bart. M. Broxn. 

A scene on Derwentwater, Cumberland. JE. Dorrell. 

Palemon and Arion. Vide Falconer's Shipwreck, canto iii. 

J. Fittler, A. E. 

Fishermen. J. A. Atkinson. 

View on the coast of Hants. J. Henderson, H. 

Maentwrog bridge, Merionethshire. J. P. Neale. 

A view on the Wye, near Tiuteru, Monmouthshire. 

J. Woollett, H. 

LIBRARY. 

A beach view on the coast of France, in the environs of Bou- 
logne. R. Dodd. 

Buying fish. G. Slous. 

Pilots mooring their boats, with a view of Dover castle from the 
beach. R. Dodd. 

View of the Victory, in the gale that succeeded the battle of 
Trafalgar, disabled, and in tow by the Polyphemus. JR. Dodd. 

Fall of the CJyde. J. Wilson^ 

Landscape : Purfieet up Thames. T. Walker, 

Lord Nelson's ship, Victory, leading the van into action, on 
the 21st October, ,18Q5, with the Temeraire in her wake; and 
the Neptune, Captain Freemantle, bearing up to engage the San. 
tissima Trinidada. R. Dodd- 

.4 view on the north shore at Liverpool, looking towards the 
^ntrance of the river Mersey. J. T. Serres. 

Yiew OD the Dee, near Llangollen, North Wales. E. Goodwin. 



MARINE DESIGNS, SfC, 53 

View of Broadstairs, Isle of Thanet. W. Pickett. 

A sea coast: Storm and figures. T. Highton. 

Grasinere lake. R. Manners, If, 

Portrait of Mr. R. S. Barnard, of his Majesty's ship Dragon. 

E. Hastings, 

Enamel of the late Lord Viscount Nelson. W. Grimaldi. 

Thetis and Achilles, from Mr. West, enamel, on China. 

T. Baxter. 

View of the lake of Wyborn, with the summit of Skiddaw in 
the distance. M. Chamberlain. 

MODEL ACADEMY. 

EleTation of a bridge to cross the river Thames, near Vanxhall. 

R. Dodd. 

View at Blackwall. J. Chisholme. 

Design for a boat-house. J. Purser^ jun. 

Design lor a naval pillar. J. Williams. 

Design for a commemorative pillar. J. B. Gardiner. 

Monument to the memory of Lord Nelson, intended for Guild- 
jhall. //. Hopper* 

A sketch for the monument of the late Admiral Lord Nelson. 

lion. A. S. Darner^ II. 

View at Blackwall. J. Chisholme. 

Design for a monument to Lord Nelson. G. Horzcell. 

Design for a cenotaph, to the memory of Admiral Lord Nelson. 

J. Randall. 
A mausoleum, intended to commemorate naval achievements. 

Af. T/lOTHflA 1 . 

Cenotaph, erecting on Portsdown hill, to the memory of the 
late Lord Nelson, by the officers, seamen, and marines, of the fleet 
under his command at the battle of Trafalgar. J. T. Groves. 

Design for a naval monumental obelisk. J. Babcr. 

Bust of Earl St. Vincent. G. Garrard, A. 

Design of Lord Nelson, for Liverpool, in tura cotta. 

C. Rossi j R. A. 



PLATE CCXXXVI. 

NE,W MOLE, GIBRALTAR. 

nriHTS view is taken from the north looking toward^ 



Europa Point. It is one of the three landing places 
belonging to the Rock, from whence it proceeds in a westward 



54 CORKECf RELATION OF SHIPWRECKS. 

direction, in length about three hundred feet. From its 
contiguity to the dock-yard it is extremely convenient for 
landing and shipping naval stores of all kinds, and likewise 
for landing those things necessary for the garrison, as there are 
several magazines very near. The distance of this place from 
the northern extremity is about a mile and three quarters, 
and from Europa Point, which is the southern extremity, one 
inile and a quarter. In this mole ships of war and vessels of 
great burthen can lie in safety from the south-west gales that 
sometimes blow, bringing a heavy sea into the bay, which has 
occasioned the destruction of much property, by driving many 
valuable ships ashore ; indeed not more than three years since 
nearly twenty vessels of .different descriptions were wrecked 
under tjie battery walls of Gibraltar. 

In the fore part of this y^ew are English gun-boats, and a 
Spanish market vessel is introduced : in the distance the Bar- 
{>ary coast is seen, with a ship entering the bay. 

It lies in lat. 36 7' north.* 



CORRECT RELATION OF SHIPWRECKS, 

[Continued from Vol. XVII. page 489.] 

*2o. XVIII. 

Again the dismal prospect opens round, 

The wreck, the shore, the dying, and the drown'd. 

FALCON? j, 

LOSS OF THE SIDNEY. 

THE following letter, containing an account of the loss of 
ihe Sidney, and of the subsequent preservation of the 
greater part of her crew, is copied from an Indian paper, called 
The Asiatic Mirror : 



* In our fourth volume, page 380, is a view of Gibraltar, token from the 
westward, with the fleet under thq command of Admiral S;r George Rooke, 
Standing into the bay; to whjch is subjoined an historical and topographical 
account of the place. The engraving is from fi drawing by Mr. Pocock. 
Jn our tenth volume, page 371, is a plate, descriptive of the sie^e. qf 
Gibraltar, with an account of that event annexed. 



ORECT RELATION OF SHIPWRECK*. 56 

SIR Calcutta, October 14, >806. 

The Sidney left Port Jackson on the 12th of April, 1806, bound 
to Bengal. Intending to proceed through Dampicr's Straits, hep 
course was directed as nearly as possible in the track of Captaia 
Hogan, of the Cornwallis, which, as laid down in the charts, 
appears a clear safe passage. On the 20th of May, at one A.M. 
in lat. 3 20' south, long. 146 50' east, we ran upon a most dan* 
gerous rock or shoal ; and as this reef is not noticed in any map or 
hart, it appears that we were its unfortunate discoverers. 

On Sunday, over the ta (frail, we found 25 fathoms water ; over 
the larboard gangway six fathoms ; on the starboard side only 
nine feet; and over the bows twelve feet. One of the boats was 
immediately got out, with a bower anchor; but on sounding teu 
fathoms distance from the ship, found no ground at sixty 
fathoms. 

It must have been high water when we struck ; for at that time 
there was no appearance of any reef or breaker ; but as the water 
subsided, the shoal began to shew itself with a number of small 
black rocks. The ship had been striking very hard, and began to 
sue forward. At three A.M. there were six feet water in the 
hold, and increasing rapidly ; at five o'clock the ship was setting 
aft, and her top sides parting from the floor-heads. 

Upon consultation with my officers, it was the unanimous 
opinion, that the ship was irrecoverably gone, and that no 
exertions could avail for her safety. We therefore employed all 
hands in getting the boats ready to receive the crew, 108 in num- 
ber. Eight bags of rice, six casks of water, and a small quantity 
of salted beef and pork, were put in the long-boat, as provisions 
for the whole. We were prevented taking a large stock, as, from- 
the number of people, the three boats were barely sufficient to 
receive the whole with safety. 

We remained with the Sidney till five P.M. on the 21st of May, 
when there were three feet water on the orlop deck; we now 
thought it full time to leave the ship to her fate, and to seek our 
safety in the boats. Accordingly I embarked in the long-boat, 
with Mr. Trounce, second officer, and 74 Lascars ; Mr. Robson, 
first officer, and Stalkart, third, with 16 -Lascars, were in the 
cutter; and the jolly boat was allotted to 15 Dutch Malays and 
ene Sepoy. 

Being desirous to ascertain the position of the reef, by making 
the Admiralty islands, shaped our course accordingly, steering 
N. by E. hall' E. During the night it blew fresh, and the long* 
boat making much water, we were obliged to lighten her, by 



56 CORRECT RELATIOV OF SHIPWRECKS. 

throwing overboard a great deal of lumber, and two casks of 
water. The three boats kept close in company, the long-boat 
having the jolly-boat in tow. Finding at day-light that the cutter 
sailed considerably better, I directed Mr. Robson to take the 
jolly-boat in tow. The wind increased as the morning advanced, 
and a heavy swell rising, at 10 A. M. the jolly boat sunk, while 
in tow by the cutter, and al] on board, to the number of 16, unfor- 
tunately perished. It was lamentable to witness the fate of these 
unhappy men. and the more so, as it was not in our power to ren- 
der them the smallest assistance. 

At nooii on the 22d we saw the Admiralty islands, bearing 
N.N.E. distant three or four leagues, and as we had run about 58 
miles in the boats, upon a N. by E. half E. course, the situation of 
the shoal, on which the Sidney struck, was accurately ascertained, 
aud will be found as above laid down. 

From the Admiralty islands we continued standing to the west- 
ward ; and on the 25th made a small island : we stood towards it, 
and from its appearance I was induced to land, in the hope of 
obtaining a supply of water. Mr. Robson, myself, and 20 of the 
best of our hands, armed with heavy clubs, brought from New 
Caledonia, our fire arms being rendered useless from exposure to 
heavy rains, approached in the cutter, and landed through a heavy 
urf, to the utmost astonishment of the inhabitants, who, as far as 
we could judge from appearance, had certainly never before seen 
people of our complexion. The men were tall and well made, 
wearirig their hair p'aited and raised above the head they had no 
appearance of Malays, nor of Caffrees ; and, excepting their 
colour, which was of a light copper, they had the form and 
features of the natives of Europe ; they were entirely naked. We 
Saw a number of women, who were well formed, with mild 
pleasing features. 

We were received on the beach by about 20 or 30 of the natives, 
who immediately supplied each of us with a cocoa nut. We then 
Succeeded in making them understand that we wanted water, upon 
which they made signs for us to accompany them towards the 
interior of the island :-*- we did so ; but after walking abore a 
mile, they conducted us into a thick jungle, and as their number 
was quickly increasing, I judged it imprudent to proceed further, 
and returned to the beach, whore I was alarmed to find the natives 
had assembled to the number of 150 or upwards, armed with 
spears, eight or ten feet long. One of them, an old man, of 
tenerable appearance, and who teemed to be their Chief, 
approached, and threw his spear at my feet, expressive, as I under- 



CORRECT RELATION OF SHIPWRECKS. 57 

srood it, that we should part with our clubs in like manner. Per- 
ceiving at this time a crowd of women to have got hold of the 
steinfj; of the cutter, and endeavouring to haul her on shore, 
from the grapnell with which we had come to, we hastily 
endeavoured to gain the boat; the natives followed us closely, 
some )f them pointed their spears at us, as we retreated to the boat, 
and some were thrown, though happily without effect; and to us 
they appeared to be very inexpert in the management of their 
weapons. On my getting into the water, three or four of the 
natives followed me, threatening to throw their spears, and when 
I was in reach of the boat, one of them made a thrust, which was 
prevented taking effect by the interference of Mr. Robson, who 
warded oft' the weapon. When we had got into the boat, and 
were putting off, they threw at least 200 spears, none of which 
took effect, excepting one, which gave a severe wound to my 
cook, entering immediately above the jaw, and passing through 
the mouih. 

Having thus escaped from this perilous adventure, we pursued 
our course, and got as far as Dampier's Straits, as favourably as 
our sifuation could well admit. Being now within reach of land, 
the Lascars became impatient to be pu f on shore. It was in vain, 
that I endeavoured to persuade them to persevere; they would 
not listen to argument, and expressed their wish, rather to meet 
with immediate death on shore, than to be starved to death in the 
boats. Yielding to their importunity, I at length determined to 
land them on the N.W. extremity of the island of Ceram, from 
whence they mig'nt travel to Amboyna in t\vo or three days. On 
the 9th of June, being off' that part of the island, Mr. Robson 
volunteered to land a part of the people in the cutter, to return to 
the long-boat, and the cutter to be then given to such farther part 
of the crew as chose to join the party first landed. Air. llobson 
accordingly went on shore with the cutter; but to my great mor- 
tification, after waiting two days, there was no appearance of his 
return or the cutter. 

We concluded that the people had been detained either by the 
Dutch or the natives ; yet as the remaining part of the Lascars 
were desirous 10 be landed, we stood in with the long-boat, and 
put them oil shore near the point where we supposed the cutter to 
have landed her people. 

Our number in the long-boat was now reduced to seventeen, 
viz. myself, Mr. Trounce, Mr. Stalkart, fourteen Lascars and 
others. Our stock of provisions consisted of two bags of rice, 

JSSatJ. ron. (HoI.XV'III. i 



58 CORRECT RELATION O* SHIPWRECKS. 

and one gang cask of water; with this stock we conceived we 
might hold out till we reached Bencoolen, for which port we 
determined to maue the best of our way. We fixed the allowance 
of provision to each man at one toa-cup full of rice and a pint of 
waterier diem*; but we soon found it necessary to make a con- 
siderable reduction in this allowance. 

We proceeded on through the Straits of Bantam, meeting in our 
course several Malay prows, none of which took notice of us, 
excepting one, which ga-ve cha^e for a day, and would have come 
up with us, had we not got off under cover of a very dark night. 
Continuing our course, we passed through the Strait of Saypay, 
where we caught a large shark. Our spirits were much elated by 
this valuable prize, which we lost no time in getting on board, 
and, having kindled a fire in the bottom of the boat, he was roasted 
with all expedition ; and such was the keenness and extent of our 
appetite, that although the shark must have weighed 150 or IGOIbs. 
not a vestige of it remained at the close of the day. We suffered 
most severely from our indulgence; on the following day we were 
all afflicted with the most violent complaint of the stomach and 
bowels, which reduced us exceedingly, and left us spiritless and 
languid, insomuch that we now seriously despaired of our safety. 

On the 2d of July, I lost an old and faithful servant, who 1 died 
from want of sustenance. On the 4.th we made Java Head ; and 
at the same time caught two large boobies, which afforded all 
hands a most precious and refreshing meal. On the 9th, at mid- 
night, came-to off Pulo Pcnang, -on the west coast of Sumatra. 
At day-light we endeavoured to weigh our anchor, and to run 
close in shore ; but we were so much exhausted that our united 
strength was insufficient to get up the anchor. We made a signal 
of distress, on which a sandpan, with two Malays, came off. As 
I was the only person in the long-boat Avho had sufficient strength 
to move, I went on shore with the Malays. On landing, I found 
myself so weak, that I fell upon the ground, and was obliged to 
be carried to an adjoining house. Such refreshments as the place 
afforded were immediately sent off to (he long-boat ; and we 
recruited so quickly, that in two days we found ourselves in a 
condition to proceed on our voyage. On the 12th of July we 
weighed, and on the 19th anchored off Rat island, at Bencoolen. 

Here I met with an old friend, Captain Chauvet, of the 
Perseverance, whose kindness and humanity I *hall ever remem- 
ber, and gratefully acknowledge. On the day following my 
arrival, I waited on the resident, Mr. Parr, from whom J received 
every kindness and attention. 



NAVAL POETRY. 5$ 

I left Bcncoolen on the 17th of August, in the Perseverance, 
for Penang, where I arrived on the 27th, and where I was most 
agreeably surprised to meet with my late chief mate, Mr. Robson, 
who, Avith the Lascars, landed on Ceram, and had safely reached 
Amboyna, where they were received by Mr. Cranstoun, the Dutch 
governor, with a humanity and benevolence that reflect honour on 
his character. The governor supplied them with whatever their 
wants required ; he accommodated Mr. Robson at his own table, 
and on his leaving Amboyna, furnished him with money for him- 
self arid his people, refusing to take any acknowledgment or 
receipt for the amount. He also gave Mr. Robson letters to the 
governor-general of Batavia, recommending him to his kind 
offices. Such honourable conduct from the governor of a foreign 
country, and with which we are at war, cannot be too widely 
promulgated. 

From Amboyna, Mr. Robson embarked in the Dutch frigate 
Pallas, for Batavia, and on the passage thither, fell in with and 
was captured by his Majesty's ships Greyhound and Harrier, and 
brought to Prince of Wales's Island. 

From Penang I went to Bengal, with the Varuna, Captain 
Dennison, and arrived safely in Calcutta a few days ago. 

A. FORREST. 



The heart's remote recesses to explore, 

And touch us springs, when Prose avail'd no more. 

FALCONER. 



THE MARINER. 

(INCLUDING POETICAL SKETCHES OF VARIOUS PARTS OF THE 

WORLD.) 

By an Officer in the Xuyy. 
(Now firsl published.) 



'PER TARIOS CASTS, PER TOT DISCRIMIVA RIBUM, 
TENDIMUS." VIBS. 

MEMORY ! thou strange mysterious pow'r, 
At whose command the long-forgotten hour 3 
And youthful scene, in magic colours rise, 
To cheer the gloom of life's o'erclouded skies; 



(50 NATAL POETRY. 

Or paint the secret guilt in sable hues, 

Which the pale wretch with conscious horror views! 

Say, mystic source of inward joy or woe, 

(From whence my pleasures and afflictions flow,) 

What strange vicissitudes have niark'd the page 

Of checquer'd life, from youth to manly age? 

" Say, through what lands and oceans have I stray'd, 

What manners noted, and what coasts survey'd?" 



Where bleak Northumbria, from her rocky shores, 
Pours o'er the northern main her pitchy stores, 
And sable heroes, who, in climes afar, 
On Britain's foes havehurl'd the iron war ; 
On Tyne's green margin oft I lov'd to stray, 
And there with longing eyes the bark survey, 
When fraught with commerce for some distant land, 
The boatswain's voice would rouse the naval band 
To weigh the anchor >to unfurl the sails, 
j^nd spread the canvass to the rising gales. 

Oft, where yon cast'e's mould'ring turrets stand, 
Projecting horror o'er the subject strand ;* 
With ling'ring gaze, the less'ning sail I trac'd, 
And mark'd its course along the wat'ry waste ; 
Till, where the blending seas and skies unite 
On ocean's verge, it vanish'd from my sight: 
Then musing sate, and form'd the daring plan, 
Soon as the hand of time should stamp me man, 
To leave my cot to spurn inglorious case, 
And trust my fortunes to the winds and seas ! 

O'er the fair page, that still records the name 
Of wand'rin.g CRUSOE on the rolls of fame, 
I've hung enraptur'd while my youthful heart 
In all his fortunes took an active part ; 
And e'en when soothing slumbers seal'd my eyes, 
On distant shores th' illusive scene would rise : 
Up the steep cliff, and through the tangly wood, 
Or round the rocky shores, in quest of food, 
With him I'd wander, and partake his fears, 
When savage sounds would strike his list'ning ears ; 
Or else reclin'd, in some embow'ring shade, 
Survey the frisking goats that round him play'd ; 

Tynemouth castle, situated on a precipice that overhangs the sea. 



NAVAL POETRY. 61 

Till rosy morn reveal'd the orient light, 
And chas'd the pleasing visions of the night. 

This early bias for the faithless seas, 
Grew with mv growth, and strengthen'd by degrees 
When angry fate the morn of life o'ercast, 
Expos'd me houseless to the wintry blast; 
And drove me, friendless, from my native home, 
Each stormy sea and foreign clime to roam, 
Ere yet refaction and experience join'd 
To curb t.ie sallies of my youthful mind ; 
Or teach rue how the shoals of vice to shun, 
Where headstrong youth too often is undone! 

J. J. 
(To be continued.} 

Hit Majesty* Ship C***n, 
July 10, 1807. 

ELEGIAC STANZAS ON A SEAMAN. 

WHILE on the cross trees faithful WILLIAM stood, 
.The rustling gale blew hard a deaf'ning sound! 
Black heavy clouds o'erhung the troubled flood, 
And hungry sea-gulls scream'd their wants around. 

Amidst the squall, that menac'd to destroy, 
Gloomy forebodings fill'd his honest mind ; 

His KATE and prattlers now his thoughts employ 

" Ah ! Fate," he cried, " to them, my all ! be kind 1'* 

Yet more tremendous howls the ruthless storm, 

Th' unsteady vessel meets the furious blast 
White foaming waves terrific mountains form, 

And, lo ! with dreadful crash descends the mast. 

The fate of WILLIAM now frown'd near at hand, 
Hurl'd with the pond'rous ruin to the surge 

Upfathom'd waters o'er his corse expand, 
And awful thunder rolls his fun'ral dirge ! 

SONG. 

(From CAREY'S Poems, chit-fly amatory.) 

WHILE rocking on the slippery shrouds, 
When the storm veils the skies in clouds^ 
And the bark ploughs the ocean's brine 3 
I'll think on thee, my CAROLINE ! 



NAVAL HISTORY Of THE PRESENT YEAR, 1807. 

When war to glory calls the brave, 
And hostile squadrons ride the wave, 
And form the deep embattled line, 
I'll think on thee, my CAROLINE! 

And when the din of battle's o'er, 
And, borne triumphant to the shore, 
When sailors quaff the generous wine, 
I'll think on thce, my CAROLINE 1 



NAVAL HISTORY OF THE PRESENT YEAR, 1807. 

(June July.) 
RETROSPECTIVE AND MISCELLANEOUS. 

P r nnHE good sense of vthe Chinese, in not allowing foreigners, under any 
pretence, to visit the interior, may furnish a lesson to other countries, 
and more particularly to the inhabitants of an insular kingdom. The late 
splendid embassy from the Emperor of Russia to the Emperor of China, 
has been refused admittance into the capital : on its arrival at the great 
wall, the Ambassador was met by an officer from the Chinese court, with 
a letter and presents from the Emperor to his brother of Russia ; and 
desiring him to make the best of his way back, as his Imperial Majesty was 
unwilling, after so long a journey, to allow him to extend it beyond what 
was necessary. Thus does China, without any allies, without any naval power, 
or any army, but what defends its own territory, preserve itself in peace 
amidst the distress and revolutions of the Continent. 

By the disastrous result of the battle of Friedland, on the 14th of June 
(the anniversary of the battle of Marengo), the combined powers have again 
been humbled before the military genius of Buonapart6. The consequence 
is, that separate treaties of peace have been entered into between France 
and Russia, and France and Prussia ; so that, with the exception of the 
noble-minded monarch of Sweden, we have now no ally, and scarcely a 
friend, upon the Continent. On the termination of an armistice, which had 
been entered into between Sweden and France, hostilities have been re- 
commenced by the latter; and in all probability Sweden will ultimately, be 
compelled to submit to such terms as may be proposed by the general sub- 
jugator of Europe. We have Mr. Canning's authority for stating, that there 
is a force of 14,000 men in British pay, for the defence of Stralsutid and 
Pomerania. Four thousand more were to be added to that number; but 
whether, under existing circumstances, it will be deemed prudent tu send 
them, we are not prepared to say. 

Thus, it appearslikely that we shall again have to support a " single-handed" 
contest with France. This prospect has aroused all our wonted energies, 
A strict embargo has been laid on all the ports; an unusually hot impress 
has taken place; troops have been collected from all quarters of the united 
kingdom ; and preparations, offensive and defensive, are every where 



NAVAL HISTORY OF THE PRESEHT YEAR, 1807. 63 

making, with almost unprecedented vigour and alacrity. Two expeditions 
are in great forwardness. One of them, it is generally believed, is destined 
to act against the town and flotilla of Boulogne. The attack, it is supposed, 
will be on a much larger scale than has been hitherto attempted. 

The other expedition, which is evidently designed for a descent on die 
enemy's coast, is of a most formidable description. No fewer than 86 ships 
are to be employed; and the naval part of the service is to be under 
Admiral Gambler, Vice-Admiral Stanhope, Rear-A<iiniral Essington, Sir 
Home Popham (captain of the fleet), Commodore Sir Samuel Hood, aiul 
Commodore Keats. The following ships, forming a part of this force, wore 
assembled at Yarmouth, on Saturday, the 25th of July: 

Prince of Wales 98 Franchise 36 



Po;upee ................... 80 

Minotaur .................. 74 

Resolution ................ 74 

Orion .................... '. 74 

Majestic ................... 74 

Goliath .................... 74 

Valiant .................... 74 

Vanguard ....... B. ......... 74 

Thunderer ................. 74 

ISassau ............... ..... 64 

Ruby ..................... 64 

Dictator ................... 64 

Centaur .................. 74 Ariel 



Leda ...................... 38 

Sur veillante ................ 33 

Solebay ................... 32 

Comus >. ................. 22 

Cambrian .................. 38 



Alfred .................... 74 

Agamemnon ............... 64 

Agincourt ........ . ....... 64 

Brunswick ........... , ..... 74 

Maida .................... 74 

Ganges .................... 74 

Spencer .................. 74 

Mars ...................... 74 

Defence .................. 74 

Captain ........ ............ 74 

Hercule .................. 74 

Hussar ................... 36 

Sy biHe .................... 38 



Leveret .................. 18 

Goshawk .................. 16 

Alacrity .................. 16 

Orestes .................... Id 

Fearless .................. 14 

Minx .............. .. ..... 14 

Safeguard .................. 14 

18 
Hyacinth .................. 18 

Halcyon ................. 16 

Archer ............... ..... 14 

Urgent. .................. 14 

Cayenne .................. 22 

Fury .................... 12 

Acute .................... 14 

Alert ..................... 16 

Pmcher ............. . ---- 14 

Tigress .................. 12 

Zebra ---- . ............... 16 

Princess of Wales Cutter 
Thunder .................. 8 

Forward .................. 14 



Nymphe .................. 36 

On Sunday, the 26th, in the evening, the first division of the fleet, con- 
sisting of the following ships, sailed, with a fine wind at S.S.E. Prince of 
Wales, Admiral Gambler; Pompee, Vice-Admiral Stanhope; Centaur, 
Commodore Sir S. Hood; Ganges, Commodore Keats; Alfred, Spencer, 
Captain, Brunswick, Orion, Maida, Goliath, Nassau, Hercule, Vanguard, 
Dictator, Ruby, Surveiliante, Cambrian, Nymphe, Leda, SybiJle, aud 
Franchise; Comus, Alert, Mosquito, Leveret, Cyemic, Goshawk, Turbulent, 
Pmcher, Forward, Tigrtsse, Ur-ent, Acute, Alacrity, Fury, Zebra, and 
Thunder. 

frir Samuel Hood led the van, and Commodore Keates the rear. 

The second division, under Rear-Admiral Essiugtou, was to sail on 



64 NAVAt HISTORY OF THE FRESEVT YEAR, 1807. 

Wednesday the 29th. The following are some of the ships of which it was 
to be composed : Minotaur, Resolution, Mars, Agamemnon, Agincourt, 
Valiant, Defence, Cffisar, Hussar, Richmond, Safeguard, Minx, and 
Vesuvius. 

All the ships have as many flat-bottomed boats on board as they can 
stow ; and the number of troops is stated to amount to 20,000. General 
Lord Cathcart is the military commander in chief. There are three lieu- 
tenant-generals; the Earl of Rosslyn, Sir George Ludlow, and another; 
and ten major-generals. 

The Baltic is mentioned by some, and Holland by others, as the probable 
destination of this force ; but so laudable a secrecy has been preserver) on 
the part of government, that no statement can go beyond the length 
of conjecture. 

Another circumstance, which has made a considerable impression on the 
public mind, is an action which lias been fought between his Majesty's siiip 
Leopard of 50 guns, Captain Humphreys, and the American frigate 
Chesapeak of 44 guns, Commodore Barron, off the Capes of Virginia. 
Government received the intelligence of this event (which took place on the 
23d of June) on the 2Cth of July. The official particulars have not tran- 
spired : the circumstances, as far as we have been able to learn, were as 
follow: The American frigate was known to have several deserters from 
our ships, lying off Norfolk, on board. Representations of this fact were 
madcap the Secretary of the American Navy, but without receiving any 
satisfactory answer. As it was known that the Chesapeak was about to 
sail for the Mediterranean, Captain Humphreys received orders to cruise 
off the Capes, and examine her for the deserters. Accordingly, when he 
came up with her, he sent a boat on board, with advice of the information 
he had of the deserters, and his orders to search for them ; Commodore 
Barron refusing the search, Captain Humphreys fired several shots, which 
the other paying no attention to, he at leng'h fired a broadside into the 
Chesapeak, which she returned by six or seven scattering guns; and on 
receiving a second broadside, struck her colours. On examination, the 
deserters, to the number of five or six, were found, the very men who had 
been demanded. In this short rencounter the Chesapeak had six men 
killed, and twenty pne wounded : she returned into port very nucl 
shattered. 

The inhabitants of Norfolk are said to have entered into some violent 
resolutions, and have prohibited all intercourse with our ships, and all cup- 
plies of water and provisions. It is added, that great riots have taken place 
at Norfolk; and that the mob burnt upwards of 200 water-casks belonging 
to the Melampus frigate. 

The affair has been mentioned in both Houses of Parliament. His 
Majesty's servants expressed their readiness, should it be found neces> ry, 
to give all the information which they possessed, on the subject; but they 
entertained a hope, that the character of the transaction would not be 
found to require such a communication. Had there been any impropriety 
on the part of the British officer, the fullest satisfaction would be given. 

We are happy to state, that the safety of the Blenheim, Admiral Trou- 
bridge'a flag-ship, has been ascertained. 



NAVAL HISTORY OF THE PRESENT YEAR, 1S07. 65 

Imperial pirliamwt, 

HOUSE OF LORDS, MO.NDAY, JUXE 29. 

"IT ORD H \WKESBURY presented, by his Majesty's command, the 
-J 1 order in council, continuing the provisions of the American Intercourse 
Act, which expired during the recess, and <:ave notice that it was the inten- 
tion of his Majesty's government to propose to Parliament a hill for con- 
tinuing the above act for a time to be then specified, and to propose in such 
hill a clause or' indemnity for the advice given to his Majesty to continue 
the provisions of the former act, after it had legally expired.-- A bill was 
brought iu accordingly. 

WEDNESDAY, JULY 15. 

The American Intercourse Indemnity Bill, mentioned above, was read a 
third time, and passed. 

FRIDAY, 17. 

The Royal Assent, by commission, was given to the American Intercourse 
Indemnity Bill; and to a bill for altering, amending, and continuing the 
American Intercourse Act. 

HOUSE OF COMMONS, TUESDAY, JUNE 30. 

Mr. Eden, with a view of vindicating tte late ministers from the charge 
of having neglected the shipping interest of the country, moved, that there 
te laid before the House an account of the British and foreign shipping 
employed in the trade of this country for the last three years, ending 5th 
January, 1807, distinguishing the tonnage of each vessel, and the number 
of men employed. Ordered. 

WEDNESDAY, Jci/r 1. 

A bill, for altering and amending the American Intercourse Act, was 
brought np by Mr. Rose, and read a tirst time. 

A bill was also brought up, and read a first time, for making Amsterdam, 
in the island of Curacoa, a free port. 

THURSDAY, 2. 

Two bills were brought up, and read a first time each : one, for improving 
the pier and harbour of Dover; the other, for altering and amending three 
acts, for making roads to the We>t India Docks. 

With the view of preventing smuggling, accounts were ordered to he laid 
before the House, of the number of vessels trading between Guernsey, Jer- 
sey, and Great Britain, and the quantity of brandy, rum, and foreign spirits 
which they were respectively laden with. 

The Chancellor of the Exchequer also obtained leave to bring in a bill 
more effectually to prevent smuggling. 

FRIDAY, 3. 

In n committee on the American Intercourse Bill, Mr. Rose introduced 
a proviso, granting a power to the King, with the advice of his privy 
council, to suspend the said act, or any part thereof if it should lie found 
necessary. The act to continue in force for six weeks after the expiration 
of the next session of Parliament. 

The American Intercourse Indemnity Bill, from the Lords, was read a 
first time. 

In a Committee of Supply, the following estimates, for the naval ser- 
vice of the year, were proposed and agreed to : 



96 NAVAt HISTORY OF THE PRESENT 1'ZAH, 1807. 

130,000 Seamen and Marines. 

Pay of the above - ... S, 115,500 

Victualling ditto - 3,210,000 

Wear and tear of shipping 5,700,000 

Advance for sea sen ice - 422,500 

Half-pav, seamen and marines - - 1. 135.434 

Re-building ships of war - 2434,903 

If ire of transports - 1,500,000 

Sick and wounded, at home and abroad - 300,000 

Total - - 17,529,337 
TUESDAY, JULY 7. 

Lord Cofkrane moved, that a committee be appointed to inquire and 
report to that House, au account of all tlie offices, posts, places, sinecures, 
pensions, situations, fees, perquisites and emoluments of every descrip- 
tion, pa ill out of, or arising from the public revenues : of the fees in any 
courts of law and equity, admiralty, and ecclesiastical, or other court, 
held or enjoyed by, or in trust for any member of this House, his wife, 
or any of his descendants; or to be held or enjoyed by, or in trust for him, 
or either of them, in reversion of any present interest ; with an account 
of the :::;nual amount of the same, and of such office, post, place, sine- 
cure, fees, perqui>itt:s, and emoluments, distinguishing whether the same 
arises from a salary certain, or from an average amount. That the inquiry 
do extend to the whole of his Majesty's dominions, and that the committee 
be empowered to send for papers, persons, and records. 

In the course of a long discussion which ensued, the Chancc'I~>r of the 
F,.cchiquer observed, that the motion, as it now stood, would include all 
those members who had*-sons in the navy or army. It was much too 
general. He should recommend the inquiry to be referred to the Committed 
of Finauce. This, with some modification, was at length agreed to. 

WEDNESDAY > 8. 
A bill for the regulation of the Dover pilots was read a second time, 

THURSDAY, 9. 

The American Intercourse Indemnity Bill was read a third time, and 
passed. 

FRIDAY, 10. 

On the motion of Sir C. M. Pole, it was ordered, that there be laid before 
the House an account of the sums issued to the agents of Lord Hood, and 
un account of the payments actually made to the different classes of persons 
serving in his Majesty's fleet: at Toulon, in the year 1794,- specifying the 
dates, the sums advanced, the payments made, and the balance on hand. 

Lord Cnchraiif., agreeably to a previous notice, rose to move for a variety 
of papers relative to the naval service. He wished them to be laid before 
the [louse, in order to shew how much many parts of that service were 
carried on, to the material injury of the country, and its best intere>ts ; and 
he wished also to recommend it earnestly to his Majesty's ministers, to take 
(Measures for preventing such things trom occurring in future. He should 
first move, " that there be laid before this House, copies of all letters and 
representations, made from the schooner Felix, to Captain Keatcs, while 
commanding the squadron off Kochefort in 1805, rc&pcctin<_' ihr state of that 
vessel, and the state of the seamen on board." His Lordship then requested 
the attention of the House to two letters which he held in his hand, written 
by officers of the said schooner. The first mentioned, that their stock WHS 
all out, and that they were praying for God-sends, which he interpreted 



NAVAL HISTORY OF 1HE PUF.SENT YLAR, 1S07. 67 

clean shirts and fresh provisions. The other letter, which was dated m 
November, eight weeks before she went down, stated, that tlie J'elix. sailed 
worse and wor c e, and that lite writer feared th-. y should never be able to 
bring her back to an English port. Another vcssd, wliich his Lordship 
ailudod to, was the Atalante, which came alongside of his own siiip, and 
the captain told him, that he hud applied for a survey to the co.nmander 
in chief, but had IK en refused. His olKccrs had indeed thought it was 
unnecessary, though they did not, know, that when the wind blew fresh, she 
made 'JO inches of water an hoar; and she was, in all respects, unlit for 
sea. On his arrival tit Plymouth, his lordship informed the surveyor of the 
yard t'icrc, that by the first news from Ilochfort, they would hear, that the 
Atalante was cither gone down, or wrecked. In a very short time after 
she was wrecked, though he believed there were no men lost, or at least very 
few. But he believed there were more men lost on the Rochfort statiou 
last winter, than would be sufficient to the task of cutting out the -'jnadron 
at that port. The next motion he should make, would be for " an account 
of the number of ships and men kept off ihe port of Ilochfort, specifying* 
the time the,- bud i.een out." The reason of his makins: this motion was, 
to shc-.v the unnecessary cruelty that was used in the service. The i'lunta- 
genet had beu.i c (.:.;. months off Brest, except twelve days that she was 
wind-bound in the port of Plymouth, and there was during all that time an 
order that no olricer or man should set his foot on land, which was a matter 
of ;reat cruelty ; and in regard to the sick, there were; many men on board, 
who were in a tit state to be sent to the hospital, but were not allowed to 
be sent, by which many lives were lost, to the great injurv of the service. 
His third motion was for " an account of the frcs'i provisions sent to the 
squadron off Llociifort, from March 1, 1LX>!>, to March 1, ISO/." His lord- 
ship said, that Captain Cooke, in his voyage round the world, had stated 
with exultation, th it he had been 117 (lavs at sea, and the scurvy had not 
affected his men. His lordship said, his ship had been eight months 
at sea, and within four hours sail oi' the coat, and thoy weve most griev- 
ously afflicted with tiic scurvy. How did tin* arise? Tho answer was 
obvious. The old practice was that, wht-n vote's, on the different stations 
had expended th; \: fresh pro; isirtns, they returned into port r<> iv-victual. 
That practice prevailed also at present, bat it was nor M> under a 1 itc com- 
ipander in chief. Under him five days was considered sufficient to fit out 
* ship, and not an oilicer or man suffered 10 go on shore; and if the ship 
happened to be paid iv. the timr;, the men went to ^ca wiili their bank notes 
in their pockets, and he had seen them pail them out on the d:-cks, and 
Wo* tbem overboard. He considered this ord:-f, t!iat no orticer-or ma'.i 
should set his foot on shore, us i.iost cruel, while, at the sa-nu time, the 
Commander in chief was allowed to be on shore, -nay, even to live in London; 
iiiid he should not be surprised to see, in a short time, the place of fa tuft; 
commander in chief filled by a fool, or by some child. His H<-. muti >n 
would be tor " (.'opies of all such orders as had been issneii and acted on, 
.from Iii05 to JS07, in not sending ' uch sick men to (he hospital us wrre- 
uicurable on board.' He considered t ioso papers as necessary, to shew 
the cruelty with which the men were treated in this respect, lie could say 
a great deal on this subject, but :t was not necessary at present. He would 
only state that the men were prevented from going into the hospital, unless 
a survey was made on them by the surgeon of UK> commander in chief's* 
ship; and in blowing weather, it was impossible this surgeon could goon 
board ouch ship for that purpose ; in consequence of which the men's he-uiili 
was utterly destroyed, and m many instances amputation reiuti.'ivd 
necessary, whereas, if they had bc,-e;i s^iit to the hospital in lh;u-, tiie liml..-: 
might have been saved. However, it scorned ecuivuny in every tiling was 
'.lit order of the d:iv, and for th.il purpose the- :;i'.'du',ue'.- bccLiiii-.- \c-i-y much 



68 NAVAL nlsTOUY OF THE mr.SENT VKAR, 1807. 

limited. These things might seem trifling to many who heard him ; but 
whrn if was considert-d tlwt the lives of so large :i body of men ultimately 
depended on the care they met with from medical aid, it w.v of the 
utmost importance to the cmmtrv. Ajany valuable remedies, which were 
indispensably uccessarv, "ere prevented from being used, from this grand 
sVit 'iti of saving', lie had seen a ship going out of port with seventy men 
JH, who were not. allowed to go into the hospital, and could not be cured at 
i*n. He saw one man who wrxs in a fever, and another ruptured, who 
"Tro ducked, through sleet and snow, in going from the ship, and yet not 
allowed to fft into the hospitd. He acquitted all tliose honourable mom- 
be rs who had for some time left the service, of any blame on this account, 
Imt thought it his duty to bring forward those facts. In the military hos- 
pital?, the men who had wr;ik stomachs from Ion;; im!i>posit'on, were 
;l!o^ed sonic little luxuries which their stomachs could digest ; hut in the 
naval ho-pitnN, whore the men's stomachs had been debilitated ith lemon 
^aico, no such allowance was thought, of; and even a dying lieutenant, who 
'Canted n I'ttle egg wine, was refused, and told, that eggs were not allowed 
in the hospital. This system of economy had been earned so fur, tint Imt 
for dressing sores and wounds was not allotvcd; and in his ship, if they !wi 
gone into action, there was not half enough to have dressed the men's 
wounds, without the officers and men tearing up their own linen for that 
purpose. This lint l.a'l been cut off by a person unworthily employed by 
the late administration as commander in chief. He did not know whether 
it was regular to mention his name in that House. \_A en/ fiom teffral 
puffs *!/' t/ff H-J'ise, nun e! name.!] His Lordship said, he had no hesitation 
in naming Lord St. Vincent; and, in so cutting it off, he had sported with 
the lives of the men ; and the country had thereby sustained a very heavy 
loss iit the deaths of many brave fellows. 

Sir Samuel Hpnd declared that the loss of the Atalante was wholly 
unavoidable, and if she had been the finest ship that ever went to sea, 
!iie must have perished under the like circumstances. She ran on shore 
iu harbour, and if she had not been in excellent condition, sire could not 
have saved the number of men which she did save, Ijfotwithstandjijg 
the noble lord stated that she nearly lost her whole crew, in fact there 
were very few hut what were saved, and arc living witnesses of the 
sen-worthiness of tleir vessel. There was u survey marie of her, she 
was reported n't to go to sea, arid he had the \yord of Commodore 
Keats tor it, that shp was lit to go to any part of the world. The 
IVIix. schooner was lo^t in a yery heavy i;ale of wind, that lasted three 
<Jays. The soundest and tightest ship in the service might have met the 
hame fate in the same place. With respect to fresh provisions, he cmiLl 
ta'-u; upon him tg say, that no fleet in the world was better supplied 
uith that urMcle than iiifc C I'.nrnicl licet, ;ind a s to the men btinjr kept at :-ea, 
In: could take upon hi-n to s.iy, that if any thing prolonged the health of" 
tin; men, it WHS that very circumstance ; for no ship e.vor went out of 
port so healthy as she entered it Sea air and other causes kept men 
heaJthy. Respecting i lie want of surgical necessaries, he could venture 
t/> say ihat, except tlie noble lord, thtrpwas not an ofiicer in the navy who 
\vuuid make a similar assertion. 

Admiral Hcrtfy and Admiral Mftrkh'im both spoke on the same side 
of the question. No red' ess, said the latter, had ever been applied lor 
to the Admiralty, up >n smy of the grounds Mated by the noble lord; 
aud in what condition, he would ntk, was the navy to bo placed, if nn 
inferior oilicer could bring his commander in thief to the bur of that 
House-.? As to the supply of tho ships with fresh beef, more had been 
dwue iu the utioiinUtrfctiOi) 4[f Lurcl St. Vincent than under any 



NAVAL HISTORY OF THE PHKSEXT YPAR, 1807. 69 

administration. There wore t-.vo modes formerly adopted : the one was 
to send* bullocks out alive, tlic other to kill them before sending them out, 
Both these practices wete sub cet to inconvenience; in rough weather 
it was hard to get them on board, and mat: y died on their passage ; if 
they were killed and the wind were unfavourable, the meat was often 
spoiled before it could arrive. The course which was now taken to 
remedy thc-se inconveniences, was, to parboil the fresh beef on shore, 
and when it arrived at the fleet it made most excellent soup.* As to 
surgeon's stores, they were supplied, he said, under the administration 
of Lord St. Vincent, precisely according to the plan 'which had been 
originated, cither by Lord Melville or Lord Durham ; and this was the 
tirst time that he had ever lieard any thing of tt:eir scarcity. The 
honourable member also entered into an . explanation respecting the 
difficulty of sending men to the hospital. While officers, he observed, could 
send men to the hospital on the mere certificate of their own surgeon, 
they, naturally anxious for a good crew, were too apt to make use of their 
influence with the surgeon, to send any man to the hospital whom thcy 
did not happen to like. Tlie allusion to the residence of the commander 
in chief in London, could derive no influence but from delusion. The 
Channel fleet was in different divisions, and the fact was, that for the 
purpose of communicating with each, the noble lord had better be ashore 
than at sea. Indeed, unless he took the station of junior admiral, he 
could not consistently join any of the divisions. 

The Chuncellor of the Ejeeflfqntr, Mr. Windham, Mr. Sheridan, and 
others, opposed the motion or Lord Cochrane; considering that, if the 
alleged grievances had existed, an application ought, in the iirst instance, 
to have been made to the Admiralty. 

Lord Cochrane disclaimed any motives whatever on this occasion, except 
a regard to the good of the service. One of the gentlemen w-irj had spoken 
in reply to him, belonged to the Admiralty in the late administration; :uid 
the services of that gentleman were better known ashore than afloat. 

The motion was at length negatived without a division. 
WEDNESDAY, JULY 15. 

A fresh bill was brought in for transferring the settlement of Sierra 
Leone to the crown. 

MONDAY, *20. 

Mr. Rose brought up a bill for permitting the importation of naval stores 
in the ships of any powers in amitv with his Majesty, and navigated to 
any way whatever, which was read a lirst timo. 

Sir C. M. Pole presented a petition from Robert Eyre, Esq. praying t 
bo allowed certain prize-money, to which he was entitled, as commander 
fcf his Majesty's ship Nymph. Ordered to lie on the table. 

* Tt is deserving of notic?, that, on the very morning: after tlir.^e 
Observations were delivered, a letter was received in town, from Plymouth, 
stun n:, " thsit the so; : ;1iii2 out beef half lioi!~<! to the fleet ^h'cn 2//>, 
and live bullocKt are to be Sent out for the use of the seamen, as u-nl, 
wh'ich. will be a co/w/VrraWe .taring to government, and much letter far 
the health o/' I At //<et." EDIIOII. 



70 KAYAi inSToaT or THE FRESZNT \An, 1807. 



Ureters: en 

Copied verbatim from the LOJTDOX GAZETTE. 

[Continued from page 518.! 
ADMIRALTY OFFICE, JULY 4, 1807. 

Ca/y f>,f 'Letter from Rear-Admiral Sir Edward Pellew, Bart. Commander 
in. Chief nf his Majesty's Ships and VSatett in the East Indies, to William 
Mar&dcrty Esq. dated on board his Majesty's Skip Cultoden, Batavia 
Roads, November 28, 180. 

SIR, 

7TT1HEIR lordships hare been already apprized of my intention of prcceed- 
-1*- ing to this quarter in search of the French squadron, which I had been 
led to believe would have ere this appeared in the Asiatic seas. 

I was joined off the island of Eugeino, on the 23d instant, by his Maj-s- 
tv's ship Sir Francis Drake, and proceeding through the straits of Suiida 
with the ships named in the margin, * on the 2(5th, captured off Bantain the 
Dutch Company's armed brig Maria VVilhclmina. 

On the following morning we arrived otf Batavia. the Terpsichore Leading 
the fleet through the very intricate navigation in a most judicious manner, 
preceded by the Sea Flower. 

I directed the frigates and brig to enter the roads between the island 
of Onrust and Java, the line of battle ships taking a more circuitous 
passage. 

On discovering us as we approached, the Dutch national frigate Phienix. 
Avanturier and Zee Ploeg brigs, two of their company's armed ships, ana 
two armed brigs, immediately run on shore, followed by the merchantmen ; 
the William corvette having previously struck to the Terpsichore ou 
passing Onrust. 

The shoal wafer prevented our anchoring sufficiently near to fire with 
effect on the batteries, or the ships on shore. 

The boats of the squadron accordingly assembled alongside the Terpsi- 
chore, which, with the Sir Francis Drake, had been placed as near as pos- 
sible to cover them, and were led in to destroy the enemy's ships by Captain 
J'leetwood Pellew, under a heavy fire from the ships and the butteries. On 
approaching the Phreni.x, the crew abandoned her, and on boarding she was 
found scuttled. The cuns were immediately turned on the other ships, 
while the boats were destroying the remainder, when she was also set on fire 
and burnt, with the whole of the enemy's armed force, ad nearly twenty 
lucrchautmeu. 

The gallant conduct of Captain Fleetwood Pellew, Lieutenant William 
I'itzwilliam Owen, commander of the Sea Flower, at>d Lieutenant Thomas 
Groulc, first of the Cullodcn, the ofiicers, stamen, and marines employed 
under their command in (his important duty, is deserving of every pr.ii-e. 
The service was directed with great coolness and judgment, and executed 
in the most steady, zealous, and active manner. Though exposed to the 
continued fire of the enemy, happily with little effect, the only loss sustained 
being one marine killed, one marine and three seamen wounded. 

The enemy's two remaining line of battle ships had unfortunately quitted 
tliis anchorage, or must inevitably have shared a similar fate. The Dutcli 
admiral was left at 13atavia. 

* Culloden, Powerful, Russcl, Btlliqueux, Sir Frauds Dr;ike> Terpsi- 
chore, :ind Sea Flower. 



N.AVAI. HISTORY OF THE PRESESTT YKAB, 1807. 71 

I have landed the prisoners upon parole, under an assurance from the 
governor that they shall not serve again until regularly exchanged. 

The necessary destruction of the William corvette has deprived me of an 
opportunity of rewarding the services of Lieutenant Owen on this occasion; 
I therefore beg leave- to recommend him and Lieutenant Thomas Groule, 
1irst of his Majesty's ship Culloden (who were appointed to lead divisions oa 
this service) to their lordships' protection. 

I enclose herewith a list of the enemy's ships destroyed and taken, and a 
return of killed and wounded ; and have the honour to be, ccc. 

* E. PELLEW. 

Skips destroyed and taken in Baiaria Roads. 
Burnt. 

National frigate Phoenix, Captain Vander Sande, of 36 guns and 260 
men, laden with naval stores for the ships at Crissey. 

National brig Avanturier, Captain E. Coudere, of J3 guns and 90 men. 
National brig Zee Ploep, Captain L. Febre, of 14 guns and 50 men. 
Company's armed ship Patriot, of 18 guns and 90 men. 
Company's armed ship Arnistein, of 10 guns and 50 men. 
Company's armed brig Johanna Suzimna, of 8 guns and 24 men. 
Company's armed brig Snelheid, of o' gun* and 24 men. 

Taken. 

National corvette William, Captain Fereris, of 14 guns and 98 men. 
National brig Maria Wilhelmina, of 14 guns and 50 men. 
About twenty merchant ships destroyed, and two taken. 

E. PELLEW. 

His Majesty's Ship Culloden, Bntavia Roads, 
November, 1800. 



N.B. The William corvette was afterwards destroyed, as unfit for his 
Majesty's service. 

A Return of Killed and Wounded in the Boats of his Majesty's Ship Cul- 
loden, in destroying the Enemy's Force at Batuvia, on the 27th Day of 
November*, 1806. 

William Richards, marine, killed ; John Field, senmnn, wounded ; Chris- 
topher Moss, seaman, ditto; Thomas Brian, seaman, ditto; Robert Milts, 
marine, ditto. 

His Majesty's Ship Culloden, Batavia Roads, E. PELLEW. 

2Qth November, :&06. 

JCLY 18. 

Extract of a Letter from Vice-Admiral Lord CollingKood, Commander- in 
Chief of his Majesty's Ships and Vessels in the Mediterranean, to Wil- 
liam Marsden, Esq. dated on board the Ocean, off Cadiz, '24th May, 
1807. 

SIR, 

I enclose the copy of a letter from Captain Raitt, Commander of his 
Majesty's sloop the Scout, giving mi account of the boats of that sloop and 
the Morgana having boarded and captured, after a smart resistance, one of 
the enemy's gun-vessels in the straits on the 2Ist instant. 

I cannot sufficiently praise the activity of tlie commanders of the three 
brigs (the Scout, Morgiana, and Redwing) which have been employed in. 
scouring the Gut of the enemy; within this fortnight past they have taken 
nad destroyed eighteen of the enemy's vessels, araou^ which ave two 
of the gun-vessels. 



72 NAVAL HISTORY OF THE PRESENT YEAR, 1807. 

His Majesty's Sloop Scout, at Sea f 
MY LORD, I'ld Mai/, 1807. 

Yesterday evening perceiving tome vessels coming round Cape Trafalgar, 
with an intention, as I supposed, to pass under c< Vfer of the night, I deter- 
mined on sending the boats in sliore, to endeavour to cut them oil'; I there- 
fore ordered the Morgiana, which joined me a little before, to send her 
Ttioats, in conjunction with the cutter and jolly-boat of the Scout. 

The boat-i being manned with volunteers from the brigs, the two boats of 
the Blorgiaiut under the direction of Lieutenant Sutherland, and those of 
the Scout under the direction of Lieutenant Batterbby, with orders to keep 
together as much as pos:-ibie forjnutual support. I have the pleasure to 
acquaint your iordbhip, that about ten o'clock they came op with and car- 
ried, under a heavy lire, the San Francisco Settaro, alias la Determinada, 
Spanish privateer, carrying one Ions eisjhteen-poundcr in the bow, two 
carriage gans, with swivels and small arms, manned with twenty-nine men, 
from Cadiz that day, bound to Algeziras; she is a large vessel, about three 
months old, aiul in my opinion well calculated for die pin-boat services 
at Gibraltar. 

I have to lament, in performing this service, the loss of one man killed, 
and one slightly wounded, belonging to the Scout; although tiie loss is great, 
yet when I consider the great advantage the enemy had over the boats, 
from the very clearness of the night, it appears small. 

The conduct of Lieutenant:; Sutherland and B;ittersby, the inferior officers 
and seamen, deserves my warmest thanks for their steady and determined 
bravery. To- pass encomiums on particular individuals would be doing 
injustice to the whole. 

I have the honour to be, &c. 
To the Eight Him. Lord ColKugwood. WM. RAITT. 

James Mackforii, captain fore-top, killed ; William Forth, ab-. wounded. 



Courts partial. 

Minutes tak?n at a Court Martial assembled on board his Majesty's 
Ship Gladiator^ in Portsmouth Harbour, on Thursday and Fri- 
day the IQth und\7th of April , 1807. 
(Nowjirsl published.) 
Members of the Court. 
Admiral MONTAGUE, President. 

Rear-Admiral Sir Isaac Coffin, Bart. Capt. James Brisbn ne 
Cnpuin John Lawford Henry Edward Ueginald Baker 

Samuel Hood Linzie Philip Sommerville 

Thomas Graves Christ. John Williams Nesham 

John Trwin G^ E. B. Bettesworth 

Hon. Courtenay Boyle Daniel M'Leod. 

THE Court opened about half past nine o'clock, and Henry Whitbm 
Esq. late captain of his Majesty's ship Lcander, was brought in, and 
audience admitted; when the following order for the Court Martial was 
read. 

By the Commissioners for e.rcmtinf! the office of Lord High 
Admiral of the untied kingdom of Great Britain and I/ c- 
land, 4' c - 

Whereas John Poo Beresford. Esq. cnptain of his Majesty's ship Cam- 
brian, and commanding ollicer of his Majesty's ships and Wibclb at Halifax" 



NAVAL HISTORY OF THE PRESENT YKAtt, 1807. 73 

in Nova Scotia, hath transmitted to us a letter, dated the 6th of" May last, 
which he had received from Captain Henry Whitby,, commander of his 
JYhij csty's ship Leundec (which ship had been sent by Captain Cerest'ord oil" 
New York for information), representing, that on the 2.jth of the month 
preceding, several vessels uerc coming down for the light-home near New 
York, and as they obstinately persisted in not attending to the first shot 
fired by said ship Loander, and endeavoured to haul from her uher, closi'lv 
pursued, several of the said vessels were boarded, and among the number 
that did not bring to, or was not examined, was a coasting sloop, on board 
which, it appears by various papers and letters transmitted to us by the 
said Captain Beresford, an American seaman was unfortunately killed by a 
shot, fired from his Majesty's ship L- ander, or from some other of his 
Majesty's ships, whose commanders were then acting under the orders of 
Captain Whitby. 

And whereas we think fit, that an inquiry should be made by a court 
Martial, into the conduct of the said Captain YViiitby on the occasion above- 
mentioned. We send you here\vii:h his said letter to Captain Bcrest'ord, with 
copies of the correspondence between the si-id Captain Whitby and his 
Majesty's consul general at New York, together wil i two several opinions 
of his Majesty's law ollicers upon the case in question ; ai do i.eieby re- 
quire and direct you to assemble a court martial as soon as conveniently 
may be, which court (you being president thereof) is hereby required and 
directed to inquire into the conduct of the said Captain Whit by in having 
violated the neutrality of a state in amity with his Majeety, by Inning, on 
rtie 25th day of April lust past, within the waters and jurisdiction of the 
United States of America (the said states then being iu amity with ins Ma- 
jesty), unlawfully, wilfully, and of malice aforethought, caused a shot to 
be fiied from his Majesty's ship Leander into a ship or vessel, then being 
and bailing within the waters and jurisdiction of the said United States, 
whereby one John Pierce, a citizen of the said United .'n :!',<, then bci,i<r 
in and on board the said last-mentioned ship or vessel, was ti:er. and there 
feloniously killed and murdered; and to try him the said Captain Henry 
Whitby for sucli violation of the neutrality of the said United biutes, and 
for the wilful murder of the ?aid John Tierce. 

(Signed; JAMES GAM BIER, 

MCllAUf) BICKJ'HTOX, 
II. WARD. 
TV Gcorpr Monfacttf, Esq. Admiral nf 

tin: }[tn!i-, a, 'Hi Cotaaiandtr in Ch'nf 

(>f hit ALij-.sft/x stilus a. id ;xwi/i at 

Portsmouth and Spi lu'ad. 

By command of thc'r lordships. 
(Signed) WM. 



The court being then duly sworn, various letters accompanying; the order 
were read ; and evidence was brought forward on the p.irt of the prose- 
cution. 

. EVIDENCE; 

The following letter \vas read, and admitted by Captain Whitby to have 
been signed by him. 

(COPY.) No. 1. 

His Majesl$'t ship Leander, oft' New York, 

srn, April 3Qth, l^c'J. 

Having arrived off this port (and accidentally joined by the Cambrian) to 

collect any information that might have been bnni-ht by the Hriiish packet, 

a/id such supplier and refreshments that h-tve hithcrfo been niforded to !ii> 

IVIaje^ty's ships, I am much surprised, that the officer* sent 01; that ier- 

J!2al}. erijron. QoUXVIlI. t 



74 NAVAL ui.srouY or IHE PRESENT YEAR, 1807. 

vice should hnv^been so unlawfully kept, particularly from the reasons that 
I have by accident obtained. You, sir, mast be well aware, that the death 
of that unfortunate seaman co;i!d not be attributed to them, or to any other 
cause but accident. Wishing to collect such information from the 0x1*11115 
vessels they might be possessed of, I feit it my duty to board every thing, 
without any idea of blockading tins pore, or distressing, or annoying the 
trade of the country. 

I trust, Sir, on the recr-ipt of this you will immediately muse the respect! va 
officers to be restored, fueling confident it is not the wish of either nation 
to be ;,:;!-!i;ed into an unnecessary war. I hope the accounts I have received 
of tiV iiiei chants having sent armed vessels to bring b:ick the ship and 
schooner detained by his Majesty's ships is unfounded, as you must be well. 
assured, should they be taken, it will be considered as an act of piracy. 
The officer having this truce has my directions to return in twenty-Four 
hours with your determination, in which I trust my just demand will ber 
complied with, otherwise I shall be compelled to take tlnse steps, however 
unpleasant, to support that dignity which has ever been andemed to the 
British flag. 

I have the honour to be, 

Srr, 
Your most obedient servant, 

HKNRY WHITBY. 
Captain of his Britannic Maj<- 
Ti) the cliiff Nagis'.ralK of Neio York. ship Leauder. 

Jesso Pierce, master of im American coasting sloop, was then called in 
and sworn, 

President.- Relate to the court every thing you know. A. Yes, sir. 
I am master of the llichard, a coasting sloop. I was coming into Sandy 
Hook, near N ew York, from the southward, and about five miles to the 
southward of die high lands I first saw three shij.-s stretching in from sea; 
there were a number of vessels in company with me : the Cambrian came in 
a head of the' other two: as sle got in just at the back of the middle ground 
(as nigh, I judge, as s'ic- dared J she iired and brought serial vessels to, 
and then stood oif shore v> ith her head to the eastward, still filing : the Lc- 
under was then coming in ; she stretched ni;_JuT in rather than the Cam- 
brian -'as nigh, I judge, as -,,re dared), iirinu al! the w;-,v at s-cveral vessels; 
as she came opposite to mo there was the brig Saily, Captain Pratt, about 
iiOO yards, a* nigh as [ can guess, a-stern of me, rut her in shore. The 
Leandcr lirad a sliot, and it went still a-head of me, fifty y,\, [-, a-> nigh iv; L 
could guess. Tlte brig being a-stcrn ;<i' me, and tiiu sho'.; tailing a-head, it 
caused mi- to think s!se was firing at me, I immediately clapt the helm down 
and brougiit to. The L f ^v\:\vr, I bc!ii-ve, was in Staj'3 al that time, as nc 
got about stern on, wo had not rounded fairly too; we had not got the 
main-sheet oft : s'ie h'.-cd u shot ; it s:ruck ihc corm:r of th" ti!::Vvl-r:ii!, tht 
knee of I hi- tatirel-rail and qMarter mil together: my brotlier, .lolmi'. 
NV.-IS standing at the helm, and the knee killed my brother tlr.it ivas knocked- 1 
out: the s!i<iC t.t:uok the quarter-deck, and that rebounded the ball, and it 
went tin- !jh.thv.- binnacle a;;d knocked away the companion, and went 
through the mamail, f then stayed the shop and stood ijift.nvtrds the ship 
Lvumlcr ; seeing that no bo.ct w:i o.nni ;g from tht- ship, ;i:id s!ic was 
it ui iing oil ; and l-icji J bore to the ca-Lward. I got to .\e\v York bctwcc* 
cight and nnu- uVioc'k, and iiil'ormcd tiie consul. 



Eramined // the C- ' 

Q. At wliat time of the day did this 'mippr-n? A. About five o'clock in 
the aftchtorfli : I d;d not know tfie time ev.ict. 
Q. Dit! you iirst bri:ig to with your head oa shore or off. 'A. f )n shore. 



.NAVAL I1ISTCKY OF THE PUFStXT Yi:AR, 1807. 75 

Q. Was you then without or within the middle ground? A. We were 
within the middle ground, about u quarter of a mile iVoin die beach, :u 
.near as I could guess. 

Q. What water docs your sloop draw? A. She draws seven !"<_ ;!. 

Q. Were there any vessels between von and the Leandcr? A, Not any 
directly between in. 

Q. What distance do you suppose theLeandrr was frons the shore at that 
time? A. About a mile and a Lair', as i:ih as 1 could guess. 

Q. Was she without lite middle ground? A. She was. She was so fur 
to the southward that she was beyond the wide part ot' tiie middle ground. 

Q. Is there water enough for her to go over the middle ground " A. I 
don't know what water there is. I am not very well acquainted wit!) what 
. water there is on the middle ground. I believe there is not enough for her 
to cross. 

Q. You swear., that the shot which struck the quarter of your sloop \va# 
fired from the Leander ? A. Yes. 

Q. Was she in stays at that time r A. Yes, I believe so ; to the best of 
my knowledge she was. 

Q. What lii^iancf was the sloop from the Leander at th r ,' tinje the shot 
was fired? A. A mile and a quarter, I beiieve. 

Q. How was the wind? A. About a. S. E. but hauled more to the 
southward. 

Cross-examined by Captain WHITBY. 

Q. Do you know Captain Vv'hitby r A. Xo, I did not at that time. 

Q. Did you know at that time who commanded the Leander? A. Xo, 
Dot at the time my brother was killed. 

Q. Do you !:now the Leander? A. I did not know the Leander at the 
time. She was the largest of the three. She was a two decked ship, a> 
nigh as I could see. 

Q. Did you hear any order given to fire at your vessel ? -A. "No. 

Q. Do VOL: know if Captain \YhitLy was on board the Leamk-r ? A. Xo, 
I did not at that time. 

Q. Might not :-,o:ne other person on board but himself have caused the 
shot to be fired ? A. To be sure. 

Q. After the Lrandcr parsed the Cambrian, and previous to her tacking, 
did she fire? A. Yes, 1 believe she did, to the best of my knowledge. 

Q. flow do you know that the Leaydcr was within a mile and a half of 
the shore ? A. I cannot be positive, it is only to the bc.-t of my knowledge. 

Q. What distance is the middle ground from the shore ? A. I don't know. 

Q. What arc the sounding within a mile and a half of the shore ? A. 
I don't know to be sure. 

Q. Do V'.ILI swear, that the T.eandcr must have seen votir sloop at the 
time she fired ? A. I don't know what ua- to hinder her. 

Q. Did you bring to on the first shot that was fired ? A. The first shot 
that came any ways near me; the first shot I thought (iron at me. 

Q. What description of other vessels Were in sight? A. I don't know 
the names of any more than the. brig Sally. 

Q. Might not the firing have born nt those: vessels? A. I do not thin'; it 
C0uld, they were too far a-iicid of mo. 

Q. Do you positively swear them were not two brigslying-to between you 
and the Letiuder? A. Xot directly. I was in such confusion that 1 did 
jiot notice the vessels, except what was very nigh me. 

Q. Alight they not have been there, and you not see them? A. Very 
likely, I did not notice ilieni. < 

Q. Do you swear that I caused the shot to bo fired that killed John 
JE'iorce ? A. Xo. 

ty, What \vas the size of the shot that struck yon: A, I am no iudge, 



7(5 NAVAI, HISTORY OF THE PRESENT YEAR, 1807. 

People that looked at the mark on the quarter-deck supposed it to be about 
a twehc pound sliof. 

Q. Where were you when ymir brother was killed? A. Standing haul- 
ing :ift the main sheet within about six feet of him. t 

Q. Did you sec him fall ? A. I was not looking at him the moment he 
fell ; but I saw him instantly afterwards. 

Q. How was he strucj:? A. Under the jaw. 

Q. Did he move after he was struck by the splinter? A. I never dis- 
cerned the least motion. 

Q. Was the shot that struck your sloop fired from the I.eander ? A. Yes, 
it was from the Leander, as I am informed. I did not know the ship ; it 
was the largest of the three. 

Cross-eramlried by the Court. 

Q. Were the other ships firing at the time the shot was fired from the 
Leander? A. No; I cannot say. 

Q. If they hud been firing at the same time, is it not possible a shot from 
one of those vessels might have struck vour sloop ?- A. No, there was nei- 
ther of them nigh enough ; neither within gun snot. 

Caleb Bnmster, captain of the American revenue cutter Vigilant, was 
called in and S'vorn. 

Court. You huve heard the charges read : relate all you know of the 
transaction. 

On the 25th April, 1306, I got under weigh in Ratigan Bay, and went 
out past the lights at the Hook. As soon as I got out I discovered three 
jnen of war; about half past ten they bore about S. Jl betwixt one, two, 
and three leagues distance ; it soon fell calm ; I drifted out with the tide 
it ebb about a league. Betwixt one and two o'clock the wind sprung up 
fo the southward; I discovered a number of sail of vessels to the south- 
ward of me, along the Jersey shore, standing in for Sand^ Hook; as soou 
' as the breeze came in I saw these three ships stand in for the land by the 
wind, the Cambrian, the Le-mder, and Driver. I knew the ships, I 
have been all round them fifty times. The Cambrian was the headmost 
ship ; she stood in for the land, and began to fire at the headmost vessels 
that were coming from the southward, arid brought them to. I suppose 
the Cambrian to be about a mile and a half from the shore : when she hove 
about she lay with her head to the eastward. Jii about ten or fifteca 
minutes the Leander came up right a-stern of her, went past her, and began 
to fire at the brig Sally, Captain Pratt, U*it was in shore of him, and dip 
sloop Richard, Jesse Pierce, master. She went in about the same distance 
:is the Cambrian did, and fired, a number of shot before she went about ; 
and as she went about she fired a number of shot at those two vessels. I 
saw a number of them strike in the water neur those two vessels, as they 
wore but a little distance apart: one of them struck in the surf, and went 
over them ; the next struck on the beach*, [ judsze, about ten roods, and 
made the sand fly ten feet high. The sloop Richard, ( 'apt. Pierce, rounded to ; 
the brig Sally kept on : when she came 'up with me I ordered her to bring to. 
The Driver came in a-stern of the others, I judge within half a mile of the shore),, 
and fired several shot : I don't know what she fired at : she then hove about 
and stood to the southward and eastward, i" the same direction the othef 
two ships hud done. The sloop hail lain to a little while, and no boat ap- 
peared to board. The sloop camea-ii< -ad of me : I saw a hole in her main- 
sail ; and she went to New York. I jud^e the sloop Richard was within a 
quarter bf a mile of the bead). 

Efenined hi/ the Court. 

Q. You know thnt a shot from the Lennder struck the sloop Richard ?-- 
A. No, I did not see tlic shut -strike ; the Lcamicr wai the only ship firing 
& tht time. 



NAVAL HISTORY OF THE PRESENT YEAR, 1^07. 77 

Q. What do you mean by the time ? A. The time when they were 
firing. 

Q. Do you know at what period John Pierce was killed ? A. I don't 
know at what time. N.:; other ship fired at thobe two vessels (brig S.illy 
and sloop llichard) but the Leander. 

Q. Was the LeandtT without the middle ground at the time of die firing? 
A. I don't know. 1 am not acquainted enough with the middle ground 
to know. 

Q. How long have you commanded the cutter you have? A, I have 
commanded her since September 1301. 

Q. Have you ever sounded on it? A. I don't kr/v.v I ever did. 

Q. Do you take a pilot, or do you stand charge of the pilotage of the 
vessel you command ? A. I am my own pilot. 

Q. Is there water enough on the shoal for you to go over ? A. Yes, at 
tiny time. 

Q. At the time the Leander was in stay?, how were you able to ascertain 
the distance she was from the shore? A. I judge my situation was such as 
to enable me to judge. 

Q. What distance then do you consider her to have been from the shore 
at that moment ? A. Within a mile and a halt'. 

Q. Were there any of the trade standing in for the port of. New York 
without the middle ground? A. Yes, they were all without,, as they had 
brought- to to the Cambrian, except those two vessels. 

Q. Do you know the distance of the jurisdiction of the States from the 
shore ? A. Three miles, I believe. 

Q. What means have you of attaining that knowledge ? A. I under- 
stood that was the treaty as made by Mr. Jay. 

Q. Did you ever read that treaty? A.' Yes, I have read thorn all. 

Q. Do you recollect whether it was ascertained by die treaty? A. I 
cannot, I speak but to the best ot mv recollection. 

Q. You had no means of knowing but by the treaty? A. Yes, it is the 
received opinion, and i have ever considered it so. 

Cross-c.i-(tmined lj Captain WHITBY. 

Q. Do you know Captain Whitby ? A. I never saw the gentleman to 
tny knowledge. 

Q. Was Captain Whitby on board the Leander at that time ? A. I am 
not able to say. 

Q. How do you know the Leander? A. T have seen her in the port of 
New York a number of times, lying in Ratigan Bay : 1 have been all round 
iier fifty times. 

Q. Where were you when the firing took place ? A. I was to the north- 
ward of them, 1 should suppose about two miles, when they began to fire. 

Q. Did the Leander fire after she passed the Cambrian, previous to her 
tacking? A. A number of shot. 

Q. Do you mean positively to swear, that the shot fired from the Lean- 
der was directed at' the sloop in which John Pierce was killed ? A. I can- 
not positively s:iy ; but at the time the shots were fired I saw one go a-hca<3, 
another a-stcrn, and one over her. 

'}. Were there any vi^els between the Lenndcr ar.d sloop Richard? 
A. None but the two [ mentioned, the brig Sully and sloop Richard. J At> 
nut recollect any other ; if there were they were very small ones. 

Q.. What, di-tancc was the sloop from the Leander when she taclced? 
A. About two miles. 

Q. ilad two brijrs been lying to between tbo Leander and sloop, could 
you have seen them r A. Yes, I could have seen any brig whatever. The 
pilot boat w;i-, to the southward of me, betwixt the bug Sail/ and sloop 
K if hard. 

Q. Did the merchant vessel? bring to on the fy-st shot being fired ? A- 



~& N'AVAL HIvroRV OF THE PUtsEXT YEAR, ISO". 

No, t!;ey did not. The Cambrian began firing before they were within two 
mile.-, but they brought to : as soon as thi. j y came within shot they all 
brought to. 

Q. At what distance were the merchant vessels from land at the time the 
firing bejan ? A. When the tiring lint began it was by the Cambrian, they 
were about three miles from the shore. 

Q. In what manner did they bring to ? A. They rounded to with their 
I p-.s;;i!s to the mast. 

Q. Which way was their head*? A. To the southward and eastward. 

Q. Did no vessel bring to with their heads in shore r A. I ani not po- 
sitive, they may. 

Q. Might not the fire have been directed from the Leaader at those 
vessels which had brought to with their heads in short' ; but at too great a 
distance to allow boats to goon board: A. The Leander only fired at 
those I h.ive mentioned, except some that hud been brought to by the Cam- 
brian ; there was a firing there. 

Q. Do you mean positively to state, that the Leander fired nt no vessels 
except the brig Sally and sloop Richard r A. Not after she passed the 
Cambrian ; she miuht, but I discovered none. 

Q. At two miles distance do you mean positively to assert lirr fire was 
directed at her ? A. No : I have said before I saw the shot strike u-head. 
a-stern, one to the southward, one went over to the surf, and one struck 
on the beach. 

Q. What distance is the outside of the middle ground from the shore ? 
A. I have already said I do not know. 

Q. You have stated the Leander to be within a mile and a half of t'ue 
shore; from what you know of the middle ground, must not that have 
brought her up if she was within that distance r A. I am not able to say. 

Q. Ace there soundings a mile and a half from the shore r A. Yes, 
three leagues. 

Q. Can merchant vessels of large draught of water go over the middle 
ground, wl;r-n deeply laden ? A. At high water. 

Q. In what stritt- was the tide when the Lcander v,-a? there, at ihe time 
the firing continued 'r A. I suppose about nearly halt' tide; when she \\cni 
about, about two hours tide. 

Q. What time of day was it? A. I judge it was three o'clock. 

Q. Do you know the leading marks for \osrU cominc; in for the Hook 
iVum sear A. They are in the chart : I dotvt recollect tiiem at present. 

Q. You have stated to the court, you have considered the neutrality 
three mik-s from shore, do you know that I was furnished with such in- 
structions ? A. I don't know. 

Q. How long since is it the treaty was made, or was it in existence at 
the tirikc the Leaiuier was there ? A. I judge it was. 

Q. Do you know of any new treaty at that time being made between 
ihe countries? -A. I do not know ; it was said that Mr. Munro was nc-iw- 
tiatiug in this country ; but what was done I don't know : it was the opinion 
at that time. 

By I fie f <;.'/>'. 

Q. What colours do yon wear when yoii go on <liUy ? A. We wear six- 
teen stripes vertical, with aw eagle in the centre, being government revenue 
colour?, with sixteen r-tar. 

Q. Was your cuttrr tired at by tbe Lcander at the time she fired at tht 
sloop and brig, or at any tune that day r A. No. 

x Crass-examined by the Court. 

Q. Had the sloop and brig any colours tip at the. time ? A. The bii_ 
American colours. 

Q. Had the Leander? A. Yo., British colours. 
Q. What tonnage is the putter vJu cuum.uud ? A. Sr>ty tons. 



NAVAL HISTORY OF THE PP.E.SENT YEAR, 1S07. 7S 

Q. What guns, and what men? A. Tour three-pounders, eleven men, 
two swivels, and small arms. 

Q. What build ? A. New York. 

Jonathan Lewis Bruster, accountant of the customs at New Yorl: (and 
on board the cutter Vigikintj, was culled m and sworn. Deposed as fol- 
lows : 

I was on board the revenue cutter Vigilant on the 25th of April, 1806: 
without the Hook we saw three ships of war to the sou til ward and eastward, 
standing in t'orSandv Hook, in order to cat o!Y several vessels coining a loin: 
the Jersey shore. The Cambrian, being a head, began to iire "t several 
vessels Coming iirto the Hook, standing in within a mile and a half of the 
Hook, and hove to and sent her bout on board of two vesiclp that had hove to. 
The Leander then came up, passing the Cambrian, and firing at a sloop and 
brig close by the shore, within half a mile of the Hook; she run past the 
Cambrian, and also hove to, constantly tiring at the ^loop Richard and brig 
Sally. The brig did not heave to; the sloop did heave to : we were in t'u: 
cutter, about half a mile from the sloop. I saw several shot -trike on lU; 
edge of the surf : she was still firing. The Driver next came in, and ran 
within half a mile of the shore, firing at several vessels, bringing th*na to, 
and sending them down to the Leander and Cambrian ; they were still 
lying-to to leeward. They were boarded by 0:1.- or other of the boats of 
those ships. The Driver then hove about with her head to the southward 
and eastward. 

Q. Did you see any shot from the Leander strike the sloop ? A. No, I 
did not. 

Q. At the time the firing took place had you your colours up in the re- 
venue cutter? A. Yes, we had those we wear daily, the pendant, but no-,' 
the ensign. 

Q. Have you been brought up to the sea ? A. No. 

Q. Do you know the distance of the jurisdiction of the States from thr, 
shore ? A. ,Yes, three miics. 

Q. From whence do you receive that information? A. From the hiv 
of the United States. 

Q. You have read it? A. I have. 

Q. At what time of the day ilid the firing take place? A. Betwccr 
three and four o'clock. 

Q. How long did it last ? A. Tt lasted till chirk. 

Q. Did you see the Driver lire at iheMOop Ricluird ? A. No, I did not ; 
it was at other vessels : she ran farther in than the othf-r r\vo. 

Q. Had the brig and sloop their colours up? A. I don't, recollect. 

Cross-examined bij Captain WHITBY. 
Q. Do you know Captain Whifby ? A. No. 

Q. Do you know who commanded the Leander on the 25th of April 
!a=t : A. 1 do not. 

( x >. How do you know that the Leander was off New York : A. I on' 1 -. 
Inov.- h from report. 

Q. Did the ship you suppose to be the Leander fire aficr pas-sing the 
.iujan, previous to her tacking J A. Yes. 

Q. llow far from the Leander was your vessel at that time ? A. Two 
miics. 

Q. Were there any vessels lying to between the sloop Richard ami the 
Leander? A. No, there were not. 

Q. Were the vessels fired at inside the Hook ? A. No. 

Q. Do you know the middle ground ; A. J know there is a shoal ca!Ie;l 
the middle ground; but don't know tlie situation : from a mile anil half to 
twb niilvs aiul half from the shore, accordlni: to the be-.t of IT ivo, Lection. 



NAVAL HISTORY OF THE PRESENT YEAR, 



1807. 



Q. You have stated the Leander to be a mile and half from the Hook } 
coul<l she he in that situation without being on the middle ground? A. I 
don't know but she might have come on the middle ground. 

Q. What was the state of the tide ? A. According to the best of my 
recollection the tide was falling. 

Robert Mitchell, a branch pilot of New York, was called in and sworn; 
deposed as follows: 

On the Sotli of April last I was in the pilot boat Thorn, and drifted out 
of the Hook between ten and eleven o'clock in the morning. After we got 
wutside we saw two ships in the oiling, about south-east, and afterwards a 
third. About twelve or one o'clock the wind sprung up from the southward : 
the three ships made sail and stood in shore. About one or two o'clock the 
frigate Cambrian brought to a brigand schooner, bound to New York. 
The Le.uidi;r at this time was a little a-s>tern of her. After they had brought 
to the brig and schooner they both stood in shore, to cut off, as we supposed, 
the brig and sloop in shore ; the Cambrian on the weather bow of the Le- 
ander a. short distance. After they had boarded the brig and schooner tliey 
kept firing at vessels in shore to bring them to, as we supposc-ih The Cam- 
brian hove about iirst, the Leandtr reached under her lee, and tacked rather 
in shore df tier wake, from the look of it, as well as we could see. The 
sloop was all this time lying to with her head to the southward and west- 
ward in sLore; and the brig Sally, Tratt, was running down shore, nearly 
in the surf, before the wind ; then the two ships hove about with their 
heads oft". The Driver was to windward, between two and three miles, and 
made several vessels go down to the other ships to leeward. As the Lenn- 
der went about I saw her fire two guns just in the act of staying. One shot 
we saw fall ubout forty or (ifty yards, rather in shore, to the noVthwurd of 
the sloop ; but 1 did not see the otiier fall. 

Examined by the Court; 

Q. You did not see any shot from the Lcauder strike the sloop ? A . 
No. 

Q. Where were "you situated with respect to the Leanclcr at that time, 
and at what distance: A. I was about a mile and a half, a mile and three 
quarters, or two miles, not quite so much as two), bearing about S .E. by E. 
We were pretty close in shore, less than half a mile, a litile more than a 
quarter; I was within the middle. 

Q. W;is the Leandcr at the back of the middle? A. Yes, I expect she 
muit have hove about a quarter less four. 

Q. What distance is the outer edge of the middle from the shore ? A* 
About two miles. 

Q. Do you know what water the Lcander draws? A. I expect about 
twenty feet. 

Q. How near could she stand in with safety on the back of the middle? 
A. I think she could stand in to about a mile and a half of the shore ; she 
was undoubtedly upon the middle. 

Q. At that time of tide, how far could she have stood in on the middle, 
before she had taken the ground ? A Not a quarter of a mile further than 
where she hove about. 

Q. You frequently sound on the middle ground ? A. Ye, I have sound- 
ed there often. 

Q. What is the width of the shoal part of the middle that will take up A 
ship drawing twenty feet ? A. To the northward it is wide, half a mile 
wide ; but in the situatiou the Lcander was then iiij better than a quarter 
of a mile. 

Q. Was the revenue vessel in sight of you at the time? A. Yesj about 
half a mile offshore of us. 



NAVAL HISTORY OF THE PRESENT YEAR, 1807. 81 

Q. Were her colours flying ; her pendant up ? A T thinL it was. 

Q. T). you know what distance the jurisdiction of the States reaches 
from the shore? A. No : I believe it is three miles. 

Cross-examined ly Captain WHITBY. 

Q. Do you know Captain Whitby? A. No. 

Q. Do you know who commanded the Leander ? A. No. 

Q. Did the Leauder, after passing the Cambrian, lire previous to her 
tacking ? A. No, she fired in the act of tacking. 

Q. >Vere any vessels lying to between the sloop and Leander ? A. None. 

Q. Had there been any, in ust you have seen them? A. Yes. 

Q. What arc the soundings on the outer edge of the middle ground?* 
A. Coming in from the eastward you have seven and six fathoms water 
bluish clay; then you have hard sand, gradual soundings till you get in 
shoal water. 

Q. What are the general instructions for vessels of burthen coming from 
the southward to avoid going upon the middle ? A,- I have seen many, but 
I generally tell them to keep about two miles from the shore, but I can keep 
nearer. 

Q. At one o'clock, at the time you say the firing took place, how far was 
the Leander from the light house ? A. I cannot tell, she was some distance, 
perhaps about two leagues. 

Q. Were any of the vessels fired at inside the Hook r A. No. 

Q. Couid the I zander be a mile and a half outside: the Hook, and with- 
out the buoys, without being on shore? A. There are no buoys lay closer 
to the Hook outside than between two miles aad a half and three miles. 

Q. How could she be upon the middle ground, within a mile and half of 
the shore, and two leagues from the light-house? A. At the time she first 
began firing she might be two or three leagues I com ihe light-house. 

Q. How long did the firing last? A. Perhaps an hour. 

Q. At the time the Leander is stated to be firing at the sloop, how did 
the light-house bear? A. About \. W. of the Leander, perhaps three 
miles, or three miles and a half from the light-house. 

f Cross-examined by ihe Court. 

Q. If you had charge of a ship drawing from 21 to 2? feet, how far 
should you feel yourself justified in standing in upon the middle ground ? 
A, A quarter less five at the very least. 

Q. fn those soundings what distance would you be from the shore ? A. 
Fr Jin . mile and a haif to two :,;iles aad a half. 

Q. Do you mean to say it was a constant iiriag f:v an hour ? \. No ; y 
no means ; one ship fires, and then another. 

Q. At what time do you say the firing was? A. From two to four o'clock. 

Q. Did yon see any of the Leander's shot strike tlv ^| : <>re ? A. > 

Q, 1C they had struck the shore would not you have seen it ? A. No, I 
was laughing, looking at the sloops. 

Q. Would a 4'2-pouud shot reach ihe shore from the Leander ? A. Yes, 
I expect it would. 

Q. flow long have you been pilot ? -A. About twenty years, man and 
boy. 

Q. During that period, has it been customary for British shins of war to 
cruise so close in with the bar at New York ?--A. tVevxrr oetorc. 

Q. Have you ever known ships being fired at any when 1 ! *. cwcen Sandy 
Hook and fiarnigan.so close to the shore? A. No, never be/ JIT l;"?t spring. 

Q. When you were laughing at the sloops lying to, was it a ; 'ieir ob- 
stinacy in keeping their head from the Leander ? A. No ? we expected they 
were frightened. 

, er&nm. Ort.XVHT. M 



82 NATAL HISTORY OF THE PRESENT YEAR, 1807. 

Examined by Captain WHITS Y. 

Q. Did you pilot the ship John about two years a<io ? A. No. 

Q. Do you recollect any firing about that time at the ship John from the 
Leander? A. I recollect the circumstance, but do not know how close she 
was. 

[To he continued.] 



LAW INTELLIGENCE. 

KING'S BENCH, GUILDHALL, LONDON, JULY 10. 

GIBSOV AND OTIIEKS V. THE HON. CAPTAIN BLACKWOOD. 

THE plaintiffs were the owners of a privateer called the Eliza, of the 
port of Liverpool, and had obtained a protection from the Admiralty 
for 50 men and boys, provided their names and ages should be stated on the 
back of such protection. The defendant was captain of his Mnjesty's 
ship Orion, and sent Lieutenant Methuen to press the hands on board the 
Eliza, when the protection was shewn to him ; but upon examining it he 
thought there were four men on board, whose names and ages not being 
truly specified were not within the protection. He therefore took those men, 
and carried them on board the Orion, and the Eliza was obliged to proceed 
to sea with a complement of 35 men, for which she had a letter of marque, 
short by the number of four men so impressed. She sailed in company 
with another ship, and took several prizes; but in consequence of being 
short four men, she received a considerable sum less, as her share of prize 
money, than she would oflierwise have done. This sum was nearly SOOOl. 
and the owners now brought an action again&t Captain Blaekwood, to 
recover a compensation for the injury done to them. 

The Defendant insisted that the ages of the men were not truly stated; 
and Lieutenant Methuen being called, said, that they weft; all four under- 
rated in point of age, two or three years, and there was some mistake as to 
I heir names. 

Lord Elleiiborough said that it was necessary that the names and ages 
should be fairly set out, so that the lieutenant mi<;ht know whom to con- 
sider as the protected men ; but yet he did not think it necessary to state 
them strictly. It was sufficient if there was no intention to defraud, and if 
the names and ages were such as the men themselves gave in to the owners, 
It would he for the Jury to say, whether Lieutenant JVJethuen could speak 
so positively to their ages as to say that they must be three years okler tha-a 
they were stated. 

Verdict for the Plaintiffs, 2,8831. 10s. 6rf. 



COMMON PLEAS, JUNE 27. 

DONELLY V. SIR HOME POPUAM. 

THE plaintiff was a captain under the command of the defendant, on the 
expedition against Buenos Ayrcs, and brought his action to recover 
upwards of 2,000). prize money, which he had paid to him in error. In the 
distribution of prize money, he had allowed Sir II. Fopham's share as that of 
a flag officer, with the power of appointing a captain under him ; but he 
afterwards found, that Sir House had only the temporary rank of COIHIUO- 



NATAL HISTORY OF THE PRESENT YEAR, 1807. 83 

dore, without the power of appointing his captain; consequently the share 
of prize money was much less than it had been considered. 

The Judge was of opinion, that the plaintiff had established his claim; 
and the Jury accordingly returned a verdict for the plaintiff of 20041. 17s. 
3d. the sum overpaid.* 



^promotions srVD appointments, 

Captain Wintlirop, to command the sea fencibles at Dover; Captain Upton, to 
theSybille; Lord G. Stuart, to 1'Amiable ; Captain C. Bullen, to the Volontaire 
(at Portsmouth) ; Captain Ravenshaw, to the Cherub ; Captain Maxwell, to the 
Royalist; Captain J. Wolley, to the Captain ; Captain Mackay, to the Druid; 
Mr. Ricketts, to be purser of the Theseus ; and Mr. Bushell, to be purser of the 
San Antonio. 

Captain Hancock is appointed to the Theseus, of 74 guns, at Spithead, vice 
Captain G. Hope. She is filling for the Hon. Admiral De Courcy's flag. 

Captain Upton has taken the command of la Sybille ; Captain Shipley, of la 
Nvmphe; and Captain Hey wood, of the Comus, at Portsmouth. 

Captain W. J. Hughes is appointed agent for transports and agent for prisoners 
of war at Jamaica. 

Captain Beresford lias taken the command of the Theseus. 

Admiral Montagu has struck his flag for a few days ; and Sir Isaac Coffin has 
shifted his to the Royal William, as commander in chief. 

Captain Adam Mackenzie is appointed to the Prince of Wales, Admiral Gam- 
bier's flag ship. 

BIRTHS. 

On the 8th 'July, the Countess of Xorthesk, of a son, in the Close, Winchester. 
On the 26th July, the lady of J. Johnson, esq. surgeon in the royal navy, of a 
son and heir, at his house at I'ortsea. 

MAUEIAGES. 

On 15th June, at Kingston church, Mr. Price, surgeon, of the royal navy, to 
Miss Elizabeth Ross, daughter of the late Lieutenant Ross, of the royal navy, and 
sister to Captain Ross, ol'lus Majesty's ship la Pique. 

On 7th July, at Wickham, Hants, the Rev. J. S. Rashlcigh, rector of that parish, 
to Miss Stanhope, daughter of the late Hon. Admiral Stanhope. 

At Greenwich, the Rev. T. Jwncs, rector oi Radnage, Bucks, to Miss Cook 
daughter of the Rev. John Cook, thaplam of Greenwich hospital. 



' * Sir Home Popham, it is understood, claims a share of the prize money arising 
from the capture of Buenos Ay res, as a flag oilicer, on the ground that Lord 
iiarham had promised to make him a commodore, with the power oi" appointing a 
captain under him, and to send the commission after him. This, it seems, was 
neglected to be done ; but Sir Home feels himself intitled to have his commission, 
as commodore, antedated, in support of his claim. Several petitions and memo- 
rials, by officers interested in tiie result, have been presented, both for and 
against the memorial of Sir Home I'ophaiu. 



84 NAVAt HISTORY OF THE FUEsEST YEAR, 1807. 



OBITUARY. 

On the evening of the 27th of February, Captain R. Kent, of the royal marines, 
belonging to his Majesty's ship Cauopus. He fell at the head ot a small detach- 
ment of tlmt corps, in an unsuccessful attack upon a strong hold in possession of the 
Turks, in the island 01 Prota, near Constantinople. He was the second son of 
Sobtr Kent, Esq. late mayor of Cork ; and entered in the marine corps at a very 
early period ot" his life, in which he served with credit for twenty six years. Dur- 
ing the late war he served on board la Pomone, under Sir J. B. Warren, Bart, 
and was with him in theQuiberon expedition. He afterwards was appointed ad- 
jutant of the division of marines; and served in that situation until the conclusion 
of the war. In the present contest he served as captain of marines on ho&id the 
Venerable, of 74 guns, under the command of Captain John Hunter ; and on the 
uight of tht 24th of November, 1804, was shipwrecked in her un 'he rocko HI Tor- 
bay. During that tremendous night he n,ever quitted his commander, but stood 
alongside o! him on the broadside 01 ihe ship, with the sea breaking over them, 
until i he whole of the crew were saved. After quitting the wreck, that part of it 
on whiv-h they stood was soon separated from the remainder, buried m the surf, 
and never more seen. He was tlu-n i rdered to Ireland on the recruiting service ; 
and on his return was embarked on board the Canopus. In landing upon the island 
of Prota, he advanced with his party towards the old monastery, sealed upon an 
eminence, in which it was supposed there were only a few 1 urks ; but in that lie 
was deceived ; for, upon his arrival at the foot oi'rhe hill on which it stood, he 
received a heavy fire from all parts ot the building, through tiie windows, loop- 
holes, &c. Several of" his people fell ; but he rushed up the hill, at the head of 
his brave companions, and set fire to the gate of the monastery. Finding his force 
very inferior to that of the enemy, he directed a signal to be made for assistance. 
A. severe conflict ensued, in which he continued animating his men until he re- 
ceived a hall through his head, winch instantly deprived him of life. 

On 17th May, on hoard his flag ship, the Canopus, at Alexandria, in Egypt, 
Sir Thomas Louis, Bart. K.M.T. and K.S.F. Rear-Admiral of the White. 
After a short, but painful illness, of two da^s, he expired in the presence 
of Captain Shortland and Mr. Nicholson, his Captain and Secretary, in the 
forty-eighth or forty-ninth year of his age. The following particulars of his 
death have been transmitted in a letter from an officer of the Canopus : 
*' On the 16th of May, he was on shore walking, and complained to some of those 
around him of a little pain. On his return on board, he ate his dinner with his 
usual appetite, and went to bed in very good spirits, having felt much relieved 
during the evening, and expected a good night's sleep. Unfortunately he was 
again attacked about four in the morning of the 17th, and immediately medical 
advice, both from the army andnavy.was sent for, his attendants beinc apprehen- 
sive of danger. The physicians and surgeons quitted the Canopus, and went on 
shore about noon, leaving the Admiral, in their opinion, free from ail dangerous 
Symptoms, and without any apprehension of a mortification, taking pla< e. About 
three o'clock, however, a great alteration for the worse was perceived, and the 
faculty were again immediately sent for to repair on board the Cunopus. On 
their arrival at four o'clock, they gave over all hopes of the Admiral's recovery, 
as the mortification in his bowels had already taken place. He remained sensible, 
except a little wandering at times, to the last half hour, and breathed his last at ten 
o'clock that night." At the close of the last year. Sir Thomas Louis had been 
despatched, by Lord Collingwodd, to cruise, with a small squadron, off the 
entrance of the Dardanelles. In the month of February, he accompanied Sir 
J. T. Duckworth through that strait, returned with him, and afterwards proceeded 
to Alexandria; where, as we have just stated, lie terminated his mortal career. 
Thus has his country been left to bewail the loss of one of its ablest officers; his 
wife, that of a tender husband ; his children, an affectionate parent ; all his cou- 
nexions,an endearing relation ; and soiety, one of its brightest ornaments; for, in 
all the relative duties of life, he was by none surpassed. The body of Sir Thomas 
Louis was conveyed to Malta, in his Majesty's sloop of war, the Bittern. Sir 



NAVAL HISTORY OF THE PRESENT TEAR, 1807. 85 

Alexander Ball, 1m friend and associate in service, and Captain S^homberg, there 
saw his remains deposited, with all the honours due to his rank, by the side of the 
gallant Sir Ralph .-ibrrci orabie. 

As sixm as the melancholy intelligence of his death reached Exeter, the place 
of his nativity, the most general distress prevailed ; and, at a meeting ofthe prin- 
cipal inhabitants of that city, a general mourning was resolved on, as a solemn and 
expressive tribute to his respected memory- At Plymouth, where he was much 
and generally beloved, a similar token of affection and regret was displayed ; and 
all serrued eager to sympathise with Lady Louis, in the irreparable loss which she 
had sustained. 

As a proof ot' the exalted estimation in which this friend and companion of the 
immortal Nelson was holden, it should be noticed, that it has been in the contem- 
plauou of the mayor and corporation of Exeter, not only to present his eldest son, 
John, the present Baronet, with the freedom of the city, hut also to present it to 
each of his other sons, as they niay successively come of age. Such a presenta- 
tion would be honourable, as well to the givers as to the receivers. 

We trust, however, that the surviving relatives of Sir Thomas Louis may expe- 
rience, from a grateful country, a more solid remuneration for his numerous and 
extensive service?. We know that there are letters of the late Lord Nelson in 
existence, which, were they to be published, would place the professional merit of 
this officer above all praise. Britain, in a spirit of unrivalled munilicence, has 
provided for the family of Trafalgar's hero; and, were an appeal to be made to 
that tribunal, where valour and magnanimity expedience " honour due," we could 
not doubt of the result. 

SirThomas Louis embarked, as a midshipman, in the Fly sloop of war, in 1770; 
was made a lieutenant in the Bienfaisant, Captain Mat-bride, in 1777 j was in 
Admiral Kenpel's engagement with the Coiute d'Orvilliers, in 1778 ; was made first 
lieutenant ofthe Bknfaisant, in 1779 ; was appointed prize-master of the Phoenix, 
Langara's flag ship, taken in 1780 ; made commander in the Mackworth.in 1781 ; 
served as the regulating-officer, at Sligo, in 1782; made post in 1783; was witb 
Lor.! Nelson, at the battle of Aboukir, in 1798; was promoted to his flag in 
1804; was in Sir J. T. Duckworth's engagement with the French fleet, off St. 
Domingo, in 1806 ; and, in the same year, was made a baronet. Early in life he 
married Mis a Belfieid, a young lady of respectable family in the west of England. 
HJS eldest son, now Sir John Louis, is a post captain ; and his youngest is intended 
also tor the naval profession. He has two other sons, and three daughters. For 
a portrait of Sir Thomas Louis, accompanied by full and accurate particulars of his 
professional life, the reader is referred to the sixteenth volume of The NAVAL 
CHROXICLI., page 177, et seq. 

On 71*1 July, at Wandsworth, Mrs. Manaton, aged 86, mother-in-law to the 
late Rear- Admiral Ommanney, and grand mother to the present Captains J. and 
II. Oin-naniify, who resigned herself to the will ofthe Almighty, with that calm- 
ness which is so truly characteristic of a virtuous and pious Christian, and much 
respected by all her acquaintai.ee> 

On Sunday, l'2tii Julv, an exceedingly melancholy accident happened at Ports- 
mouth : Mrs. Grcemvuy, wife of Lieutenant Greenway, of his Majesty's ship 
Plantagentt, went on board tiiat ship, which was in dock, to see its various parts. 
On looking down the main-hole, she was suddenly seized with a giddiness, her foot 
slipped, and she fell down the mam-hatchway into tlie hold ; her head striking 
aga,u>t the iron ballast, she was Killed instantly. Her neck was dislocated, and 
her skull dreadfully fractured. The distressed feelings of her husband, who was 
present with her, cannot be described. She was lately Miss Maypowder, ot Tot- 
ness, and hud been married about nine months. 

On Thursday morning, 23d July, Lieutenant P. W. Wright, first lieutenant of 
his Majesty's ship Mermaid, put an end lo his existence by shooting himself, uu 
board that ship, at Spithead. The cause of his doing it is not known. 



86 

NAVAL COMMERCIAL REPORT. 

NEW LLOYD'S COFFEE-HOUSE, 25rH JULY, 1807. 

nnilE China .Iiips are arrived in the Downs, under convoy of his Majesty's 
ship Nassau, viz. Elphinstone, Winchelsea, David Scott, AInwick Castle, 
Ceres, Walmer Castle, and Essex, from China ; sailed the 7th of January : Eu- 
phrates and Sir William Bensley, from Bengal, left St. Helena the 4th May, 
under convoy of the Sir Edward Hughes, which fell in with the Nassau on the 
24th May, to whom she gave the charge of the convoy, and returned to St. He- 
lena-^ also the William Pitt, Botany-bay ship. Several passengers by the above 
fleet, bring the pleasing intelligence that the Blenheim, of 74 guns, Admiral Sir 
Thomas Troubridge, and the frigate which accompanied her, had weathered the 
storm, and were safe arrived in a bay in the island of Madagascar. A paper 
printed at Prince of VVales's Island mentions, that a Dutch line or' battle ship was 
lately lost near Bantam, crew saved ; aud tlint a violent distemper was then rag- 
ing at Chenbon, which had carried off several thousands of the inhabitants. Out 
of the great fleet sent out under Admiral Hartsink, there only remain a single. 
line of battle ship and a corvette, the remainder has been totally destroyed in 
the roads of Batavia, by the squadron under the command of Sir Edward 
Pcllew. 

The number of ships now in commission amounts to 761, of which 1S9 are of 
the line, 20 from 50 to 44 guns, 172 frigates, 21-1 sloops, and 216 armed brigs. 
There are building 52 ships of the line, and several smaller vessels, which, toge- 
ther with the ships in ordinary, make the total amount of the British navy 
1025 ships. 

It appears by the return to the Honse of Commons, that there was last year a 
decrease in ship-building in Great' Britain of 21,723 tons ; and it is seriously ap- 
prehended, from the present state of the builders' yards, that there will be 
this year a ranch larger and more alarming deficiency. 

As a proof of the extensive carrying trade of the Americans, in the Liverpool 
paper, there are 93 vessels advertised for freight, of which 77 are Americans, 
and only 16 British. 

Letters have been received from the fleet under Vice-Admiral Lord Colling, 
wood, off Cadiz, all of which agree, that the combined squadron, about twelve, 
or thirteen sail of the line, are ready for sea ; and it is supposed, if our fleet 
were by accident driven off their station, they would endeavour to make a grand 
push out to get through the Gut of Gibraltar, and form a junction with the Car- 
thagena or Toulon squadron, or perhaps witli both. But Lord Col ling wood is 
ever on the alert, and his cruizing frigates form a line of communication from 
off Cadiz kay to his fleet in the offing, for the purpose of conveying informa- 
tion directly by telegraphic signals. 

The expedition under command of Admiral Murray and General Craufurd, 
supposed ibr the River Plate, sailed from St. Helena 26th April. 

We have the pleasure to announce the safe arrival of the fleet from Oporto, 
with a large quantity of Port wines, cotton, wool, &c. And on the 4lh instant, 
sailed for Portugal and the Mediterranean, a large fleet, under convoy of the 
Iniogene, S. W. from Falmouth. 

The Jamaica fleet, consisting of 170 sail, under convoy of La Pique, is also 
safe arrived : about 90 ships belonging to London, are in the river ; the re- 
mainder of this fleet were bound for Bristol, Liverpool, Lancaster, and Dublin ;. 
and all arrived safe at their respective ports. 

In consequence of the Diush government, having offered no interruption to 
eur expeditions passing the Sound, the precautionary order given, in the first 
moment of alarm, by the British Consul at Altona, has been countermanded, as 
appears by the following note posted at Lloyd's Colfee-house. 

TON xi NO EN, July 3, 1807. 

' The order given by the English Consul at Altona, for all British ships to leave 
this port, has been countermanded, and there is uo reason to apprehend any 
thing in this quarter." 

The whole of ihe ships of war destined for the Baltic, have reached the Downs. 
This force will be of a more formidable description than was at first mentioned ; 
it will consist of at Ic ist 2'2 sail ol the line, and a proportionate number of frigates 
and smaller vessels. The ships of war are expected to amount to about 40 sail, and 
the most happy result may be expected from this necessary effort of vigour, not 
merely for the sake of commercial interest, bat for the. honour and character of 
the country. 



NEW LLOYD'S COFFEE-HOUSE, 25ni JULY, 180?. 
PUF.MIUMS or INSURANCE. 



LONDON to 
The East Indies 
Out ar.d home 

Jamaica 

Leeward Islands - 

Musquito shore 
America f their ships,) 
Ditto (British ships) 
Newfoundland 
Greenland, (out and home) 
Southern Fishery (ditto) 
Mediterranean, 
Lisbon and Oporto - 
Stockholm - - 

Gottenburg - - 

Tovmingen (Neutrals) - 
Dublin, Wateriord, Cork, , 

Newry, or Belfast, 
Limerick, or Galway - 
Bristol, Wales, Chester, Li- , 

verpool,Whitehaven,&c. ; 
All parts of Scot'and 
Hull or Gainsborough 
Guernsey, Jersey, or Al- j 
derney 



6 per cent. 
J2 

8 guineas, ret. 4!. 
Ditto 
lo ditto. 

3 ditto. 

10 ditto, ret. jl. 
6 ditto. 

8 ditto. 
2o ditto. 
io ditto, ret. $1. 

6 ditto, ret. 3 

4 ditto, ret. 2 

3 ditto, ret. il. 103. 

2 ditto. 

2j ditto. 

3 ditto. 
2 ditto. 

i$ ditto. 

11 ditto. 

2 ditto. 



JAMAICA to 

The American States - 

Quebec or Montreal - 

Newfoundland - - 

London, Liverpool, Bristol^ ? 
Dublin, Cork, &c. $ 

LEEWARD ISLANDS to 
Quebec, Montreal, Newfound- ? 
land, &c. ) 

American States - - 

Cork, Waterford, or Dublin 
Bristol, Chester, Liverpool, 

NEWFOUNDLAND to 
American States - 
Jamaica and Leeward Islands 
Lisbon or Oporto - - 

Plymouth, Dartmouth, Exeter, &c. 
Bristol, Liverpool. &c. 
Dublin, Cork, &c. - - 

Portsmouth, London, &c. - 

QUFBLC to 

CJreat Britain or Ireland - - 

DENMARK or SWEDEN to 
Bengal or China ~ - 

Out and home - " 



lo guis. per cent. 

12 ditto. 

12 ditto. 

, ,- ttr ,_,. .> 

2 dltto ' ret> jU 



d; . 

12 ditto. 
8 ditto, ret. 4!. 
Ditto. 

5 guineas. 
25 ditto. 
io 'ditto, ret. jU 
8 ditto, 4!. 
ditto, ditto. 
ditto, ditto. 
ditto, ditto. 

io ditto, ret, jl. 
5 ditto. 



ROYAL EXCHANGE, LONDON, 26rH JULY, 1807. 

* COURSE OF EXCHANGE. 



Amsterdam - 
Ditto, at sight - 


. 36 

35 


2 

6 
6 

I 
io 

10 

i 

ok 

<* 


Palermo - 
Leghorn 
Genoa 
Venice - 
Naples ^ 
Lisbon . 
Oporto - 
Dublin - 
Cork - 
Agio of the bank of Holland 


Hamburgh ... 
Altona - 


34 
- 34 


Bourdeaux - 
Madrid - - - 
Cadiz - ... 


24 

' - 3 
- 3* 







9* 

5 L 

454 



lot 

"4 



percent, 



PRICES OF BULLION. 



Portugal Gold, Coin and Bars, 

New Dollars - 

Silver in Bars, standard - 



per oz. 

ditto 

ditto 



400 
5 5 
o 5 6 



* As an explanation of the Course of Exchange may be useful to our naval readers, we here subjoin it, viz. 



Amsterdam. 
Rotterdam 

Hamburgh and Altona 
Paris, Bourdeaux, &c. 



givts 36 schillings Flemish for one pound sterling. 



1 1 florins current 
34 schillings Flemish 
24 hvres or trancs 



Madrid, Cadiz, and Bilboa receives 38^ pence st-.-rling 



Genoa and Leghorn 
Venice 
Naples - 
Lisbon and Oporto 
Dublin, Cork, &c. 



fo pence sterling 
gives 52 lire piccole 
- receives 42 pence sterling 

63^ pence sterling 

gives i oj pounds Irish 



ditto. 

ditto. 

ditto. 

one dollar of exchange. 

one pezza ot 8 reals, or pezza fuori banco. 

one pound sterling. 

> one ducat ai legno. 

one milre. 

Io Bri-tish jterling. 



The Agio of the Bank of Holland is the difference between Banco Money of iicllandvn& Cash or Current 
wcj, the former being better than, the klter. 



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BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIR OF 

CHARLES HOWARD, EARL OF NOTTINGHAM, 

K. G. AXD LORD HIGH ABMlttAL OF EXGLAND ? IN THE 
KEIGX OF QUKEN EL1ZAUETU. 



it Dcus et dissipantur." 



" The power that lie already hath in (Ja'lia 
Will soon be drawn to head, irom whcuce he ii: 
His -svar for Britain.'' b.. 



our inimitable poet has expressed himself. 

" The slave, a member of (lie country's peace, 
Enjovs it; but in gross brain, little xvu'.s 
What watch the King keeps to maintain (lie peace, 
Whose hours the peasant best advantages!" 

Hr.x. V. 

At a period, such as the present, when \\e are likely to be 
again annoyed by the threats of invasion, irom the hostile 
shores of France, it is pleasing to revert to past ages ; to dwell 
upon the exploits of those to \\hom our ancestors looked up- 
nor looked up in vain for protection and deliverance. As 
Englishmen, ue cannot but feel an honest pride, a generous 
ardour glowing in our veins, when we reflect upon the glorious 
days of Elizabeth ; who, " though she had but the body of a 
weak and feeble woman, yet had the heart of a king; and of a 
king of England too ; and thought foul scorn, that Parma or 
Spain, or any prince of Europe, should dare to invade the bor- 
ders of her realms ! " 

France, it is true, is not now what Spain was two hundred 
and twenty years ago, the first naval power in Europe ; yet there 
are circumstances, which at the present epoch, render the 
Spanish armada, and its glorious defeat by the British, objects 
of very considerable interest. Under this impression, and from 
motives which will hereafter appear, we have selected the Earl 
of Nottingham, as a fit subject for biographical illustration, 

/Sat?, er&ron, (ttol.XVIH, 



9Q BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIR OF 

The highest respect is due to the illustrious line of th& 
Howards. All that can be claimed by genius, valour, patriot- 
ism, and exalted services, is exacted by the virtues, the talents, 
and the actions of this noble house. 'Their first recorded 
ancestor is Edward Howard, judge of the court of Common 
Pleas in the times of Edward the First, and his successor Edward 
the Second. By the favour of Edward the Fourth, John, a 
defendant of this magistrate, was made Lord Howard: in the 
reign of Richard the Third, he was advanced to the dukedom of 
Norfolk; and he fell, in defence of his latter patron, in the battle 
of Bosworth Field. Thomas, the son of John, notwithstanding 
the attachment of his parent, was much favoured by Henry the 
Seventh, who restored him to the earldom of Surrey, a distinc- 
tion which had been procured for him under Richard the 
Third, but of which he had been deprived by the vicissitudes of 
civil war. Thomas, who must be considered as the founder of 
his family's prosperity, was also highly esteemed by Henry the 
Eighth. He married Elizabeth, the daughter and sole heiress 
of Sir Frederick Tilney, and widow of Humphrey Bouchier 
Lord Beners ; by whom, amongst eleven children, he had Sir 
Edward, and Sir Thomas Howard) who each, in succession, had 
the honour of being Lord High Admiral of England. After 
the death of the lady Elizabeth, Thomas, denominated, par 
excellence, the Great Duke of Norfolk, married Agnes, the 
daughter of Sir Philip Tilney, who brought him two sons and 
four daughters, Of these, Lord William Howard, afterwards 
Baron of Eftingham, and Lord High Admiral of England, was 
the eldest. This was the spirited commander, who, in the 
reign of Mary, when Philip, King of Spain, entered the Narrow 
Seas, with the Spanish flag in his main- top, saluted him with a 
shot, and obliged him to take in his colours ! 

Charles, the immediate object of our notice, was the eldest 
son of Lord William Howard, by a second marriage. Mar- 
garet, the daughter of Sir Thomas Gamage, of Glamorganshire, 
was his mother. He was born towards the close of the reigu 
of Henry the Eighth, in the year 1J36. From the active 
situation of his father, who, as we have seen,, was Lord High 



CHARLES HOWARD, EARL OF NOTTINGHAM. 91 

Admiral to Queen Mary, his youth was not suffered to pass 
away in indolence ; on the contrary, he served under the 
immediate eye of his parent, in several expeditions which pre 
ceded the accession of Elizabeth. 

The reign of this princess was peculiarly auspicious to the 
naval interests of Britain. Soon after her accession, she pro- 
moted an increase of the marine, by building some ships, and by 
encouraging merchants to build larut trading vessels, which, on 
occasion, might be converted into ships of war. The navy 
being her peculiar care, she directed a most exact survey to be 
made of it ; instituted a strict inquiry into the causes of its decay, 
and the surest means by which it might be recovered ; issued 
orders for preserving timber fit for ship-building ; caused her 
magazines to be filled with stores ; ordered a considerable num- 
ber of brass and iron cannon to be cast ; passed an act for the 
better regulation, maintenance, and increase of the navy; 
appropriated a part of her revenue, to the amount of Q,000/. a 
year, to its ordinary supply ; augmented the salaries of her naval 
officers ; raised the wages of the seamen ; held out every possible 
encouragement to such of the young nobility as evinced an incli- 
nation for the sea service ; and drew over foreigners, skilled in, 
the art of navigation, to instruct her people. Even during the 
time that Spain was providing her ," invincible" armada, of 
which we shall presently have occasion to speak, she was 
assiduously employed in cherishing the commerce and naval 
power of England. Harrison, in his Description of Britain, 
printed in the year 1577* says : " The queen's highness hath 
at this time already made and furnished, to the number of one 
and twenty great ships, which lie for the most part in Gillingham 
Road.* Beside these, her grace hath other in hand also ; she 
hath likewise three notable galleys, the Speedwell, the Trye- 
right, and the Black Galley, with the sight whoreof, and the rest 
of the navy-royal, it is incredible to say ho:c marvellously her 
grace is delighted. I add, to the end all men should under- 
stand somewhat of the great masses of treasure daily employed 

* Close by Chatham, 



BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIR Or 

upon our navy, how there are few merchant ships of the first 
and second sort, that being apparelled and made ready to sail, 
are not worth one thousand pounds, or three thousand ducats at 
the least, if they should presently be sold. What then shall we 
think of the navy-royal, of which some one vessel is worth two 
of the other, as the shipwright has often told me r" 

Thus did Elizabeth nobly acquire the glorious title of the 
Restorer of Naral Power, find Sovereign of the Northern 
Seas ! A considerable quantity of gunpowder was also made 
in her reign ; but the opinion, that that was the first which had 
been manufactured in this country is erroneous ; it having been 
ascertained that gunpowder was made in England, at least as 
early as the year J552. 

By such a sovereign, whose powers of discrimination were 
equal to her zeal for the public good, it was truly honourable to 
be noticed. Elizabeth's favour was, at an early period, con- 
ferred upon young Howard. In 15J9> the year after her 
accession, on the death of Henry the Second, husband of Mary 
Queen of Scots, she sent iim upon an embassy to France, to 
condole with the new monarch, Francis the Second, and to 
congratulate him on his succeeding to the throne. 

After his return from this mission, he was elected, in lj()G, 
one of the knights of the shire for the county of Surrey ; and, 
in 1-5G9, he served as general of the horse, under the Earl of 
Warwick, in the army which was sent against the Earls of Nor- 
thumberland and Yvestmorcland, then in rebellion. 

In lof)0 he was again employed in the navy; being com- 
missioned to escort the Princess Anne, of Au*rn:i, (laughter to 
fie Emperor Maximilian, over the British seas, to Spain. 

In 1.571* this nobleman was a second time elected as one of 
the representatives of the county of Surrey, in parliament ; and, 
on the 12th of January, in 157C, he succeeded his father in his 
title and estate.* His lordship was now made chamberlain of 
the household, a post which his father had formerly enjoyed; 

* William Lord Effingham, at the time of his demh, held the oilice fetf 
I/)rd Privy Seal, and was muc it in t'avour with jiie queen. 



CHARLES HOWARD, EAUL OF NOTTINGHAM. S3 

and on the 24th of April, 1573, he was installed a knight of the 
garter. 

Of Lord Effingham's public life, nothing farther is known, 
till the year 1585 ; when, on the death of the Earl of Lincoln, 
he was appointed Lord High Admiral of England. To this 
office he came with the general approbation of the people, and 
highly to the satisfaction of the seamen, by whom he was much 
beloved. At this time the Spaniards had commenced their for- 
midable preparations for invading England. The appointment 
of Lord Effingham was therefore the highest compliment which 
could be paid to his talents, and to his patriotism. To his 
judgment and prowess was confided the safety of his sovereign 
and of the nation. 

Numerous and contradictory are the accounts which have 
been given of the Spanish force, and of its defeat and dispersion 
by the English. Without attempting to reconcile the differences 
of rival historians, we shall extract the brief statement of 
Colliber, from his well-known, though scarce, Colmnna Ros- 
traia ; and shall afterwards present some curious and authentic 
documents, with v\hich the public are very slightly, if at all, 
acquainted. 

The power of Spain, after the conquest of the Moors of 
Grenada by Ferdinand (who by his marriage with Isabella had 
united the two kingdoms of Castile and Arragon), became very 
considerable. But the Spanish navigation and sea forces were 
soon prodigiously increased by the acquisition of Xaples, and the 
best part of America, which was discovered in his time : after 
which the noble victory of Lepanto, in the reign of Philip II. 
gained over the Turks by Don John of Austria, added much to 
the power, but more to the reputation of the Spanish ileets. 

Besides a great number of gallics (which were usually employed 
in the Mediterranean), the force of Spain, at sea, consisted chiefly 
in a sort of tall ship*, called galleons. Many of these galleon." 
wore of a prodigious bulk, and in general their sides were too 
high to admit easily of boarding, as well as too thick to be pierced 
at a distance by the Engli>h cannon. On the contrary, the ships 
sof the English royal navy, being at that time very light aud 
mounted with smaller pieces, could discharge more nimbly, and 



54 BIO&RAPHICAL MEMOIR Ot 

were more easily governed than the monstrous galleons of the 
enemy. But besides the galleons, there was another sort of vessels 
which helped to compose the Spanish fk'et>. railed galliasses. 
These were a middle sort, between gallies and galleons, partaking 
of the form and advantages of both. Their prows and sterns, like 
those of gailies, were provided with large cannon ; and their 
sides winged with three banks of oars ; but between the banks, 
and likewise between the single oars, there were port-holes, fur- 
nished with cannon, after the manner of the galleons. This sort 
of vessels was first used by the Venetians in the battle of Lepanto, 
and contributed not a little to the ruin of the Turkish fleet. 

King Philip had (according to Strada*) been forming a design 
again-t England ever since the year 83 : for which purpose he had 
caused exact draughts of the sea- coasts and ports to be taken and 
transmitted to him. But the execution of this design he wisely 
deferred till the year 88, when France being embroiled by civil 
dissentions, was rendered incapable of assisting the English. And 
to render the English less capable of defending themselves, it is 
laid he politicly procured the German and Italian merchants to 
hire their stoutest ships for long voyages. 

The armada or fleet designed for the invasion of England con. 
sisted of an hundred and thirty-five large ships, part gallies, part 
galHasses, but most galleons, and about forty transports and 
tenders, which, according to the Spanish list, were manned with 
even thousand fourhundredand forty-nine (or, as some say, twelve 
thousand) sailors, and eighteen thousand eight hundred and fifty- 
seven soldiers, besides five or six hundred Spanish noblemen and 
gentlemen volunteers. 

This fleet, which set sail from Lisbon about the middle-of May, 
under command of Alphonso Perez de Gusman, Duke of Medina 
Sidonia, was soon after attacked by a violent storm off Cape 
Finisterre, and so dispersed, that scarce a third part kept together. 
But the scattered ships having at last joined the body of the fleet 
at the Groyn, they set sail the second time about the middle of 
June, and on the-'20th they passed by Plymouth, being followed 
from, thence by the English fleet, consisting of near an hundred 
ail. June 21, the English came up with the enemy, and engaged 
within musket-shot; on which occasion a bloody combat happened 
between the Lord Charles Howard, the English admiral, and the 
Spanish vice-admiral. June 22, the fight was renewed, and Sir 
Francis Drake, the English vice-admiral, with his usual bravery, 

* De Btilo Bete. L. 9. Dec. 2, 



CHARLES HOWARD, EARL Of NOTTINGHAM. 90 

engaged and made himself master of the galleon of Don Pedro dc 
Vahlez, with a booty of fifty-five thousand ducats of gold. 
Another great galleon, commanded by Ocquendo, was burnt, and 
a third stranded on the French coast. The following day, die 
Spaniards coming over against Portland, there happened a sharp 
engagement, wherein the English took a large Venetian ship, with 
several lesser vessels. June 24, there was only some firing at a 
distance. The next day the English being reinforced with a 
squadron of ships from London, near the Isle of Wight, there was 
terrible cannonading between the two fleets ; in which engagement 
divers of the galleons suffered much, and one of the lightest 
English ships, commanded by Captain Cock, was sunk, bravely 
fighting in the midst of the Spanish fleet. June 28, as the Spaniards 
lay at anchor near Calais, the English admiral having filled eight 
of his worst ships with combustible materials, and charged their 
cannon with bullets, stones, chains, &c. sent them into the midst 
of their ileet; where taking fire, the flames (which seemed to rise 
out of the sea) so terrified the enemies in the dead of the night, that 
raising a hideous cry, they cut their cables and drove away in. 
great confusion : and it blowing a hard gale, divers of them, by 
running foul of each other, were sunk ; others were forced among 
the sands on the coast of Flanders, and lost. June 29, the Spa- 
niards. ranging themselves again in order, approached Greveling, 
near which place there happened another engagement, wherein 
a large galleass, commanded by Don Hugo de Moncada, being 
disabled, drove ashore near Calais, and was plundered by the 
English; but the ship and guns fell to the share of the governor of 
Calais. One of the largest galleons of Biscay, being driven on the 
sands near Flushing, in Zealand, was taken by the Dutch, as was 
likewise another, commanded by Don Diego Piiifcntel. At this 
time the whole fleet of the enemy was in the extremest danger, 
driving towards the shallows, to its apparent destruction ; where- 
upon the English, to avoid sharing the same fate, were obliged to 
give over the chase. In the mean while, the Dutch with thirty- 
fire ships, lay near Dunkirk, to keep in the Duke of Parma, who, 
with a number of transports, and about thirty thousand men, was 
ready to join the Spanish fleet. On the 30th the enemy, by a- 
sudden shifting of the wind, having escaped the danger of the 
shallows, and despairing of being joined by the duke, spread all their 
canvass, and made away to the northward, being followed almost 
as far as the coast of Scotland by the English fleet. In their flight, 
to save their water, they threw all their horses and mules OTt-rboard, 



96 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIR OF 

Passing round Scotland and Ireland, they were attacked by violent 
tempests, by which many of their largest ships were stranded on 
the Irish and several on the Scottish shore: others were driven to 
the coast of Norway, and some into the English Channel, Whereof 
divers were taken by the English, sonic Mere taken by the 
Rochellers, and some were forced into Newhaven. So that of 
this mighty fleet, which the pope had christened invincible, no 
more than fifty-three ships are said to have arrived with much 
difficulty in the ports of Spain. And though the Spanish writers* 
extenuate the matter, confessing the loss of only thirty-two of their 
great ships, and about ten thousand of their men, yet the conse- 
quence hath shewn that this defeat was no less fatal to the Spanish 
naval power, than that of Lepanto was to the Turkish. 

In proportion to the hope of success, is the disappointment of 
failure ; and it will readily be believed, that from the defeat of 
the vaunted armada, the chagrin of Spain must have been of the 
deepest impression. Before the flotilla left Lisbon, the effu- 
sions of the Spanish poets were as numerous, and as confident, 
as those which we have heard in our own country, in defiance of 
the threats of Buonaparte. In a little song, for which we are 
indebted to Lord Holland's Life of Lope de I'ega, the Spa- 
nish Shakspeare, is the following passage, alluding to the 
armada, which amusingly shews how general the expectation of 
success must have been. A little girl, speaking to her play~ 
fellow, says: 

Mi hermano Bartolo 
so va a Ingalaterra, 
a matar al Draque, 
y a prender la Rcyna, 
y a los Luteranos 
de la Bandamessa : 
ticnc de traerme 
a mi de la guerra, 
nn Luteranico 
con una caclena, 
y una Luteraua 
a senora agucla. 

* Strada, de Belio Bclg. Lib. 9. Dec. 2. 



CHARLES HOWARD, EARL OF NOTTINGHAM. 37 

The following translation of these lines will convey a tolerable 
idea, of their point to the English reader : 

My brother Don John. 

To England is gone, 

To kill the Drake, 

And the queen to take, 

And the heretics all to destroy ; 

And he will, give me, 

When he comes back, 

A Lutheran boy, 

With A chain round his neck; 

And our Lady Grandmamma shall have 

To Avait upon her a Lutheran slave. 

This may be regarded as an effusion of the playful muse : 
the succeeding lines, from Gonzara's Ode upon the Armada., 
breathe the bitterness of bigotry , and national hatred: 

HOAV art thou doom'd to everlasting shame 

P'or her accursed sake, 

Who for the distaff dares to take 

The sword and sceptre in her bastard hand ! 

She- wolf libidinous, and fierce for blood, 

Thou strumpet offspring of the adulterous bed, 

Soon may avenging heaven hurl down 

Its lightning-vengeance on thy impious head! 

Without entering into the contrarieties of different authors, as 
to the respective force of the belligerent powers, we shall here 
transcribe, from one of the records in the Tower, the 
followin 



Relation of the Spanish Arm ado ^ which departed from 

the 30//i of May ) 1588, Stilo nuovo, even as it is certified frv in 
Lisborne. 

First, Great hulkes ............ 40 

Item, Gallions .... ......... 60 

Item, Great shippes ---- ------ 30 

Item, Galliasses .. ..... ------- 4 

Item, Galleys ................ 8 

Item, Pinasses ......... ---- ,. 24 

In all ...... 166 

. STfjron. ol,XVIII. o 



8 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIR OP 

Item, Castillians, soldiers 16,000 

Item, Portingalls ..do 3,000 

Item, Mariners 6,128 

Item, Pioneers ... 2,000 

In all, of men 27,128 

In the same armado, there cometh friars , 180 

In all the saide armado there is of artillery pieces ... 1493 

The general of the armado, the Dnke de Medina Sidonia. 
There cometh also, in the same, the Prince Dascoli, as 

comander, the Conte de Feuntes, the Conte de Paredes. 
Item, 25 Knights of the second order, being sonnes and 

brothers to Marquisses and Earls. 

The above is extracted from a work lately compiled, by order 
of his Majesty, from the unpublished records in the Tower, 
entitled, " Report of the Arrangements which were mode for 
the internal Defence of these Kingdoms, when Spain, by its 
jlrmada, projected the Invasion and Conquest of England, 
&,c." The source from which it is derived stamps the document 
as authentic ; and, as the "Report" alluded to has never been 
regularly before the public, our extracts, it is presumed, will be 
the more acceptable. The following, from the same compila- 
tion, is a statement of the number, bulk, Sec. of ships, then in 
England, agreeably to official returns, destined to oppose the 
armada ; 

Total number of ships, 100 to 240 tons..., 177 

Of these London had 60 

Newcastle on Tyne , , 17 

Hull 11 

Bristowc 9 

Total number of ships, 80 to lOOtons 74 

Of these London had 23 

Newcastle ~. 8 

Hull 7 

Bristowe 1 

Hoys, barks, and under 80 tons 13S3 

Of these London had 44 

Newcastle had 121 

Hull , 8 

Bristowe 9 

1634 



CHARLES HOWARD, EARL OP NOTTINGHAM. 99 

The coast counties, including London, report 

Masters 1,488 

Mariners and Seamen ..11,515 

Fishermen 2/299 

Whcrrymen 957 

An Alstracte. Men. 

34 of Her Majesties Shippes, greatte and small 0,264 

34 Alarchants Shippes with Sir F. Drake westward 2,394 

29 Shippes and Barques, paid by the Citie of London 2,140 

33 Shippes and Barques, which is Victuallers, under the 

Lord Admyrall 1,561 

19 Coasters, grcate and small, under the Lord Admjrall, 

paid by the Queen 943 

23 Coasters, under the Lord Henry Seymour, paid by the 

Queen 1,093 

23 Voluntarye ships, great and small 939 

rn , ,,. V 195 Shippes. 
Jotalhs< . . ,. . , T * 
15,3J4 Men. 

For some time Lord Effingham had been cruising between 
England and Flanders. When he understood that the fleet of 
the enemy was at sta, he left Lord Henry Seymour, with a 
squadron, to watch the Duke of Parma, and made for Ply- 
mouth, where he formed a junction with Sir Francis Drake, 
whom he constituted his vice-admiral, on the 23d of May, 
Having completely victualled his fleet, he put to sea about the 
30th, and remained for some time sailing up and down, within 
the Sleeve, between Usbant and Scilly ; but by stress of weather 
he was soon compelled to return to Plymouth. It was about 
this time that the armada suffered severely by a storm ; a cir- 
cumstance which, had it not been for the firmness and perse- 
verance of the lord admiral, might have proved fatal to the 
English. Conceiving the armada to have been completely 
disabled, the secretary, Walsingham, signified the queen's plea- 
sure to his lordship, that he should leave four of his largest 
ships in port. Alleging the clanger of credulity, he however 
retained the ships ; observing, that he would rather keep them 
out at his own expense, than that the nation should incur so 
great a hazard. 



100 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIR OF 

% 

Finding that the coast was clear, his lordship delorminedf to 
take advantage of the first north wind, to pass over towards 1 
Spain, thinking it probable that he might thus fall in with the 
enemy's fleet, in a dispersed and crippled state. He accordingly 
left Plymouth, between the 8th and 10th of June; but appears 
to have been somewhat thwarted in his object by councils at 
home. He reached the coast of Spain within about forty 
leagues ; and then, the wind chopping round to the southward, 
he returned to England on the 12th of the month. On- the 
15th he wrote the following letter; which must at once be 
regarded as a literary curiosity, as developing his particular 
opinion respecting the plans and intentions of the Spaniards, and 
as displaying his character in a national, a political, and a 
military point of view. It is extracted from the " Report," &c. 
already mentioned. 

S r . 15 th June, 1588. 

WITHIN three houres, after I had written my letter, which 
herewith I send you, I receaved your letter of the 9th of this pre- 
sent, by a pursuyvante, which letter I doe not a litle mervaile at :, 
for therby you signifie, tfeat Her Ma* tie perceavinge, by a letter I 
sent you, heretofore, that I was mynded to goo on the coaste of 
Spaine, to the lies ef Bayone, her pleasure is, that I shold not 
goe so far, but only, of and on, betwixte the coaste of Spaine and 
Englande, lest the Spanishe fleete shold com into the heighte of 
50, and then should bend theire course directlie to this realmc. Sr. 
For the meaninge we had, to go on the coaste of Spaine, it Avas 
deepely debated by those, which the world clothe judge to be men 
of the greatest experience, that this realme hath, whieh arc theise 
Sr. Fra. Drake, Mr. Hawkins, Mr. Frobisher, and Mr. Thos. 
Fenner; and I hope Her Majestic will not thinke, that we wente 
soe rashlie to work, or without a principal! and choice care, and 
respecte of the saftie of N this realrne, we wold goe on the coaste of 
Spaine, and, therfore, our grounde was, first to look to that prin- 
cipall. And yff we founde they did but linger on theire owne 
coaste, or that they were put into the Isles of Bayone, or th 
Groyne, then we thought, in all menne's judgements, that be of 
experience here, it had bin moste fit, to have soughte some good 
waie, and the surcste we cold devise (by the good protectione of 
God) to have defeated them. For this we considered, that the 
Spanishe forces, bcinge for so long time victualled, as they are^ 



CHAnLES HOWARD, EAttL OF NOTTINGHAM. 101 

mightc in very good policie, detract time, to drive us to consume 
oure victualles, which, for any thingc we can see, is not to be 
supplied againe, to serve the turne, by all the ineanes that Her 
Majestic, and all you can doe. And if Her Ma'ty doe thinke, 
that she is hable to detracte time, with the Kinge of Spaine, she is 
greatlie deecaved, whiche may breed her greate periii. For this 
abusingc of the treaty of peace dothe pluyndie shcwe, howe the 
Kinge of Spaine will have all thinges perfecte, as his plote is layed 
before he will proceede to execute. I am persuaded, he will see 
the Duke of Gwise bringe the French K. to his purpose, before he 
will assailc. Yf his intention be soe, I praie you, when our 
rictualles be consumed, in gasingo for them, what shall becom of 
us. Whether this may not breade moste greate danger and dis- 
honour, I leave it to Her Ma'tis. wisdome; but if yt shold fall out 
soe, I wold I had never bin borne ; and soe I am sure, many 
heare wold wishe, noe lesse, on theire owne behalfe. And if we 
were tomorrowe, next on the coast of Spaine, I wold not land, in 
any place, to ofiend anye, but they shold well perceaye, that vr 
came not to spoyle, but to seeke oute the greate force, to feighte 
with them ; and soe shold they have knowne by message, which 
shold have bin the surest waie, and most honourable to Her 
-Majestic; but nowe, as by your derectione, to lye, of and on, 
betwixte Englande and Spaine, the south west wind that shall 
bringe them to Scotland or Ireland, shall put us to the leewards. 
The seas are broade; but if we had bin on their coaste, they durst 
not have put of, to have left us on theire backs; and when they 
shall come, with the southwesterly wind, which must serve them, 
if they goe for Irelande or Scotlande, though we be as highe, as 
Cape Cleare, yet shall we not be hable to goe to them, as longe 
as the wind shal be Mesterlie. And if we lye so highe, then mav 
the Spanishe flecte beare, with the coaste of France, to come for 
the Isle of Weighte, which for my parte, I thinke, if they come to 
Englande, they will attempt, then are we cleane oute of the waye 
of any service againste them. But I must, and will obeyc ; and I 
am glad, there be such there, as are liable to judge, what is fitter 
for us to doe, than we here; but, by my instructions which I had, 
I did thinke it otherwise; but I will put them up in a bag ; and I 
shall most humblie prayc Her Majestic to thinke, that that Mhich 
we meat to doe, was not rashlic determyned, and that which shall 
be done, shall be most carefully used by us ; and we will foilovte 
and obey Her JMajcstic's commandi-ments. But if we had bin nowe, 
betwixte Spaine and Englande. we had bin but in hard case, the 



102 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIR OF 

stormc beinge soe stronge, and continueinge so longe as it hathe 
don ; but, upon the coaste of Spaine, we had had a land wind and 
places of succor. We ment not to have spoiled any towne or 
village, oncly we muste, of necessHie, water ; and when we lie, 
tetwixte both coastes, we muste come to this coaste to water, for 
soe we are enjoyned ; and if the winde doe not serve us, to com 
on our ownc coaste, then in what case shall we be, nowe that we 
must not goe on the coaste of Spaine. 

We laic 7 daies in the Sleeve, which was as longe as we cold 
conrynue there, without danger, as the winde was: and if som had 
bin with us, they should have seene, what a place of danger it is, 
to lye, of and on, in. Sr. You knowe it hath bin the opinion, 
bothe of Her Majestie and others, that it was the sureste course, 
to lye on the coaste of Spaine. I confess my erroure, at that time, 
which was otherwise; but I did, and will ycald, ever unto them of 
greater experience ; yet you knowe, it was thoughte by Her 
Majestie, that we might go into Lisbone to defeat them, which was 
the strongest place. Therfore, I thought, that if we had hard, 
that they had bin at the lies of Bayone, or in the Groyne, which 
was 10 times more casie to defeate them in, I thinke it wold have 
bin good service. But Sir, I will perswade noe more, but doe as 
I am directed. And God sende the winde doe not force us thither, 
otherwise, uppon my dewtie we will goe thither, nowe we knowe 
Her Ma'tics pleasure. And soe, I bid you .most hartelie 
farewelle. 

From on boarde Her Ma'tie's good shippe Arke, in Plymouthe 
saundj the 15th of June 1588. 

Your assured lovinge Frende, 

C. HOWARDE. 

To the Righle Honorable my very 
lovinge Frende Sir Francis Wal- 
singham Knight, principull Secre- 
tary to Her ^1'jjeslie. 

From the above letter, the chagrin of Lord Effingham, 
conceiving himself to have missed an important victory, is 
evident. 

On the 1 9th of June, through the medium of one Fleming,* 



* At the request of the lord admiral, Fleming was afterwards pardoned 
for his piracies, and received a pension for the service which he thus ren- 
dered to the country. 



CHARLES HOWARD, E.ARL OF NOTTINGHAM. 103 

a Scotch pirate, he received intelligence that the Spanish fleet 
were near the Lizard, the wind then being south-and- by-west. 
Taken, as it were, by surprise, he gave his orders with the 
utmost promptitude ; and, to facilitate the requisite measures, 
he assisted, with his own hands, in getting the ships out of har- 
bour. With only six ships, he worked out that night ; and on 
the following morning, with his force increased to thirty, he 
sailed in pursuit of the armada. At the same time he despatched 
his brother-in-law, Sir Edward Hobby, to inform the queen of 
the great disproportion between the English and Spanish fleets; 
to desire her Majesty to hasten what ships she possibly could to 
his assistance; and to dispose of her land forces, iu the most 
effectual manner, for the security of the coast. 

On the morning of the 21st, with fifty-four ships, he came up 
with the enemy, and commenced the attack. In his own ship, 
the Ark, he was for some time holly engaged with the Spanish 
admiral ; and after a contest ot two hours, the enemy gave way. 
Lord Effingham, however, prudently forbore from pressing the 
pursuit, being yet forty ships deficient of his force. He called 
a council of his officers, gave the necessary instructions for the 
following day, and then followed the enemy, during the night, 
M'ithin the distance of a culverm shot. In the morning, the 
greater part of his fleet were so far behind, that it took them 
nearly the whole day to come up. 

Daily skirmishes continued, without any important advantage, 
till the C6th ; on which day the lord admiral determined not 
to attack the enemy again, until they should approach Dover, 
where he expected to meet the squadron under Lord Seymour 
and Sir William Winter. The same day, as a reward for past 
services, and to excite future emulation, his lordship conferred 
the honour of knighthood upon his relation, Lord Thomas 
Howard, Lord Sheffield, and the Captains Hawkins, Towns- 
hend, and Frobisher. 

The English fleet continued to receive reinforcements ; and 
having joined the squadron of Lord Seymour and Sir William 
\Vinter, its entire force amounted to a hundred and forty ships, 

On the 28th, the lord admiral, by command of the queen, 



104 BIOC11APH1CAL MEMOIR OP 

says one of our old historians, " took eight of the worst ships,, 
and dressed them with a wild-fire, pitch, and rosin, and filled 
tfyem full of brimstone, and some other matter fit for fire ; and 
these, being set. on fire, were, secretly in tlte night, by the help 
of the wind, set full upon the Spanish fleet, as they lay at anchor. 
Which so surprised the enemy, that each ship, striving to secure 
itself from the danger, broke loose, and threw them all into con- 
fusion, and so separated the whole fleet, that they never more 
united to any purpose." This is generally understood to have 
been the first use of fire-ships in the English navy ; and that 
they were adopted by the express command of Queen Elizabeth, 
we have a right to infer, from the inscription, Dux f&mina 
jacti, upon one of the medals which were struck in commemo- 
ration of the defeat of the armada. 

Lord Efiingham continued to pursue the enemy, till the 7th 
of August, when he returned to England with his whole fleet. 

The following " Substaunce of certain Manjners Report-, 
touching the Spanish Fleet," from the work to which we are 
already so much indebted, exhibits a striking picture of the 
difference in size between the Etiglish and Spanish ships : 

August, 88. 

Certain maryners of this countrie to the number of 19, which 
have bcr.e in the Spanysh llccte, ever since they first putt to sea, 
and are nowe fledd a \vaie from them, having made sailes, for their 
cockboats, with tlieir shirtes, do reporte and say ; that all the 
JBeetc, -being 150 saile, did sett forth out of Lisborne, the 20th 
May, and commyng necre England, were driven back again, by 
contrary, winds ; that, in all the whole number of them was but 
20,000 men, whereof, 10,000 good soldiers, the rest common 
men; that theie were victualled for 3 months, and, for any great 
sicknesse, there was none, as it was reported, neither did land any 
more sick persons at the Groyne, than 300, from whence they 
jmtt to sea, (he 2'2d July, stilo-vetcre, and came to the Landc's 
Ende by the '28th of the same, and till they came over against 
Plimuth, they met with no man, where 40 of her Ma'ty's shippes 
did skirmish with them, and one gallcasse was taken, another sett 
on fire; by reason the captaine falling into a rage with the gunner, 
and threatening, to kill him if he shot no righter ; the gunner cast 



CHARLES KOWARDj EARL OF NCTTiyGHAM. 105 

fire into the powder barrels, and threwe himself overboard.* In 
this shipp, thcie say, was the treasure, and 5 ensigns of Spaniards. 
After this aga'me at Portland, and the Isle of Wight, her Ma'ty's 
Jiavie sett upon them, but no great hurte done ; but betweene 
Cales and the Blacknes, most furionslie, where a great galeass was 
taken, and three other great shipps with 1000 men a-piece sunk 
downe right about the Gootlwines ; besides another Italian ship, 
which they take to be sunk also, because they made signs for helpe, 
but none made towards them ; that there, about Cales theie were 
foBced to cut their cables, by the ships of fire which came upon 
them, out of her Ma'ty's Ileete, and soe, from thence fledd awaie 
with all speede ; that they wore driven thus above Dunkerke, and, 
there about Blanckenburgh, one of their greatc shippes was 
grounded on the Wheelings, and taken by them of Flushing, 
Vfherein were 500 Spaniards, of whom 150 are come to Roterodam, 
the rest cast overboard ; that before their fight, about Cales, which 
was on the Sundaye, the D. of Parma sent them word, he would 
assist them the next daie; but for (hat he kept not promise, theie 
generallie crie out against him. That on the Satterday, he did 
what he could to imbarque his men, but it would not be, notwith- 
standing that with his own handes he did kill some souldiers and 

* One of our old writers thus relates this circumstance : *" There was at 
this time a great ship of Biscay, about 800 tons in burthen, that was spoiled 
by fire upon this occasion : the captain of the soldiers that went in her, 
having small regard (as is reported) of an orderly and civil life, did insolently 
beat a certain Flemish gunner, what cause he had, I know not. whether upon 
occasion of words, touching his charge, or by means of the gunner's wife, 
whoTt he had abused according to the custom of that nation. Whereupoa 
the perplexed man, seeing himself among such a kind of people, as not only 
made him serve their turns at their own pleasure but disgraced him in as vile 
manner as if he were a slave, despairing both ot life, wife, and hi? young 
daughter, and perchance rather moved with the dishonour of them, than by 
his own mifefrrtunes (which mind is many times of men, even of mean con- 
dition) he set himself on fire, in a barret of gunpowder, procuring thereby, 
through the loss of his life, and the extreme hazard of those that belonged 
unto him, and the loss of many men's lives besides, a cruel revenge ot his 

injuries received by one only man. 

Through this mischance of theirs, all the upper decks were blown up, all 
her furniture marred, and much otljer spoil done, besides the death nud 
maiming of her men, so that being utterly unable all that night to help her- 
self, she was succou*t*l by the galliasses, and for the time saved in the body 
of their fleet." Afterwards, hov.ever, she was taken possession of by tba 
Enghsh. 

rt2at>. $wn.oI.XVIII. * 



105 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIR OF 

captaynes ; that, in all, theie had not above 300 horse, and som* 
mules for carriage of their field ordnance; that, generallie, the 
Englishmen have greatlie endamaged them with ordnance; and 
that in the fleete, they did see, through the port-holes, an Italian 
ship all full of blood, which yet mainteined the fight, in her ranke, 
3 hours after ; that one of her Ma'ty's ships vahantlie passed 
through them, to charge the Admirall, who fledd away, and, as 
theie say, doth seeme to be wonderfully dismaied and discouraged ; 
that when theie left them, and fledd a \vaie, theie were as high as 
Walcheren, yet about 100 saile, but uncertain what course to take, 
or where to turn in, for relief; for into Spaine they dared not 
returne, because at their coming out, th-y were all threatened 
hanging, if they conquered not England, and that theie had 
brought great store of halters to hang up nil Englishmen ; but, 
they think, they will round about Scotland ; that her Ma'ty's 
navie followed them, alwaies hard, and drove them, like a flock of 
sheepe, but durst not aboard them, because theie are so high built, 
so as 40 of our's were troubled, to take one of their greatest 
armadas, at the last fight, on Mondai ; that as they think, they 
should have landed, about the Isle of Wight; that, 3 days and 3 
nights, after they came upon the coast of England, they did hull 
without sailes, minding to come to Dunkerke upon the spring 
tiers ; that they have greate neede of maryners, especially of pilots ; 
for that ship which came on ground, upon the Wheelings, had but 
one pilot, and he was of Flushing ; that when they sett forth, out 
of Lisborne, there were certain galeasses in their companye, but 
they came not with them, from the Groyne ; that a greate Britayn 
shippe was also taken, or sunk, by the English. In summe, theie 
confess, the D. Medina to be wonderfully amazed and to stagger, 
which way he may turn himself; that there were a great number 
of the Hidalgos of Spain in their armye, and that now thcire 
chiefe bulwarks and armades being dilcomfite.T, they may easily be 
overthrown, if they be followed as they should. 

The ship, whose prisoners are brought to ftotcrodam, was taken 
betwcene Dunkerke and Ostendt, and had been shot through 350 
times; being grounded, 5 shippes of this countrye took them to 
mercie ; another was also taken by 7 of this country fleet, between 
Cales and Dunkerke. The names of certain prisoners of accompt, 
taken in the former ship arc theis, 

Don Diego de Pomentello, frcre du Marquis de Tauvror } 
jnayster du camp du tiera du Sicilc. 

Don Jhan de Vclassa, frerc du Contc Sorvincllo. 

Le Capt. Martin d'Auales. 



CHARLES HOWARD, EARL OF NOTTINGHAM. 107 

Le Capt. Marques. 
Alonzo du Vargas. 
In the one shippe were 32 pieces of brass, and in the other 63. 

It is related by some authors, that when the intelligence of 
this disaster arrived at the Spanish court, King Philip was 
writing a letter in his closet ; anc4 that, on hearing it, he coolly 
answered, that he sent his fleet tojig/tt against the English, and 
not against the Kinds. But this reported stoicism of Philip's 
neither accords with the expectations which had been raised of 
the success of his fleet, with his treatment of Don Diego Florez 
de Valdez, to whom its failure was attributed, nor with his pro* 
clamation to prohibit mourning on the event. Far more pro- 
bable is the account, that being at mass when the news was 
brought to him, he swore (after mass zeas over) that he would 
rcaste and consume his crozcn, even to the value of a candle- 
stick (pointing to one which stood upon the altar) but either he 
Kould ruin her Majesty and England, or himself and all 
Spain should become tributary to her! 

The conduct of Queen Elizabeth, upon this occasion, was 
truly honourable to her character. With the feelings of a 
Christian princess, she appointed a day of general thanksgiving, 
throughout the realm ; and caused the colours and standards, 
which had been taken from the enemy, to be suspended in St. 
Paul's cathedral, as remembrancers of national prowess, and of 
the goodness of the Almighty. She also caused medals to be 
struck. One of them, to winch we have already alluded, bore 
a fleet, dispersed by fire-ships : another represented a flying 
navy, with the inscription, Venit, I idit, Fugit. 

Nor were foreigners backward in complimenting the Queen 
upon her victory. The reverend and religious Theodore Beza 
presented her with a congratulatory poem, in latin, from which 
the following vigorous stanza has been translated : 

Spain's king, with navies huge, the sea bestrew'd, 
T' augment, with English crown, his Spanish sway. 

Ask you, what caus'd this proud attempt ? 'twas lewd 
Ambition drove, and av'rice led the way. 



10S BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIR OT 

*Ti fffll ambition's windy puff lies drown'd 

By winds ; and swelling bearfs, by swelling wares. 
'Tis well the Spaniards, who the wo Id's vast round, 

Devour'd, devouring sea roost justly craves. 
But thou, O Queen, for vrhovn winds, seas, ^o war, 

O thou sole glory of the world's wide ma^s ; 
So reign to God, stili from ambition far, 

So still, with bounteous aids, the good embrace, 

That thou do England long, long England thee enjoy; 
Thou terror of all bad, thou er'ry good man's joy ! 

As far as human power t snd skill were concerned, Lord 
Effingham was certainly entitled to the highest praise. " Wor- 
thy of perpetual memory," says Sir Richard Hawkins, " was. 
the prudent policy and government of our English navy, in anno 
1588, by the worthy Earl of Nottingham, Lord High Admiral 
of England^ who, in like case, with mature and experimental 
knowledge, patiently withstood the instigations of many coura- 
geous and noble captains, who would have persuaded him to 
have laid them aboard ; but well he foresaw, that the enemy 
had an army aboard, he none; that they exceeded him in num- 
ber of Chipping, and those greater in bulk, stronger built, and 
higher moulded j so that they., who with such advantage fought 
from above, might easily distress all opposition below, the 
slaughter, perad venture, proving more fatal than the victory pro- 
fitable; by being overthrown, he might have hazarded the 
kingdom, whereas by the conquest (at most) he could have 
boasted of nothing but glory, and an enemy defeated. But by 
sufferance, he always advantaged himself of wind and tide, 
which was the freedom of our country, and security of our navy, 
with the destruction of theirs, which in the eye of the ignorant 
(who judge all things by their external appearance^) seemed 
invincible, but, truly considered, was much inferior to ours in all 
things of substance, as the event proved ; for we sunk, spoiled, 
and took many of them^ and they diminished of ours but one 
small pinnace, nor any man of name, save only Captain Cocke, 
who died with honour amidst his company." 

Queen Elizabeth, though not prodigal of her pecuniary 



CHARLES HOWARD, KARL OF NOTTINGHAM. 109 

favours, suffered not the services of this nobleman to go unre- 
warded, but presented him with a suitable pension. 

Notwithstanding the defeat of this armada, the Spaniards, for 
a series of years, kept up a show of hostilities against England. 
In 1.^95, Don Diego Brochero, with four gallies, landed in 
Cornwall, and destroyed the towns of Mousehole, Newlin, and 
Penzance. In the following year, to revenge this outrage, aji 
expedition was planned, to destroy Use Spanish fleet in the har- 
bour of Cadiz. A squadron was accordingly fitted out, consist* 
ing of a hundred and twenty-six ships, seventeen of which were 
the queen's, with 7000 troops on board. These were joined 
by a Dutch squadron of twenty-four sail, under Admiral Van 
Duvenwoord, subordinate to Lord Effingham, as commander iu 
chief of the naval purt of the expedition. The command of the 
land forces was given to the Earl of Essex. This armament 
sailed from Plymouth on the 1st of June, and arrived before 
Cadiz on the 30th. 

" After a prosperous voyage," says Colliber, c< and the seizing 
of several ships belonging to the Hanse Towns, the licet being 
arrived before Cadiz, an attempt was immediately made to land the 
troops ; but this was prevented by the hard wind. Whereupon 
the Spaniards taking the alarm, about sixty large ships, bound 
some to the Indies and others to Lisbon, and about twenty gallics, 
came out and drew into a line ot battle, before the entrance of the 
bay under the cannon of the forts. These were bravely attacked 
on the llth of June (old style) and after a sharp engagement, a 
great galleon, called the St. Philip, and two others, were left by 
the Spaniards, and burnt to prevent their falling into the hands of 
the English; two large ones, of about 1,200 tons each, were 
boarded and taken, and the cst forced on shore. The gallies 
hereupon retired to the bridge called Puente de Huaco, from 
whence they afterwards found means to escape to Rota. So rich 
were the ladings of the ships which were forced on shore, that the 
Spaniards agreed to pay two millions and an half of ducats to pre- 
vent their being destroyed. Tin's victory being won, the Earl of 
Essex, without loss of time, landed with about three thousand men, 
and marched directly to the city ; before which, finding a con- 
siderable body of Spaniards, both horse and foot, he charged them 
with so much vigour, that, afti-r a hot dispute of about an hour, 
they were put to tixe rout and pursued to, the very gate. The 



HO BtOGRAMIICAl, MEMOIR OF 

English without delay, set themselves to scale the walls ; and 
before eight in the evening, in spite of all resistance, they saw 
themselves masters of the city and forts. I5ut the castle holding 
out, the general sent a summons to the governor, with a threatening 
to put the garrison to the sword, if he did not -submit before the 
nextmorning : upon which, hesoon after surrendered. Thus were t\vo 
battles won, and a strong and rich city taken in the space of four- 
teen hours. The next day, the Spaniards chose rather to set fire 
to their ships that lay on shore, than to pay the sum agreed on for 
their ransom. Which so provoked the English, that hating plun- 
dered the city, they reduced it to ashes, sparing only the fine 
cathedral, and the religious houses. After this they landed in Por- 
tugal, and burnt the city of Faraon, and so returned triumphantly 
to England, after having done the enemy so much damage as was 
computed to amount to twenty millions of ducats." 

The prudence, moderation, and experience of Lord Effing- 
ham, united to his great reputation amongst the officers and men 
under his command, were the chief causes of the success which 
the English met with in this expedition ; and the entire conduct 
of his lordship was so satisfactory, that, on his return, the queen 
advanced him to the dignity and title of Earl of Nottingham, as 
a descendant from the family of Mow bray. Her Majesty, in 
his patent of creation, dated on the C2d of October, in the same 
year, thus assigns her reasons for the honour conferred: 
" That, by the victory obtained, anno 1588, he had secured the 
kingdom of England from the invasion of Spain, and other 
impending dangers, 1 and did also, in conjunction with our dear 
cousin Robert, Earl of Essex, seize by force the Isle, and 
strongly fortified the city of Cadiz, in the farthest part of Spain ; 
and did likewise entirely rout and defeat another fleet of the 
King of Spain, prepared in that port against this kingdom." 

When the new Earl of Nottingham first entered the House of 
Peers, he was received with the most lively and unusual marks 
of congratulation ; strongly testifying how deserving he was 
thought of his fresh-acquired dignity. 

Queen Elizabeth shortly afterwards made him justice-itinerant 
of all the forests south of Trent for life. 

In 1599j under the apprehension of Another attempt on thq 



CHAP.LES HOWARD, CAUL OF NOTTINGHAM. Ill 

part of Spain; and, on learning that the Earl of Essex, then 
Lord Deputy of Ireland, had treated with the rebels whom he 
had been sent to reduce, and was meditating a hostile return to 
England- a formidable fleet was expeditiously equipped, which, 
with the land forces, was placed at the unlimited disposal of the 
Earl of Nottingham. For six weeks, that nobleman bore the 
unprecedented title, with almost supreme power, of Lord 
Lieutenant-General of all England. The alarm, however, passed 
over ; the newly-raised troops were soon disbanded ; and it was 
not until the year 1GOI, that his lordship had any farther oppor- 
tunity of exercising his conduct or courage. At the time 
alluded to, Essex, having quitted his post in Ireland, had given 
himself up to rebellion, and fortified himself in his house in the 
Strand. Nottingham, by speedily compelling him to surrender, 
drew forth fresh encomiums from his royal mistress; and, in the 
same year, he was appointed one of the commissioners for 
executing the office of Eaii Marshal of England. 

.Nothing can be a stronger proof of the high estimation hi 
which her Majesty held the Earl of Nottingham, than the free- 
dom with which she imparted to him her wishes, respecting the 
order of succession; considering that it was a disclosure for 
which she had been in vain supplicated by her most favoured 
ministers. Her throne, she told him, teas a throne of kings; 
and, by her signs, while on her death-bed, she directed the 
appointment of James of Scotland, as her successor. 

The queen's attachment to the Earl of Nottingham is the 
more remarkable, when we recollect that his countess had been 
the perpetrator of an act, which is thought to have materially 
accelerated her Majesty's end. We allude to her unprincipled 
and barbarous detention of the ring, which the Earl of Essex 
had received from the queen, as a mark of her royal favour ; 
and which, in the hour of peril, when death was impending over 
his head, he confided to the hands of the countess, in the well- 
founded hope of awakening mercy in the royal breast.* 

* Vide ANDREWS'S Confirmation of Henry' s History of' Britain, Vol. I. 
pajc 199 to 201. 



BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIR or 

^The accession of King James by no means impaired the 
telebrity of the Earl of Nottingham. He was continued in his 
office of Lord High Admiral ; at the coronation, he was made 
Lord High Steward of England ; in the year following, on 
renewing the commission, for exercising the office of Earl 
Marshal, he was again appointed one of the seven Lords Com- 
missioners ; in 1604, he was nominated one of the commission- 
ers to treat of an union between England and Scotland ; and, in 
1605, he was sent upon the most brilliant embassy to Spain 
that this country had ever deputed. The object of his mission 
was, to receive the oath of the King of Spain, to the treaty of 
peace which had been lately made with him ; and he had a par- 
ticular instruction, that, in performing that ceremony, which was 
most likely to be in the royal chapel, he should have especial 
care, that it might be done, not in the forenoon, in the time of 
mass, but in the afternoon, at which time the Romish service is 
most free from superstition. 

The Earl of Nottingham was employed on this embassy, not 
from the greatness of his fortune, but from the known generosity 
of his temper, and the number 6f his dependants, who, at their 
own charge, were proud to accompany him on the voyage. In 
nis retinue were six peers, and fifty knights; who, says an old 
historian, being " persons of quality, accoutred with all orna- 
ments suitable, were the more admired by the Spaniards for 
beauty and excellency, by how much the Jesuits had made 
impressions in the vulgar opinion, that since the English left the 
Roman religion, they were transformed into strange horrid shapes> 
with heads and tails like beasts and monsters !" 

During the Earl's stay at the Spanish court, the dignified 
splendour of his diplomatic character procured the admiration 
and respect of the people ; and, at his departure, Philip III. 
made him preserits to the amount of 20,000/. 

By his well-timed, and even necessary ostentation, he had 
done honour to the English government, at least as much as to 
its agent ; yet it was some time before he could erase, from the 
mind of James, the unfavourable impression which his enemies 
had made,, by their mischievous animadversions on his magni- 



CHARLES HOWARD, EAR!. OF NOTTINGHAM:. 113 

ficence. Those men were well acquainted with the temper of 
their master, to whom nothing was more offensive than a popular 
and respected subject. Frequently he would observe to his 
nobles, -when at court, that they zcere there but little vessels, 
sailing round the master-ship ; zchereas, in the country, they 
were so many great ships, each riding majestically on its own 
stream, and more distinguished. 

The earl, however, regained the confidence of his Majesty; 
and on the marriage of the Lady Elizabeth to the Elector 
Palatine, in 16 13, he assisted at the ceremony, and afterwards 
had the honour of escorting her, with a squadron, to Flushing. 

He continued to occupy the post of Lord High Admiral till 
die 6th of February, 1619; when, having enjoyed it for about 
thirty-three years, and finding the infirmities of age approach, he 
voluntarily resigned it, in favour of Villiers, at that time Ear], 
and afterwards Duke of Buckingham. His estate being rather 
contracted, and having lately married a young wife, his Majesty, 
sensible of the services which he had rendered to his country, 
remitted him a debt of 13,000/. due to the crown; settled on 
him a pension of !000/. a year, for life; and granted him the 
place and precedency of John Mowbray, who had been created 
Earl of Nottingham by King Richard II. at the time of his 
coronation. 

The Earl of Buckingham paid a visit to his veteran prede- 
cessor, returned him thanks for having resigned, and made his 
young countess a present of SCOO/. He constantly treated him 
with the utmost respect, always called him father, and bent his 
knee whenever he approached him. 

By his first wife, Catherine, daughter of Henry Gary, Lord 
Hunsdon, the Earl of Nottingham had two sons and three 
daughters : by his second wife, Margaret, daughter of James 
Stuart, Earl of Murray, in Scotland, he had two sons. 

After a life, which had been employed to the most beneficient 
ends, his lordship expired, on the 14th of December, 1624, at 
the advanced age of eighty-eight. He had lived in a most splen- 
did and magnificent manner, keeping " seven standing houses at 
once ;" and he left behind him the character of a good, honest, 
and brave man. 

>* Tfrcn. ftol.XVIII. 



114 



NAVAL ANECDOTES, 
COMMERCIAL HINTS, RECOLLECTIONS, 



NANTES IN GURGITE VASTO. 



LORD NELSON S MONUMENT. 

V the 4th of July, the foundation was laid on Portsdown 
Hill, near the road leading to Borchurst, of a monument to 
the memory of Lord Nelson, by the means of a subscription of the 
officers, marines, and sailors of the fleet under his command at the 
battle of Trafalgar. This honourable token of their attachment 
to him and to their nation's glory, is to combine with it national 
utility, it being so situated, from nautical observations made, as to 
become a sea-mark for safely conducting vessels into Portsmouth 
harbour to avoid the shoal of St. Helen's. It will be a very 
elevated pillar, although the subscription is a limited one ; govern- 
ment having, we understand, freed the stone of the expense of the 
duty, and the farmer holding a lease of the ground on which it is 
to b,e erected, as well as Mr. Thistlewaite, the lord of the manor,, 
hajiug offered the grant of it without purchase. 

DIALOGUE BETWEEN AN ENGLISH SAILOR AND A 
CHINESE TAILOR. 

COMING out of a shop, one day, in Hog-lane (Canton) says 
Johnson, in his a Oriental Voyager, or Descriptive Sketches, 4"c." 
the sight of a jolly looking tar advancing up towards the door, 
induced me to stop till he should go past : a tailor, however, who 
stood at the door of the shop, opposite to where I was, hailed him, 
with the common salutation of " D n mine eyes, Shack ! vat fare ? 
vat zcant buy?" The sailor, who had just come to town, turning 
carelessly about, and entering the shop, replied, a What zcant 
buy ? why you mallet-headed porpus, I want to buy a uclch wig, 
WITH SLEEVES TO IT. The China man (to whom the complimen- 
tary epithet was equally unintelligible as the demand of the welch 
wig) taking it to be some article of dress, handed down a pair of 
blue trowsers fom one of the shelves, and asked him if it was 
<; dat dare fashion." No, cried the tar ; " d n my eyes, this is 
no more like a welch wig with sleeves^ than a, pound of tobacco's 
like a puncheon of rum." 



NAVAL ANECDOTES, &C. 115 

The force of. this outre simile was likewise lost on the poor 
tailor, who, however, perceiving that he had not hit on the right 
article, continued to hand clown one thing after another, until he 
had nearly ransacked the whole shop; the son of Neptune all the 
while pouring out a torrent of nautical jests and sarcasms on the fat 
Chinaman's stupidity; who, by this time, having his patience 
pretty nearly exhausted, and bundling up his wares, somewhat 
peevishly remarked, that " lie no could savez dat damn fashion I 
but it' Shack would bring mmta^ he would hab make in two days.'* 
The tar now fixed on a red baize night-cap, and explained to the 
tailor how he was to put sleeves to it, at which the China man, 
laughed heartily; but knowing the humour of the sailor, he com- 
plied, after the latter had deposited a dollar by way of security; 
then taking the bearings of the shop, he marched further on to 
make some other eccentric bargain, 

NEWLY-DISCOVERED SHOAL. 

THE following are the particulars of a shoal, not marked in 
the charts, on which the ship General Wellesley struck, on her 
passage from the straits of Macassar to Pontiana. Lat. 1 19 S. 
computed long. 108 4o' E. of Greenwich. 

At G A.M. the body of Caramatta bore E. the south extremity 
of Loretta S. E. by E. distant 8 or 9 leagues, 20 fathoms: 15 
minutes before 10 A.M. the ship running 7 f or 8 knots, struck 
with a most violent shock, laying her over at the same time con- 
siderably: however, she passed between the rocks without losing 
much of her way: they were apparently 5 or 6 feet, but some of 
them only 3 or 4 feet,, under water : hauled off N.N.W. and had 
from 12 to 13 fathoms, till 10 minutes before noon, when she passed 
over a sand bank, with only 6 fathoms on it : deepened suddenly 
into 13. 14, and 15 fathoms, soft ground. 

IMPROVEMENTS IN THE HARBOUR OF CALCUTTA. 

CHAIN moorings are now laying down for securing shipping 
abreast of Calcutta, on a plan which it is hoped by the most com- 
petent judges will produce great savings in ground tackling to 
ships, and secure vessels more effectually from drifting, than by the 
methods heretofore adopted. Moorings for six sail are already 
laid down, and several ships have been hauled to them : they are 
to be laid for 24 sail. Vessels of 500 tons or under to pay 200 
sicca rupees per month : vessels of larger dimensions., 250 rupees. 



11(5 KAVAI, ANECDOTES, 

EXTRACT OF A LETTER FROM A GENTLEMAN ON BOARD 
HIS MAJESTY'S SHIP LEOPARD, DATED CHESAPEAK 
BAY, JUNE 24, 18O7. 

WE arrived here on the 21st instant, and, agreeably to the 
orders of the Hon. Vice-Admiral Berkeley, (in the event of meet- 
ing the United States frigate Chesapeak, to search her for deser- 
ters, of whom we had information,) the next morning the signal 
was made from the Bcllona to proceed to sea, which we did, at 
nine o'clock this morning ; the Chesapeak was then passing the 
Bellona, about three miles within us. We stood to the S.E. with 
the wind at S.VV. until eleven, when it shifted to E. which retarded 
the progress of the frigate, being obliged to beat out. We kept 
on a wind, under easy sail, until she got within two miles of us, 
when she shortened sail, and we bore down to her; we were about 
twelve or fourteen miles from the land; when sufficiently close, the 
Captain hailed, and said he had despatches from the British com- 
mander in chief the answer was, " Send them on board, I shall 
heave to," which he did accordingly. An officer was sent on 
board with the admiral's order, and a letter from Captain Hum- 
phreys, saying, he hoped to be able to execute the admiral's order 
in the most amicable manner ; and after the commodore read the 
order and letter, he told him that his orders from his government 
were most peremptory in not suffering any foreigner to muster his 
ship's company, but that he would write an answer to Captain 
Humphreys' letter, if he would be the bearer of it to him. After 
having answered in the affirmative, he wrote, saying that he had no 
deserters, and that his instructions prevented his allowing the 
Chesapeak to be searched. He returned with this answer, after 
being on board forty minutes. As the admiral's order was 
positive, there was no alternative but force -so we edged down to 
her, and Captain Humphreys hailed, and said, that Commodore 
Barron must be aware that the order of the British commander in 
chief must be obeyed. The only reply made to this (which was 
thrice repeated) was, ll 1 do not understand what you say." . 
Now, as we were to windward, and heard distinctly his answers, 
it is evident he also must have heard what Captain Humphreys 
said. Orders were then given to fire a shot across her bows from 
the lower deck j after a minute another, and in two more, no 
satisfactory answer being given, Captain Humphreys ordered the 
fire to be opened on her, beginning with the foremost gun, and in 
succession after ; but as the order was not perfectly understood, a 
broadside was poured into her; Commodore Barron then hailed,, 



COMMERCIAL HINTS, RECOLLECTIONS, &C. 117 

when orders were given to cease firing, but as he said he was onljr 
going to send a boat on board, and as they were preparing to 
return the fire, it was supposed an artifice to gain time, and orders 
were again given to fire bvo broadsides more were the result, 
when she struck. Two lieutenants, with several midshipmen, 
went then on board the Chesapeak to search for deserters, and 
after being there three hours, returned with four, three belonging 
to the Melampus, and one to the Halifax; the latter is the fellow 
who abused Lord J. Townshend at Norfolk. Commodore Barroa 
wrote to Captain Humphreys, saying, that he considered the 
Chesapeak as his prize, and that he was ready to deliver her up to 
any person authorized to receive her. Captain Humphreys 
replied, (hat as he had executed the orders of the commander in 
chief he had nothing more to do with her; that he must forthwith 
join the rest of the squadron, and that he not only lamented, most 
sincerely, the necessity that compelled him to violent measures, but 
that if he could render the Chesapeak any service, he would cheer- 
fully do it. In short, Captain Humphreys has conducted himself 
throughout the whole of this unpleasant transaction, in the most 
praise-worthy manner, as an officer and gentleman. He has more 
humanity in his composition than most mankind : you may then 
suppose his feelings were none of the most comfortable on this 
occasion. The Chesapeak returned but a few shot; they were 
scarcely prepared when we began, and were thrown into such con- 
fusion that the greatest part of the people deserted their quarters. 

The number of men killed on board the Chesapeak, according 
to their own statement, was six, and 23 wounded. 

Twenty-six shot went through the hull, seven between wind and 
water; the sails were completely riddled, and I hare not a doubt, 
but that in ten minutes more she would have gone down ; the sea 
being so smooth every shot told after the first broadside, which was 
chiefly at the rigging. 

Commodore Barron was slightly wounded in the leg by a splin- 
ter he behaved in the coolest way imaginable, and stood in the 
open gang-way the greater part of the time. 

ADMIRAL BERKELEY'S ORDERS. 

J5y the Honourable GEORGE CRANFIELD BERKELEY, Vice-Admiral of the 
White, and Commander in Chief of' hix Majesty's Ships and Vessels employed 
in the River St. Laurence, along the coftst of Nova Scotia, the Islands of 

St. John, and Cape Breton, the Bay of , and at and about the Inland 

of Bermuda or Summer Islands. 

" WHEREAS many seamen, subjects of his Britannic Majesty, 



118 NATAL ANECDOTES, 

and serving in his ships and vessels, as per margin,* while at anchor 
Sn the Chesapeak, deserted and entered on board the United States 
frigate, called the Chesapeak, and openly paraded the streets of 
Norfolk, in sight of their officers, under the American flag, pro- 
tected by the magistrates of the town and the recruiting officer 
belonging to the above-mentioned American frigate, which magis- 
trates and naval officer refused giving them up, although demanded 
by his Britannic Majesty's consul, as well as the captains of the 
ships from which the said men had deserted. 

<c The captains and commanders of his Majesty's ships and 
vessels under my command are therefore hereby required and 
directed, in case of meeting with the American frigate the 
Chesapeak at sea, and without the limits of the United States, to 
shew to the captain of her this order, and to require to search his 
ship for the deserters from the before-mentioned ships, and to pro- 
ceed and search for the same ; and if a similar demand should be 
made by the American, he is to be permitted to search for any 
deserters from their service, according to the customs and usage of 
civilized nations, on terms of peace and amity with each other. 

" Given under my hand at Halifax, Nova Scotia, 1st June, 
1807. " G. C. BERKELEY." 

To the respective Captains and Commanders 
of his Majesty' 's Ships and Vessels on the 
Jlorth American Station. 

NEW YORK MEETING. 

At a general Meeting of the Citizens of New York, held in the Park, on 
Thursday, July 2, 1807, the Hon. DE \\JIT CLINTON was unanimously 
called to the Chair, and General JACOB MORTON was unanimously appointed 
Secretary to the Meeting. 

HAVING received, with the most lively indignation, authentic 
information that on the 22d ult. an attack, unwarranted by the 
known usages of nations, and in violation of our national rights, 
was made oft' the Capes of Virginia, on the United States frigate 
Chesapeak, Commodore Barron, by his Britannic Majesty's armed 
ship the Leopard, Captain Humphreys, the citizens ot New York, 
assembled in general meeting, deem it to be their duty to express 
their opinions on this fresh outrage oilcred to their national 
sovereignty by the navy of Great Britain. 

u Resolved, That it is, and has been the policy of our govern. 
* Belleisle, Bellona, Triumph, Chichester, Halifax, and Zenobiix cutter. 



COMMERCIAL HINTS, RKCOt-LECTIOXS, &C. 119 

merit, and the wish, because it is the interest of our citizens, to be 
at peace M'ith all the world. 

" Resolved, That although we cherish peace with the greatest sin- 
cerity, yet that we hold ourselves ready, at the call of our govern- 
ment, to resist all infringements of our national rights, and viola- 
tion of our national honour. 

" Resolved, That we consider the dastardly and unprovoked 
attack made on the United States armed ship Chesapeak, by his 
Britannic Majesty's ship Leopard, to be a violation of our national 
rights, as atrocious as it is unprecedented. 

" Resolved, That we are determined to maintain the rights and 
dignity of our country with our lives and fortunes, and that we 
will support our government in whatever measures it may deem 
necessary to adopt, in the present crisis of affairs. 

" Resolved, That whatever differences of opinion may exist 
among us on our merely local concerns, yet that we love our 
country, and will cordially unite in resisting the attempts of any 
nation to invade our rights, or tarnish our national honour. 

" Resolved, That the offending ships at Hampton Roads have 
wantonly violated the laws of, and forfeited their title to national 
hospitality. 

" Resolved, That we highly approve the spirited and patriotic 
conduct of our fellow-citizens at Norfolk, Portsmouth, and 
Hampton. 

" Resolved, That we deeply lament the death of those of our 
fellow. citizens who fell, and sincerely sympathise with those who 
were wounded on board the Chesapeak. 

" DE WITT CLIXTOX, Chairman. 
" JACOB MORTON, Secretary. 

PROCLAMATION, 

BY THOMAS JEFFERSON, PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED 
STATES OF AMERICA. 

DURING the wars which, for some time, have unhappily pre- 
vailed among the powers of Europe, the United States of America, 
firm in their principles of peace, have endeavoured by justice, by a 
regular discharge of all their national and social duties, and by 
every friendly office their situation has admitted, to maintain, with 
all the belligerents, their accustomed relations of friendship, hospi- 
tality, and commercial intercourse. Taking no part in the 
questions which animate these pow ers against each other, nor per. 
aitting themselves to entertain a wish but for tha general restora- 



1*20 NAVAL ANECDOTES, 

tion of peace, they have observed, with good faith, the neutrality 
they assumed, and they believe that no instance of a departure 
from its ditties can be justly imputed to them by any nation. A 
free use of their harbours and waters, the means of refitting and 
refreshment, of succour to their sick and suffering, have, at all 
times, and on equal principles, been extended to all, and this too 
amidst a constant recurrence of acts of insubordination to the laws, 
df violence to the persons, and of trespasses on the property of our 
citizens, committed by officers of one of the belligerent parties 
received among us. In truth these abuses of the laws of hospita- 
lity have, with few exceptions, become habitual to the comman- 
ders of the British armed vessels hovering on our coasts and fre- 
quenting our harbours. They have been the subject of repeated 
representations to their government. Assurances have been given 
that proper orders should restrain them within the limit of the 
rights and of the respect due to a friendly nation ; but those 
' orders and assurances have been without effect; and no instance 
of punishment for past wrongs has taken place. At length, a deed, 
transcending all wte have hitherto seen, or suffered, brings the pub- 
lic sensibility to a serious crisis, and our forbearance to a necessary 
pause. A frigate of the United States, trusting to a state of peace, 
and leaving her harbour on a distant service, has been surprised 
and attacked by a British vessel of superior force, one of a squadron 
then lying in our waters and covering the transaction, and has 
been disabled from service, with the loss of a number of men 
killed and wounded. 

This enormity was not only without provocation or justifiable 
cause, but was committed with the avowed purpose of taking by 
force, from a ship of war of the United States, a part of her crew, 
and that no circumstance might be wanting to mark its character, 
it had been previously ascertained that the seamen demanded were 
natives of the United States. Having effected his purpose, he 
returned to anchor with his squadron within our jurisdiction. 
Hospitality under such circumstances, ceases to be a duty; and a 
continuance of it, with such uncontrouled abuses, would tend .only, 
by multiplying injuries aud irritations, to bring on a rupture 
between the two nations. This extreme resort is equally opposed 
to <he interests of both, as it is to assurances of the most friendly 
dispositions on the part of the British government, in the midst of 
which this outrage has been committed. In this light the subject 
cannot but present itself to that government, and strengthen tha 
motives to an honourable reparation of the wrong which has been 
done, and to that effectual controul of its naval commanders, 



COMMERCIAL HINTS, RECOLLECTIONS, &C. 121 

xvhich alone can justify the government of the United States 
i;i the exercise of those hospitalities it is now constrained to dis- 
continue. 

In consideration of these circumstances, and of the right of 
every nation to regulate its o.vn police, to provide for its peace and 
for the safety of its citizens, and consequently to refuse the 
admission of armed vessels into its harbours or waters, either in 
such numbers, or of such description, as are inconsistent with 
these, or with the maintenance of the authority of the laws, I hare 
thought proper, in pursuance of the authorities specially given bv 
law, to issue this my PROCLAMATION, hereby requiring ail 
armed vessels bearing commissions under the government of Great 
Britain, now within the harbours or Avaters of the United States, 
immediately and without any delay to depart from the same, and 
interdicting the entrance of all the said harbours and waters to the 
said armed vessels, and to all others bearing commissions under the 
authority of the British government. 

And if the said vessels, or any of them, shall fail to depart as 
aforesaid, or if they or any others, so interdicted, shall hereafter 
enter the harbours or waters aforesaid, I do in that case forbid all 
intercourse with them or any of them, their officers or crews, and 
do prohibit all supplies and aid from being furnished to them OP 
any of them. 

And I do declare and make known, that if any person from, or 
within the jurisdictional limits of the United States, shall afford any 
aid to any such vessel, contrary to'the prohibition contained in this 
proclamation, either in repairing any such vessel, or in furnishing 
her, her officers or crew, with supplies of any kind, or in any 
manner whatsoever, or if any pilot shall assist in navigating any of 
the said armed vessels, unless it be for the purpose of carrying 
them, in the first instance, beyond the limits and jurisdiction of the 
United States, or unless it be in the case of a vessel forced by 
distress, or charged with public despatches, as hereinafter provided 
for, such person or persons shall, on conviction, staffer all the pains 
and penalties by the laws provided for in such offences. 

And I do hereby enjoin and require all persons bearing office, 
civil or military, within or under the authority of the United 
States, and all others, citizens or inhabitants thereof, with vigi- 
lance and promptitude to exert their respective authorities, and to 
be aiding and assisting to the carrying this proclamation, and every 
part thereof, into full effect. 

Provided, nevertheless, that if such vessels shall be forced into 

IS&fc. <!>ron. OtoLXVUl. n 



122 NAVAL ANFXnOTES, 

the harbours or waters of the United States, by distress, by (he 
dangers of the sea, or by the pursuit of an enemy, or shall outer 
them charged with despatches or business from their government, 
or shall be a public packet for the conveyance of letters and 
despatches, the commanding officer immediately reporting his vessel 
to the collector of the district, stating the object, or causes of 
entering the aid harbours or waters, and conforming himself to 
the regulations in that case prescribed under the authority of the 
laws, shall be allowed the benefit of such regulations respecting 
repairs, supplies, stay, intercourse, and departure, as shall be per- 
mitted under the same authority. 

In testimony whereof, I have caused the seal of the United 
States to be affixed to these presents and signed the same. 

Given at the city of Washington, the second day of July, 

in the year of our Lord, one thousand eight hundred and 
[See/] seven, and of the sovereignty and independence of the 

United States the thirty. first. 

TH. JEFFERSON. 
By the President, 
JAMES MADISON, Secretary of State. 

CORRESPONDENCE BETWEEN CAPTAIN DOUGLAS, OF HIS 
MAJESTY'S SHIP BELLONA, AND THE MAYOR OF NOR- 
JOLK IN AMERICA. 

*' His Majcs'y's ship Bellona, Hampton Roads, 
"SIR, July*, 1807. 

11 I beg leave to represent to you, that having observed in the 
newspapers a resolution, made by a committee on the 2Cth ult. 
prohibiting any communication betwecnhis Britannic Majesty's con- 
sul at Norfolk, and his ships lying at anchorin Lyi hav^n Bay, and 
this being a measure extremely hostile, not only in depriving the 
British consul from discharging the duties of his office, but at the 
same time preventing me from obtaining that information so abso- 
lutely necessary for his Majesty's service, I am therefore deter, 
mined, if this infringement is not immediately annulled, to prohi- 
bit every vessel, bound either in or out of Norfolk, to proceed to 
their destination, until I know the pleasure of my government, or 
the commander in chief on this station. Von must be perfectly 
aware, that the British fiag never has, nor will be insulted with 
impunity. You must also be aware, that it has been, and is still 
in my power, to obstruct the whole trade of the Chesapeak, since 
the late circumstance, \vhich I desisted from, trusting that general 



COMMERCIAL HINTS, RECOLLECTIONS, &C. 123 

unanimity would be restored. Respecting the circumstance of the 
deserters, lately apprehended from the United States frigate 
Chesapeak, that, in my opinion, must be decided between the 
two governments alone. It therefore rests with the inhabitants of 
Norfolk either to engage iii war or remain on terms of peace. 

" Agreeably to my intentions, I have proceeded to Hampton, 
Roads, with the squadron under my command, to await your 
answer, which I trust you will favour me with without delay. 
" I have the honour to be, Sir, 

" Your obedient humble servant, 

" J. E. DOUGLAS." 

" To Richard Lee, Esq. Mayor of 
Notfolk, Virginia? 

" P, S. I enclose you two letters, directed to the British con- 
sul at Norfolk, which you will be pleased to forward him. 

"J. E. D." 

The mayor convened the recorder and aldermen, when the 
following answer was agreed on, and ordered to be sent: 
"SIR, " Norfolk, July 4, 180f. 

(( I have received your menacing letter of yesterday. The day 
on which this answer is written, ought of itself to prove to the 
subjects of your sovereign, that the American people are not tj be 
intimidated by menace, or indin d to adopt any measures, . *cept 
by a sense of their perfect propriety. Seduced by the false sho\r 
of security, they may be sometimes surprised and slaughtered, 
while unprepared to resist a supposed friend : that d> lusive security 
is now, however, passed for ever. The late occurrence has taught 
us to confide our safety no longer to any thin- but our own force. 
We do not seek hostility, nor shall we avoid it. We are prepared 
for the worst you may attempt, and will do whatever shall be 
judged proper to repel force, whensoever your efforts shall render 
any act of ours necessary. Thus much <or the threats of y ur 
letter, which can be considered in no other light than as addressed, 
to the supposed fears of our citizens. 

" In answer to any part of it, which is particularly addressed t0 
me, as the first judicial ollicer of this boiough, I have but to say, 
that you must be aware, that the judiciary ot no country posscses 
any other powers than those conferred upon it by the law. 

" The same channel through which you have derived the intelli- 
gence stated by yourself, must have also announced to you, that 
the act of which you complain is an act of individuals, and not of 



121 NAVAL ANECDOTES, 

the government. If this act be wrong and illegal, the judiciary of 
this country, whenever the case is properly brought before it, will 
take care to do its duty. At present it hath no judicial informa- 
tion of any outrage on the laws, and therefore will not act. 

lt If you, Sir, please to consider this act of individuals as a mea- 
sure extremely hostile,' and shall commence hostility without 
waiting the decision of our two governments, although you your- 
self acknowledge that it properly belongs to them alone to decide, 
the inhabitants of Norfolk will conform to your example, and pro- 
tect themselves against any lawless aggression which may be made 
upon their persons or property ; they therefore leave it with you, 
either to engage in a war, or to remain on terms of peace until the 
pleasure of our respective governments shall be known. 

" Your letters, directed to the British consul of this place, have 
been forwarded to him. 

" I have the honour to be, Sir, 

" Your most obedient servant, 

" RICHARD E. LEE, Mayor." 

" To John E. Dm/glas, Esq. cmnrnanding 
his Britannic Majesty's ships in Hamp- 
ton Roadn." 

The bearer of the above letter, made the following report to 
the Mayor of Norfolk, respecting the interview which he had 
\vith Captain Douglas: 

"Sin, Norfolk, July 5, 180r . 

*' In pursuance of your request, I this day went down to the 
Kritish squadron, lying in Hampton Roads, for the purpose of 
delivering the letter with which I was charged to Captain Douglas. 
On arriving along-side of h : ,s ship the Bellona, I was invited on 
board, and received by Captain Douglas himself at the gang-way, 
and conducted to his cabin, where I found assembled all the cap- 
tains of the squadron. I immediately informed him, that you had 
yesterday received a letter from him, the answer to which 1 had 
been requested to deliver, and placed it in his hand. He read the 
letter very attentively, and then handed it to Captain Hardy, from 
whom \\ passed to the other captains in succession. When they 
had all perused it, Captain Douglas observed to me, ' 1 presume, 
Sir, you are acquainted with the contents of this letter.' I told 
him 1 was perfectly so. He then stated that his letter must 
have been misapprehended, that it contained no expression of 



COMMERCIAL HINTS, RECOLLECTIONS, &C. 125 

menace which he recollected, and that certainly it was not his 
intention to use language which could be construed to convey such 
ideas. He referred to Captain Hardy, saying, that he had shewn, 
him the letter previously to its being sent, and had requested his 
opinion as to its sentiments. Captain Hardy concurred with 
Captain Douglas in the opinion and objects of the communication. 
I then remarked to them the particular expressions in the letter, 
which I considered as the language of threat, and adverted to the 
circumstance of the words ' immediately annulled," being under- 
scored. He said, that this underscoring must have been done by 
his clerk, without his direction, and had escaped his observation ; 
but again assured me, upon his honour, that if any expression in 
the letter wore the appearance of a threat, it was not to be so 
understood. 

" Captain Douglas next adverted to the conclusion of the letter, 
in which the alternative of peace or war is left to himself. He 
said upon this subject, that he had no orders to commit any act 
of hostility, and that there was no man from whose intention or 
wishes sueh an object was more remote; that he was anxious to 
preserve the relations of amity which had existed between the two 
governments, and that no act of his should tend to interrupt their 
harmony, unless he was ordered by his superiors to perform such 
acts, in which case, as an officer, he must do his duty. He 
repeated, however, that he had at present no suh orders, nor 
did he expect to receive such. He stated, that he had it in his 
charge generally, to guard his flag, and those under its protection, 
from insult or assault of any kind, and that this in all situations he 
must unquestionably do; but that any further measure he was not 
at present authorised, nor was it his intention to take. I here 
stated to him the many insulting menaces which had been com- 
municated in Norfolk, as coming from him. He positively denied 
ever having uttered any such; declared, if they had been used by 
any of his officers, that they were unauthorised, and disapproved 
of by him, remarking, at the same time, that he hoped all who 
knew him, would do him the justice to believe, that he M r as not in, 
the habit of using the language of threat. He here too again refer- 
red to all the officers to say, if they had ever heard him at any- 
time, even while speaking confidentially to them, utter such ex. 
pressions ; and they united in declaring that they had not. , 

ii A desultory conversation then took place between Captain 
Douglas, the other captains, and myself, which continued nearly 
an hour, in the course of which many remarks were made, which, 
had no reference to the subject of your letter, or were in any way 



12(5 NAVAL ANECDOTES, 

connected with it. These, Sir, I have already communicated to 
yourself, and to all my fellow citizens, with whom I have conversed 
upon this subject; but as they are not connected with the subject 
of your letter, I presume it would be unnecessary again to detail 
them here. In the course of this conversation, I described to them, 
as well as I was able, the sentiment which universally prevailed 
through the country at tin's time, the cause from whence it pro- 
ceeded, and the effects it would produce, provided any eitorts 
on their part should be made to oppose the public resolves, as to 
intercourse or supplies. I explicitly declared, that we had as yet 
received no authority from our government to proceed to acts of 
aggression, but that we were authorised, and were prepared for 
defence, and for the protection of ourselves and property ; to prove 
which. I placedin the hands of Captain Douglas, an extract from the 
letter of Governor Cabel, to Brigadier-General IViathews, which 
I had made for that purpose. I concluded by warning him again 
not to send any of his officers or people on shore; for that if he 
did, the arms of the civil authority, 1 did not believe, would be 
able to protect them from the vengeance of an enraged people; 
that this might lead to consequences which might possibly be yet 
averted ; and if he was sincere in the sentiments he had expressed, 
he would be anxious to prevent such results. Captain Douglas, 
and all the captains, declared, that they were aware of the present 
state of the public feelings, and deplored the circumstance which 
had excited it ; that they did not intend to expose any of their 
people to the resentment of ours, which they could conceive was 
highly inflamed; that as to supplies they did not want any at pre- 
sent, but when they did, they should not attempt to procure them 
iq any way which would excite the opposition of the citizens of 
this country. 

" Upon the subject of intercourse, he did not expect to hold 
any with the people of this country, nor was there any occasion 
for it. He only wished to be permitted freely to communicate 
with the accredited officer of his government here, who had been 
formally received and recognized by our executive, and whose 
functions he presumed none but the government had a right to put 
down. As to the particular manner in which this communication 
might be carried on, it was a matter quite indiflerent to him. He 
had no objection to that being regulated by ourselves, in any way 
which is judged proper, and that he would certainly pursue the 
mode which might be suggested as most agreeable to us, provided 
the channel of communication was kept free and open. To this 
J ^tated, that I had no authority from any person, to enter in,to any 



COMMERCIAL HINTS; RECOLLECTIONS, &C. 127 

engagement with him; but that as an individual I would state, 
that the letters he had forwarded under cov r to you had been 
safely delivered, and that therefore, I presumed any other de- 
spatches of a like kind would be treated in the same way. But 
upon this subject, I could only refer him to you and your associ- 
ates for information. He then stated that he would to-day write 
an answer to your letter, which he would forward as before, and 
I left his ship, Captain Douglas again repeating the substance of 
what I have already staled. 

<c From the moment I approached the Bellona, to that on which 
I left h::r, my treatment from Captain Douglas, and all hrs officers, 
was marked by as much attention, politeness, and respect, as any 
gentleman ever received from others. My particular friend Mr. 
James Taylor, jun. accompanied me on board the British ship, for 
reasons that will at once suggest themselves to you, when you 
remember the delicate and embarrassing situation in which I might 
be placed. He remained on board the whote time with me, and 
was a witness to every thing which passed. I have read to him 
this communication, Sir, in order to ascertain if my recollection 
was correct, and he accords with me in every statement here made. 

" I have fonva dt-d a copy of this letter to the governor of Vir- 
ginia, and to the Federal Executive, believing that at this time it 
is the duty of every citizen to keep his government well informed 
of every thing which may be useful. 

"1 am, respectfully, Sir, 

li Your most obedient servant, 

" L. W. TAZEWELL." 

" To Richard E. Lee, Esq. Mayor 
of the Borough of Norfolk." 

The subjoined letter from Captain Douglas, is in reply to the 
Mayor of Norfolk's communication of July the 4th : 

" His Majesty s ship Bellona, Hampton Roads, 
*' SIR, the Qlh of July, 1807. 

" I have the honour to acknowledge the icceipt of your letter 
of the 4th instant, in answer to mine of the preceding day, request- 
jn 6 that the British Consul might be restored to his powers. 

' A- i-very circumstance relative to the above communication 
w,!* so lul y discussed in presence of the gentlemen deput.-.d by the 
JVi gi tracy ot Norfolk, as bearers of your despatch, I have only 
iu addition to remark; that as far as 1 am individually 



128 NAVAL ANECDOTES, 

every exertion, shall be used that can, consistent with the honour 
and dignity of the British flag, tend to an amicable termination. 
11 I have the honour to be. Sir, 

*' Your obedient humble servant, 

J. E. DOUGLAS." 
" To Richard E. Lee, Esq. Mayor of the 
Bwough of Norfolk, Virginia." 

STATEMENT OF THE AMERICAN NAVY. 

Ships of 44 guns. 

United States, Chesapeak, 

Constitution, Philadelphia, 

President. 

Ships of 36 guns. 

Constellation, New York. 

Congress, Insurgent. 

Ships of 32 guns. 

Boston, General Greene, 

Essex, Adams, 

George Washington, John Adams. 

Estimate of the number of persons composing the crezss of the 
navy of the United States. 

5 frigates, of 44 guns and 400 men 2000 

4 ditto 36 3GO 1440 

2 ditto 32 265 530 

4 ditto, smaller .. 32 214 356 

8 ships, of 20to26 180 1440 

3 sloops of War.. 18 140 420 

2 brigs 16 to 18 100 200 

5 ditto schooners.. 12 to 14 70 350 

7 gallies ... 28 196 

Total, including marines 7532 

COBBETT'S STRICTURES ON THE DIFFERENCE WITH 
AMERICA. 

THE late search of the American frigate Chesapeak, by his 
Majesty's ship Leopard, has called forth numerous animadversions 
in our daily and weekly prints; but none of them we think is so 
deserving of notice as the following, from the pen of Mr. Cobbett. 
That gentleman resided several years in America; is known to 
possess an intimate knowledge of the manners, dispositions, politi- 



COMMERCIAL HINTS, RECOLLECTIONS, &C. 129 

cal opinions, &c. of the inhabitants of that country; and conse- 
quently, his sentiments must be of some weight on the subject. 
They accord too, with the opinions of other well informed 
persons. 

" The ministers have said, in the House of Commons, that they 
are not fully informed upon the subject of the late naval squabble 
about our searching for deserters in American vessels of war : and 
I was very sorry to hear Mr. Perceval say what seemed to indicate 
a decided disposition to yield. If they do yield, if they follow 
the advice of a morning paper, (which, for years, seems to have 
had a general retainer from the Americans) our navy will not 
be long lived. Mind, I do not pretend to say, that we may not, 
in this instance, have been in the wrong; because there is nothing 
authentic upon the subject; nor am I prepared to say, that our 
right of search, in all cases, extends to ships of war ; but of this I 
am certain, that if the laws of nations do not allow you to search, 
for deserters in a friend's territory, neither do they allow that 
friend to inveigle away your troops or your seamen, to do which is 
an act of hostility, and I ask for no better proof of inveigling, 
than the enlisting and the refusing to give up such troops or sea. 
men. The American statement I do not believe; and, were there 
no other witnesses, I would not believe it upon the oaths of all 
their sea captains put together. The fault of our officers upon 
that station has been excessive forbearance. We have suffered 
greatly from our tameness towards those states. Our comman* 
ders (with some few exceptions) have discovered the feelings of 
traders to America. The insults and injuries they have endured 
were disgraceful. The Americans are like the worst sort of 
women : they will set up a terrible outcry. They will beat 
Admiral Berkeley in lungs ; but, if we keep a firm foot, they will 
soon listen to reason. Poor Captain Barron and his frigate! I 
dare say, that this swaggering blade (who is doubtless, dubbed 
Commodore) has a thousand times said, that he wished for such an 
opportunity as this. I can form a very accurate conception of the 
rage of the people at Norfolk, and of the noisy town-meeting; 
and their burning of the water casks of the Melampus is perfectly 
in character, putting one in mind of the savages, who used to de- 
stroy the boat tackling of Captain Cook, and to murder his strag- 
gling mariners, when one of their queens or princesses had beeu 
induced (without much importunity) to commit a faux pa^ with 
some one or other of the crew. As to poor Commodore Barron, 
I should not wonder if they were to eat him alive. Their rage 
must be beyond all bounds, and if, in their manner of 

f3as. err/ton. gjoi*xviU. 



ISO NATAL AXCCDOTES, 

it, they should appear to be very nice, all I can say h, they are 
grea ly reformed. Tlic morning paper I have alluded to, seems to 
anticipate an itiad of woes from a war with the American States. 
I thought I h.id proved to its editor, that that country could not 
go to war with us, without producing its own destruction as a 
political body. If necessary, twill prove it to him again. But I 
would not, because I am morally certain of this, commit an act of 
inj'fiticff towards America. I would only demand and insist upon 
the rights of England; and above all other things, 1 would insist 
upon it, that America should not be permitted to destroy the 
Britfsh navy. We are n ot, observe, to judge of the feelings of the 
people of America, properly so called, by what we read in their 
base and ignorant newspapers, any more than we arc to judge of 
the feelings of the people of England by what we read from the 
London daily press. Nor is the conduct of the rum-soused rabble 
at Norfolk any criterion. More than one half of the- people of 
America are disgusted at the base partiality which is shewn to our 
enemies ; and, though the other part is by far the mo.st noisy, 
I venture to predict, that, when time has been taken to cool men's 
minds, the voice of our friends, and the friends of justice will pre- 
vail. They icill not go to war zcith us without justifiable cause ; 
without some a,ct of clear injustice on our part, their government 
will not venture upon such a measure ; and as I am pretty certain 
that our fault will not be on that side, I conjure the ministers to 
remain firm. In all disputes with America, there is a set of per- 
sons amongst us who are always ready to presume ugdinxt ourselves. 
This is intolerable, and that, too, while our presumption ii exactly 
the ( ontrary with respect to disputes between us and every other 
feeble power. The reason is, that there arb so many persons 
here who have property in the American funds ; that there are so 
many partners in American mercantile houses^ as they are called; 
and that there are so many opulent manufacturers, who keep thou- 
sands of English wretches to u work and weep," for their own 
profit, and for the clothing of the Americans : this is the principal 
reason of a partiality so unnatural, and so disgraceful to our cha- 
racter." Pca'.-e^ peace," s::ys Mr. VVhitbread. Aye, pvacc as 
soon as possible; but if you mean sub mission, I am for putting it 
oil' to the last moment. I am far, God knows my heart, from 
relishing sufo-nission at home; but let my country hold up her 
head at any rate. JM dismissing this subject for the present, I ln-g 
leave just to add-, -that if we permit the Americans to iiiTeig'e and 
detain our seamen. *ye cannot have a navy. The Americans will, 
hi fa - t, recruit tor Fraucc, and Euglund will be beaten by our own 
seamen." 



COMMERCIAL HlXfS, RECOLLECTIONS, &C. 131 

LIST OF THE DANISH NAVY. 

Christian the Seventh and iSVptunis, very fine ships, of 84 guns 
each, Kron Printz Maria, >kiolu, Waidemar, P. Sophia Frederica, 
Odin, Ary, Printz PredVrick, Three Cronens, and two other 
ships, of 74 each ; one of 70; two new line-of-battle ships on the 
stocks; Ditu arsen, Syeren, anil Justicia, of 64 guns each ; Peb- 
len, Ayaden, and Rota, of 44, and Venus, of 36 : those are block 
ships, which are equal to our oS's ; liawtruen, Iris, and Freyja, 
01 36 each; two frigates, of 32 each, as guard-^hips ; Fredk 
Sk-tn, of 2S; a brig and a praam, of V>0 each ; three or four small 
brigs and luggers. 



CORRESPONDENCE. 

MR. EDITOR, Wootoicii, J*Iy 25, 1807. 

A S you \\ish every one to send you such intelligence as they 
can procure, connected with Hie plan of your CHKOMCLK, 
the following may perhaps prove acceptable. S. S. 

There are thrte ships on the stocks here. The St. Domingo, 
80 guns, built with oak from the Rhine, which it is feared will not 
answer; the Undaunted frigate, 38 guns, built after the model of 
the Lively, and the Invincible, 74, laid down last January twelve, 
month, remained untouched six months, and will be launched next 
month. 'IheYork, 74 guns, anew ship lately built here, went 
into dock on a Monday evening to be coppered, and came out the 
Tuesday following, at three o'clock in the evening. Jler loucr 
masts also are in. The number of the royal marine corps amounts 
at present to near 30,000 men. 

Five companies of artillery, and two troops of horse artillery, 
are just ordered for foreign service, with garrison stores. Copen- 
hagen has been mentioned as their object, to secure it from the 
French. 

Mil. EDITOK, 

TTIVO any of your correspondents know the particulars of a 
chanty which is said to exist for the relief of poor seamen, 
soldiers, and their families? I have met with the following 
account of it, amongst some old papers, and wish to inquire, by 
means of your Naval Chronicle, whether it is correct. 



132 CORRESPONDENCE. 

*' On application to the aldermen, or the lord mayor, and soli* 
cuing a ticket, you may receive of the chamberlain, the sum of 41. 
arising from the legacy left by Sir J. Lar.gham, to the lord 
mayor and court of aldermen of the city of London, in trust, 
towards raising a fund for the relief of poor seamen, soldiers, and 
their families. As the sum cannot be sufficient to supply every one 
who needs it, it is thus distributed : the lord mayor has four 
tickets, and each alderman two, to dispose of yearly, and whoever 
they favour with a ticket, receives 41. upon giving a receipt for 
the same at the chamberlain's office without any deduction. Such 
as cannot find a friend, may obtain a ticket by petitioning to the 
lord mayor, or aldermen, or by going personally to the mansion 
house, where the ticket is sometimes granted to them. 

" Three years servitude in the navy or army, is quite sufficient to 
entitle a person to the benefit of it; but it has been much abused, 
and is very little known amongst those objects whom it is princi- 
pally intended to relieve." 

I4PS^^> 

MR. EDITOR, Lloyd's Coffee-Home, August 20, 1307. 

A T a time when the protection of our commerce is so 
essentially necessary to every part of the community, and 
attention to our convoys of tjie utmost importance, I am per- 
suaded the following honourable testimony of the merit of an 
individual will not only prove acceptable to your readers, but be 
the means of creating a spirit of emulation in such persons as 
are frequently placed in a situation similar to that of Captain 
Broad. 

Trusting you will think this communication worthy of a place 
in your valuable publication, I remain, Sir, 

Your obedient servant, 
AN UNDERWRITER, & CONSTANT READER. 



" His Majesty's ship G fat ton, Malta, 
tc GENTLEMEN, April 23, 1807. 

" I think it but justice to Mr. Broad, master of the ship Phoe- 
nix, trading to Smyrna, to acquaint you, that during the time ho 
sailed under the Glatton's convoy, from the 6th of February, to. 
the 27th of March, 1807, he was remarkably attentive to my 






CORUESPOXDEXCE. 133 

orders and signals, repeating them with promptness on all occa- 
sions, and contributing very much (on our passage from Tenedos 
to Malta) to its safety, by voluntarily affording me his assistance 
to keep the vessels composing it within the limits of the Glatton'* 
protection. I have the honour to be, 

' GENTLEMEN, 
u Your most obedient humble servant, 

(Signed) " THO. SECCO^BE." 

To the Gentlemen of Lloyd's 
Coffee-House, London. 



PASSAGE OF THE DARDANELLES. 
MR. EDITOR, 

HE enclosed Journal has accidentally come into my posses- 
sion : I am not acquainted with the writer of it, but it bears , 
evident marks of being a genuine account of the passing and re- 
passing the Dardanelles : as such I transmit it for insertion in 

the NAVAL CHRONICLE. 

A SUBSCRIBER. 

We sailed from Constantinople on the 29th of January, 1807, 
between the hours of ten and eleven o'clock at night, in his 
Majestys ship the Endymion, Captain Capel ; and such was the 
hurry in which we went off, that both her cables were cut: we 
carried easy sail all the night, and anchored the following evening 
at Galipoli : on the morning of the 31st, we sailed for the Darda- 
nelles, and passing Point Fesquin, where the Turkish fleet was 
anchored, we saluted the Captain Pacha, whose flag was flying on: 
a frigate- of 06 guns, and which returned our salute gun for gun. 
Soon after we passed the Straits of Sestos and Abidos, where we 
saluted the castles according to custom, and had the salute returned. 
We anchored about two or three miles below Abidos, when we 
joined Sir Thomas Louis, in the Cancpus, together with the 
Thundererer and Standard line of battleships: here all the Bri- 
tish subjects, who wore brought away from Constantinople, by 
the ambassador, were distributed on board the several ships of 
war, and I was embarked in the Standard, Captain Thomas Har- 
vey. About four o'clock, P. M. of the same day, the squadron, 
weighed, and dropt to the entrance of the Hellespont, and remained 
thereuntil the following morning, 1st February, when we weighed 
again, and anchored oil the island of Tenedos soon after. 

Ou the 6th February the Active frigate arrived from Malta, 



134 CORRESPONDENCE. 

with fie infclligencc of the ar.nvi' at that place of Sir John Duck* 
Worth, having the command of five sail of the line and two bombs, 
and of their intending speedily to join us. On the 8th February, 
the Glatton man of war arrived from Smyrna, having on board 
the English Gentlemen and their families, who had left that place 
by order of the ambassador. On the I Oth February, in the fore- 
noon, the squadron under the orders of Sir John Duckworth 
joined usj consisting of the Royal George and Windsor Castle, 
three deckers, the Pompee, Admiral Sir Sidney Smith, the Re- 
pulse and Ajax, two deckers, and the Lucifer and Meteor bombs. 
On the llth February, in the morning, the whole fleet weighed, 
and stood for the entrance of the Dardanelles, but the wind not 
being fair, we were obliged to anchor off Cape Janissary. The 
Glatton, with a convoy of morc.lant ships, which she brought 
from Smyrna, remained at anchor off Tenedos. Nothing of any 
consequence transpired in the fleet till on the nig'U of the 14th of 
February, when signals of distress were made by the Ajax, and 
presently after she was perceived to be on fire. The rapidity 
of the flames was such, that in less than a quarter of a i hour the 
whole ship was one entire blaze. She then parted her cables, and 
drifted on the island of Fenedos, where she was entirely consumed. 
Notwithstanding every possible assistance was afforded to the 
Ajax by the ships of the sqnadron, more than three hundred and 
fifty men perished in the flames, or met a watery grave. 

On the 19th February the wind being fair, the Admiral made 
the signal, at day-break, for the whole fleet to weigh, and shortly 
after the whole squadron stood for the entrance of the Dardanelles, 
in line of battle, as follows : Canopus, Sir Thomas Lewis, led the 
van ; Repulse ; Royal George, Sir John Duckworth ; Windsor 
Castle; Standard, having the Meteor bomb in tow ; Pompee, Sir 
Sidney Smith ; Thunderer, having the Lucifer bomb in tow ; and 
the Endymion and Active frigates following. Our ship, and the 
Thunderer and Active frigates were previously put under the 
orders of Sir Sidney Smith, and had consequently hoisted the blue 
ensign. As soon as the leading ship was abreast of the first 
castles, they opened a brisk fire upon it, and continued so, as 
each ship passed in succession until the squadron was through. 
Not a single gun was fired by our line of battle ships at the first 
eastles ; the Lucifer and Meteor bombs threw a few shells at 
them : a heavy discharge of cannon also was continued upon us 
from some batteries erected on the heights of the European coast 
of the Hellespont. The van ship of the line having reached the 
eastles of Sestos and Abidos,. a most tremendous cannonade was 



CORRESPONDENCE. 135 

opened by them, which was briskly returned by each ship in hen 
turn. We next came to a Turkish fleet, which was anchored 
off Point Pesquin, and covered by a mud battery of thirty-seven 
guns ; it consisted of a line of battle ship, and eleven other ships 
of war, including frigates, corvettes, brigs, and gun-boats. Our 
ran ships exchanged shots with the Turkish fleet as well as with 
the battery of Point Pesquin, and having passed, anchored about 
three or four miles above the Point. On our coming abreast of 
the enemy's fleet the signal was made by Sir Sidney Smith to the 
ships of his division to engage it, and presently after the Pompee, 
Thunderer, and Standard, anchored Avithin shot of them, the Active 
continuing under sail. Our ship anchored in the midst of the 
Turkish fleet, and within three hundred yards of the battery of 
Point Pesquin; we continued a close engagement with the enemy 
for three-quarters of an hour, when the Turkish ships of war cut 
their cables, and drifted on shore ; our firing also flanked the bat- 
teries, the Turks could not stand to their guns, and made off with 
the greatest precipitation. Such also of the crews of the Turkish 
fleet as could make off, got on shore ; the rest were taken out by 
our men, and landed on the point, after which the ships were set 
on fire, and all of them blown up, except a corvette, which was 
le"t at the Straits of Point Pesquin in charge of the Active frigate. 
The loss on our side was very trifling, when compared with the 
arduous task which we had to perform, or the slaughter on the 
part of the Turks. Stone shot of between the weight of 7 and 
800 Ibs. were discharged at us from all the Turkish castles, 
and several struck our ships, but the damage was trifling. Our 
ship received no damage from the large shot of the castles, but 
was the greatest sufferer of any, having been materially damaged 
in her masts and rigging. 

The Turkish fleet having thus been destroyed, and the guns of 
the batiory of Point Pesquin spiked, our next care was to repair 
our damage, which having done, we were again under weigh, and 
ready for action at four o'clock in the afternoon. 

It is to be observed, that the Standard's boat, which was de-r 
spatchcd with Captain Nichols, of the Royal Marines, hud the 
honour of carrying off the Captain Pacha's flag, which continued 
flying until it was struck by Captain Nichols himself. 

Having no\T joined the Admiral in chief, and the signal for 
weighing being made to the ships which weiv anchored with him, 
the whole squadron sailed, and stood for Constantinople, with a 
Tery strong fair wind, but not having carried much sail during the 
and the wi.od lessening next day, \ve readied the Prince'* 



135 

Islands with difficulty that night, where we anchored. During our 
stay at this anchorage, the Admiral having obtained information 
that the Turk* had thrown troops and guns on the island of Proti, 
near which the fleet was anchored, and on which the only habita- 
tion existing is a Greek monastery, inhabited by a few monks and 
nuns. Orders were issued for boats manned and armed, to drive 
the Turks away, and for the Repulse to weigh and cover their 
landing. The Turks, as sooa as they saw the boats coming, 
took to their boats, and made off; our men landed, and brought 
off the cannon vhich were on the island. On the CTening of the 
same (lay the Admiral got in forma* i*n that some Turks that could 
not effect their escape in the morning, had taken refuge in a 
monastery. Several boats were immediately manned and armed, 
and sent on shore; an attack was accordingly made on the monas- 
tery, but the Turks being expert rifle men, picked off our men as 
they advanced, and such was the slaughter, that they were obliged 
to retreat, leaving the dead bodies on the island. Captain Kent, 
of the Royal Marines, belonging to the Canopus, and Lieutenant 
Belislc, of the Royal George, were killed ; several men also lost 
their lives, and several officers and men were wounded. Thus 
the Turks were suffered to enjoy their victory, no attempt being 
made after to drive them away. 

On the 21st, at day-break, I was despatched to Constantinople 
in a flag of truce, with letters for the Turkish Government, from 
the Admiral in chief and the ambassador. In our way to the 
harbour we stopped a boat with two Greeks in it, who informed 
us that the greatest bustle prevailed in the city, and that great war- 
like preparations were gaing on ; that the greatest tranquillity pre- 
vailed in it until the 20th, at nine o'clock in the morning, when a 
Turkish brig of war which saw the British fleet pass the Darda- 
nelles, cut her cables, and brought the intelligence to the Porte. 
AVe remained negociating with the Porte till the 1st of March, 
and the signal having been made for sailing, we weighed and stood 
tacking off and on the coast of the Seven Towers until night; 
af;er dark, we shaped our course for the Dardanelles. On the 
2d of March, in the evening, the signal for anchoring being 
made, the squadron dropt anchor accordingly three or four miles 
above Point Pcsquin, where it remained till next morning 3d 
March, when we all again made" sail and stood for the Straits of 
the Dardanelles : previous to our weighing anchor, the Turkish 
corvette which was left at Point Pesquin in charge of the Active 
iri^ate, was given to a few Turkish prisoners, and she hoisted 
TutkisU colours. As soon as the squadron got \vithiu shot oi' the 



battery of Point Pesqnin, the Turks commenced firing- ivpon- -us, 
and continued a well-directed fire until the whole squadron -was 
through, oiir ships returning a very brisk cannonade; the castles 
of Sestos and Abides, as well as all the other batteries we passed, 
successively engaged with us, until we were beyond the reach ^>f 
their guns, and we anchored off Cape Janissary. 

When we were abreast of the castle of Sestos, we received a stone 
hot weighing 770 pounds, six feet eight inches in circumference, 
and two feet two inches in diameter j it entered our lower deck, 
killed five people out right, .and having set fire to the salt boxes 
"which were on the deck for immediate use, caused an explosion 
-Which wounded forty. seven, men. The alarm being given of (he 
ship's being on fire, several of the men jumped overboard, and 
were never more heard of. Some of the other ships of the iieet 
also received large stone shots ; the Windsor Castle in particular 
had her mainmast shivered to pieces by one of them. On-the 7th 
of March, in the morning, we were joined in the roads of Tenedos 
by a Russain fleet of seven sail of the line, all two deckers, and 
two frigates, under the orders of Vice-Admiral .Chechauff, and 
Rear- Admiral Creig. 

I embarked the 10th March on board the Windsor Castle, Cap&/ 
Boyles, going to Malta to repair her damage, and sailed tiie lith 
March, in the morning, leaving the rest of the English squadron, 
together with the Russian lleet, at an anchor in the roads of 
Tenedos. On the 2()th March, at twelve o'clock at noon, we 
anchored in the harbour of Malta. 

N.B. The following is a copy of the Commander in Chief'g 
letter of thanks to the officers, &c. under his command. 

" Royal George, wilhou 1 . the Dardanelles, 
. 4th, March, 1807. 

tl Although unforeseen and insurmountable obstacles prevented 
the squadron under my command from effecting at Constantinople 
the objects which it had in view, I cannot refrain from offering my 
most heartfelt acknowledgments to all who have so nobly contri- 
buted their exertions throughout the arduous- service in which wa 
have Jbeen engaged. To Rear-Admiral Sir Thomas Louis, who, 
with the gallantry and cool judgment which marked his character, 
led the squadron, and to Rear-Admiral Sir Sidney Smith, I beg,- 
to present my sincere thanks for their able assistance, as well as, 
to the captains, officers, seamen, and royal marines;, for the steady 



138 COHRSflPOXDEWCX. 



winch has been so eminently displayed, in forcing awi 
returning through a passage so strongly fortified by nature and 
by art, and which had till now been deemed impregnable. 




To the Rear-Admirals, Cnp'ttins, Officers, Seamen, 
and Royal Marines nf the Squadron. 
*^'^-^> 

MR. EDITOR, 

E following excellent observations are intimatelv con* 
nected with the subject of your NAVAL CHRONICLE. 
They appeared lately in the Sun newspaper, j^nd are worthy of- 
being made more known, and preserved in your useful work. 

J.S. 

Britannia suis stat viribus non arbitrio alieno pendet. 

Jn support of our maritime wa against France and her depen- 
dencies, we are, as I began to .shew in my last letter, well pro- 
yided with the means of keeping up our superior navy. Concern- 
ing materials, I must further observe, that we have many very 
large manufactaries for the making of canvass in the province of 
Bengal, and it is well known that the coir or rind of the cocoa 
nut, which abounds in every part of India, would supply us with 
all we can want of very excellent cordage. 

In addition to the ship timber from Rangoon, in Pegu, we have 
woods of prime growth for ship-building, in the neighbourhood of 
Prince of Wales's Island, where several fine vessels hare already 
been constructed. In Nova Scotia so great is the supply of wood, 
for masts of every size and length, that a commercial man lately 
solicited from Government a contract to supply therewith the 
whole British navy. 

France has indeed now in her possession all the forests of Ger- 
many, and the dock -yards of the continent, with a line of coast 
from Cadiz to the Elbe, and therefore she may, in the course of 
time, create for htxsdf an enormous navy ; but let it be recol- 
lected that at least one third of that navy would be captured and 
conducted into Uritish ports ; and. already, French bottoms mako 
no trifling proportion of our marine. Be it observed, too, that 
French s. amen are by no nu-ans comparable with ours: they are 
trained and formed in harbours, wh re they must necessarily bo 
cooped up through fear of 'he British navy, whereas it is a well 
known, fact that nothing but actual sea service, and that for a 



CORRESPONDENCE. 139 

tttuch longer period 4 haa we shall ever allo^r the French to be at 
m:a.y can form an efficient marine- witness the superior skill AI A. 
sea presence of mind iu our Biiiivh t.u in the action of Trafalgar^ 
wherein the labour of years in navo.l architi cture. and, thr !i:- t 
efforts of France and Spain, were annihilated in a tew hou . 
Such will ever be the discomfiture of fleets disciplined in port, p,; - 
ticularly in the aukward French discipline, and especially when 
they encounter a isritUh fleet, whose seamen are inured to tne 
service, and seldom, or but little, on shore. 

With regard to the present system of blockading the enemy's ports 
I need say little, because, 1 believe it is in the contemplation of 
^the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty to alter it i'or a service 
of less wear and tear to our shipping ; but with regard io trade, 
I contend that, by a maritime war, we s';a.ll suffer far less injury 
than the enemy, for our British crnizer? and squadrons must so 
distress if not entirely cut up French commerce, that their nil r- 
chants must become bankrupts, and their manufactories and trad, 
ing towns be in a state of ruin : on the other hand, whatever 
foreign trade there is, we shall have it ; all the carryiug trade, if 
there should be war with America, will be ours; and !;er;iuse the 
continent of Europe, from long usage, cannot comfortably sub- 
sist without the produce of our manufactories, and of our coloni ?, 
it will be beyond the p >wer of the Frtnch ruler to exclude import- 
ations for any great length of lime ; even* now, a very lucrative 
trade is going ou between ns and both sides of Spanish America, iu 
spite of every prevention ot the Spanish government. Our ii;,;. 
nufactures will tind their way over the continent, and the only 
difference will be, that the enemy will be obliged to buy arie.u-s 
dearer than before : and though it be confessed, that the short and 
t emendous wars of Buonaparte have wonderfully enlarged the 
te/ritory, and proved highly lucrative to he French soldiery, as 
wars of pillage, yet a maritime war of long continuance will aid 
check to check, and spread over the continental nation> s ch 
trouble and vexation as may induce revolt. The French armies 
must line their own coasts, and having nothing to tlo, will \vaste 
away in luxury and iu inglorious ease. 

Savior annis 

Luxuria incubuii victumquc abutitur orbem. 

They will become armies of impotence and contempt to their 
native country ; while we, by maritiuu war, shall more aiui aiorts 
have strength and power to clap a naval extinguisher upon Uicir 
pride of conquest and now brilliant successes. 

1 am, Sir, 
1307. PRO A OBIS. 



140 

PLATE CCXXXVin, 

MR ET^ITOR* 

FJE annexed plate represents his Majesty's ships Swlftsnr* 
and Emerald, off the Tower of Mirabou, near Alexandria^ 
in Egypt. 

General Fraser, and the expedition under his command, 
landed at Mirabou> which is situated on a small rocky island, and 
commands the entrance of the new harbour of Alexandria, from 
whence a reef of rocks extends inlu the sea to this place. 

It was on this situation that the French, after our having 
destroyed several vessels, and made an attempt to cut out a galley, 
from within the-reef, erected two strong batteries. We frequently 
annoyed them -whilst accomplishing this work by a broadside or 
two from the Swiftsure. On the 2d September 1799, when off 
Mirabou, we chased a cutter of the enemy's, with despatches from 
France to Buonaparte ; the captain, through the persuasion of 
General Coutamin, (who was proceeding to join the army in 
Egypt) ran his vessel on shore a litile to the westward of Mira- 
bou ; most of the crew made good their landing, but the surf soon 
destroyed the civtter. 

At this moment nothing was to be seen but barren uncultivated 
lands as far as the eye could reach, but in a short time we descried 
several Arabs: the enemy now perceived their error, but it was 
too late! seven of them were fortunate enough to get on board 
our boa's, owing to the humanity of one of our midshipmen, who$ 
at the imminent hazard of his life, swam through a tremendoiu 
surf to the shore with a rope in his hand, by which means the 
French captain and six of his men were saved. 

The French, on shore, repeatedly hailed our boats to be taken 
onboard. The officers and men suffered themselves to be strip. 
ped by the Arabs, without resistance ; many were murdered ou 
the spot without;any cause ; the rest were carried up the country. 
Amongst the former was the unfortunate French general and his 
aid-decamp, who on f heir knees entreated for merry : an Arab 
on hors'-back unslnng his carbine, and drew the- trigger, but the 
piece missed fire; he renewed the priming, and again presented it 
at the general ; the shot killed the aid-de-camp, who was on his 
knees a HtHe bfhind him. The Arab then, with a pistol, shot 
the general : the courier- alse, who endeavoured to escape, was 
followed, and murdered. Tha despatches were afterwards reco- 
yered by the Frcnrh for a sum of money. , 

A troop of horse now appeased en the beach from Alexandria, 



KAY AX. LITERATURE, 14$ 

but on arriving at the spot where lay their murdered countrymen, 
fearing lest they should be surrounded by superior numbers, they 
wheeled about, and returned to the city. Buonaparte afterwards, 
by a flag of truce, praised the conduct of General Coutamin, in 
, endeavouring to cut his way through the Arabs to the city of 
Alexandria, rather 1 than surrender to the British squadron. 

J. T. LEE. 



NAVAL LITERATURE. 

"fhe Oriental Voyager ; or Descriptive Sketches and Cursory 
Remarks, o.-i a f vjage to India and China, in his Majesty'* 
Ship Caroline, performed in the years 1803-4-5-6. inter* 
spersed fith Extracts j'rom the best modern Voyages and 
Travels. The zzhole intended to exhibit a topographical and 
picturesque Sketch of all the principal Places which ate annually 
or occasionally visited by our East India and China Fleets. 
The Routes to and J'rom India, illustrated by the Tracks of hti 
Majesty's Ships Caroline and Medusa, correctly set off on a 
Chart) extending from the British Isles to Canton* By J, 
JOHNSON, Esq. Surgeon in the Royal Navy. 8vo. pp. 388. 
10s. 6d. bds. Asperne. 1807. 

THE nature of this work is accurately described by the 
title-page ; in addition to which, the author informs us, in 
his preface, that his sole object " is, to furnish the yourif* 
voyager with an agreeable and useful companion, on his first 
visits to the oriental world. In order to effect this purpose, 
he has been under the necessity of selecting such passages from 
the most respectable voyages, travels, &c. as were descriptive of 
those places which the author himself had not had an oppor- 
tunity of visiting; taking care, notwithstanding, to distinguish 
them as such, and without attempting to plume himself in 
borrowed feathers, to affix to each extract its authority, however 
disadvantageous it might be to his own descriptions." 

There is a candour in this mode of proceeding for which Mr. 
Johnson deserves credit. 

The plan of the work having been pourtrayed, we proceed to 
notice its executien, and, summarily, to analyse i's contents. 

In the spring of tSOS, the Caroline, of 36 guns, commanded 
by Captain Puge, having been fitted out for the home station. 



145 -NATAL LITERATURE. 

with three months' provisions on board, was ordered to proceed 
to Cork, to wait for farther instructions. On the 24th of May, 
the Caroline left that port, with a king's messenger on board, 
bearing the declaration of war against France, and orders (to be 
opened in a certain latitude) to detain all vessels belonging to 
the Balavian republic. 

Until their arrival off Madeira, little deserving of notice 
occurred ; but the author takes leave to suggest, to captains of 
Indiamen, whether, with respect to water, it might not be 
preferable to suffer the men to drink what they please at the 
scuttle-butt, to serving it out in allowances, as is usually the case. 
Jn the latter mode, much of the water, he observes, is spilled, 
by the motion of the ship ; added to which, the idea of restriction 
will frequently excite a kind of thirst, and inclination for more 
than is really necessary. In the Caroline, though their stock 
was but small* the men were permitted to drink as much as they 
chose at the scuttle-butt, but not to take any water from thence, 
unless for the express purpose of cooking, or for the sick. 

The appearance of Madeira is thus described : 

" At day-light this morning (June 10) we found ourselves close 
in with the north-east point of Madeira ; and as the sun arose, 
the whole prospect of Funchal, and the surrounding villas, 
churches, c. burst upon our view. This bay has a truly roman- 
tic and beautiful appearance. The town (the houses of which are 
all white, and look remarkably well) lies at the bottom of the 
bay ; and the ground, forming the extremities of the latter, rises at 
first with a gradual, and afterwards with a very stet-p ascent, in 
the form of an amphitheatre. From the sea up the steep part, the 
whole is covered with vineyards, villas, orangeries, churches, and 
convents, rising in gradation, and forming a most picturesque land- 
scapa ; while the steep cliffs, raising their fantastic and wood-clad 
summits above the clouds, majestically crown the whole." 

After going on shore, in the British consul's barge, Mr. 
Johnson, and his companions, had a ludicrous rencounter at the 
governor's. Having waited for some time in the audience 
chamber, the doors flew open, and there entered, with a pro- 
fusion of bows, a splendidly-dressed gentleman, to whom the 
party, concluding it to be the governor, in propria persona, 
tnade their obeisauce. He proved, however, to be no more 



NAVAL LITER ATCnE. 143 

than the avanf courier of the governor, who entered amidst the 
awkward confusion which the explanation had occasioned. 
This reminds ns of an incident in th&Jife of one of our poets 
Dryden, if our memory be correct who, once having occasion 
to wait upon a duke, composed a very flowing harangue, which 
he delivered, in due form, on the entrance of " a splendidly- 
dressed gentleman." He had just learned, to his inexpressible 
confusion, the error into which he had fallen, by mistaking the 
duke's valet for the duke, when his grace entered. But the 
poet's eloquence had fled ; he was not in a mood for making an 
extempore speech ; and the duke missed the felicity of hearing 
(unless he heard them at second hand, from his valet) the 
elegant compliments which had been framed, to tickle the vanity 
of his grace ! 

Mr. Johnson visits the respective churches, convents, and 
monasteries, of the island ; and presents a general sketch of the 
country, geographical, geological, &c. On the 6th of July, he 
crossed the equator. The ceremony, upon this occasion, is 
accurately and amusingly detailed. " On the night of the 4th 
of September," says our author, " we saw the fires on the 
mountains of Ceylon, after a passage of one hundred and four 
days ; without the least preparation for a long voyage, yet 
without losing a man by sickness, during this long run of upwards 
of thirteen thousand miles. There did not appear a single 
symptom of scurvy during this voyage ; which can only be 
accounted, by the discipline and cleanliness of the ship's com- 
pany." 

" The coast (says he) along this part of Ceylon, especially close 
to the shore, very much resembles the English coast between Yar- 
mouth and Ipswich ; except that along this boach appear nume- 
rous groves of cocoa-nut trees, interspersed with Indian huts, or, 
as they are here called, bungalow. Behind this, the scenery is 
truly romantic ; the hills and nioun'auis rising in the Wildest order 
and most fantastic shapes imaginable : abrupt precipices, pleasant 
Tallies, thick groves, towering cl ill's, and lofty mountain-, are here 
seen intermingled iu ' regular confusion,' and clothed in nature's 
most verdant lirery ; affording a delightful prospect and relief to 



144 RATAC tTTEBATVBK. 

the eye of- the mariner, fatigued with the dull monotony of a loaf 
sea voyage. 

* ';"' Ondy's heights 



Burst on the view- 



All forms assuming, bold abrupt grotesque.* 

O'erlookiug glens sequester'd vallies rich 

Meandering rivers, and the ocean wide.' 

Cf From the singular appearance of some of those hills, mariner* 
Bave been induced to confer on them as. whimsical titles ; such as 
the Friar's Hood, Dromedary's Back, and various other appella- 
lions, from their fancied similitude to animals, or other objects.'* 

Having come to an anchor in Madras Roads, Mr. John- 
son thus describes the mode cf crossing the surf, in order to 
effect a landing : 

*' As ships' boats never attempt to land at this place, there are 
a number of the country, or, as they are called, Massulah boats, 
kept by the India, government to attend on. such ships as are lying 
in the roads ; for the men of war there are generally two, to cross 
the surf to the ships' boats, which lie at a grapnel outside. Thes 
boats are of very rude construction ; flat-bottomed, high, and the 
planks sewed together by a fibrous substance, that gives the tim- 
bers great play while crossing the surf. They are rowed by eight 
or ten men, who sit upon narrow thwarts, that cross from gunwale 
to gunwale; and use, instead of- common oars, long pieces of bam- 
boo, to the extremities of uhi^h are tied small oval pieces of 
boards ; with one of these oars lashed to the stern, the boat is steer- 
ed, the man standing upon a little platform or quarter-deck raised 
abaft; before and below which is thtJ seat for the passengers ; the 
luggage stows on a parcel of brush-wood that lies in the bottom of 
the boat, which is generally so leaky, that a boy is kept constantly 
bailing out the water. The men are. perfectly naked, except a 
small piece of rag tied round their loins ; and thus equipped, they 
pull towards the shore, with a song whose harshness to the 
European ear no words can describe. 

As the surf at this settlement is perhaps the greatest in the 
world, there seldom passes a monsoon without the loss of several 
lives; and consequently the settlers are very averse to crossing it. 
In common weather there arc only two or three distinct surfs, the 
outermost of which is the largest, and most dangerous ; but in bad 
weather, and especially at the breaking up of the monsoons, the 
*!irf sometimes has been known to break as far out as where the 
hips lie at anchor. It is very interesting to see these Mussnlah 
boats, with the men lying on their oars, on the very verge of 



NAVAL LITERATURE. . . 145 

surf, waiting, and carefully watching, till a very large one has 
broke close within them ; when they immediately pull in, with all 
their might, and with a united concert of vocal music, that might 
well rival the war-whoop. of the American savages. By these means 
they generally contrive to pass the place where the outer surf breaks, 
in the interval between two surfs, when the danger is over. This, 
however, was not the case the first time we went ashore; for the 
Massulah men pushing in too soon, a tremendous swell took u 
forward with amazing rapidity, anil the instant it broke beneath 
us, the boat broached /o, 'and we were immediately overwhelmed in 
the surf! When its rage had a little subsided, we found th'e boat 
nearly full of water, but still on her bottom ; two or tliree of the men, 
who had been thrown from their seats overboard, instantly regained 
them, and fortunately got (he boat's head round before the jiext 
overtook us, which otherwise would certainly have upset us. 

It has been a question, in which the greater danger consists, 
the going on shore, or coming off? I am inclined to think the for. 
mer is the more dangerous ofthe two, though boats are frequently 
lost in both operations. In. going towards the shore, these acci- 
dents generally happen by the broaching to of the boats ; and in 
going off, by a large surf curling in over the bows ofthe boats, and 
swamping or staving them. At these periods there~are generally 
catamarans attending the Massulah boats, which are frequently 
instrumental in saving the lives of Europeans, for which they, get 
medals, that they are not a little proud of. Thte vessel, if it de- 
serves that- frame, is composed merely of thret pieces of wood, tea 
or twelve feet in length, and lashed together with pieces of rope; 
the middle piece being the largest, and somewhat lower in .the 
water than the other two. On this the catamaran men (generally 
two) sit actually on their heels, for their knee-joint^ are so ilexfble, 
that they can bring every part of the back, of the leg' info con- 
tact with the under side of the thigh; so their hip-bones rest 
on their heels. Their paddles are pieces of slit bamboo", three or 
four feet in length; and thus equipped, they dash in" through the 
surf, which sometimes upsets the catamaran, end over end; 'but 
thiy soon mount it again,- having 'strings fastened to the tim- 
bers, and rolkd round their wrists, so that they ne*er can be 
thrown off to any great distance. It is highly entertaining to see 
these fellows maneuvering their little vessel through the surf. As 
soon as a large one comes near them, they start upon their legs, 
and leaning forward, plunge light through it: they are not always 
however able to effect this ; for sometimes it is so powerful, that jt 
upsets catamaran and all. T be continued.] 

*2at> apron, SJoUCVIII. u 



146 



The heart's remote recesses to explore, 

And touch its springs, when Prose avail'd no more. FALCONE*. 



THE MARINER. 

POETICAL SKETCHES OF VARIOUS PARTS OF THE 
WORLD.) 

Py an Officer in the Raty. 

(Now first published.) 
[Continued from page 6ifj 

TAH10S CASU8, PEB TOT DISCRIMINA RERtV, 

YlR<J. 



ADIEU, ye scenes where fancy loves to dwell, 
Ye native bow'rs of innocence, farewell I 
No more your rural haunts shall greet my eyes, 
Or well-known hills in distant prospect rise : 
On life's wide ocean early fprc'd to stray, 
Ere reason could assert her sov'reign sway, 
Careless I roam'd unconscious of design, 
Resolv'd to Fate my fortunes to resign. 

To fam'd Augusta's port I first repair, 
And to a merchant make my humble pray'r, 
Who soon enroll'd me with the daring cre\r 
That o'er the seas commercial gain pursue; 
Then to the naval chief directions gave, 
To straight embark me on the roaring wave. 

Where Greenwich tow'rs salute the wond'ring eyes, 
Prepar'd for sea the ready vessel lies ; 
The jovial tars, on shore without coutroal, 
Prown cares and sorrows in the genial bowl j 
Or to their kindred bid a long adieu, 
No more, perhaps, their native shores to view! 

At length the fav' ring gales auspicious rise, 
And round the decks the hardy boatswain flies, 
Each to his station boisterously he sends, 
And oaths and orders in commixture blends ! 
The fluttering sails expanding by degrees, 
Spread a broad concave to the whistling breeze ; 
Light o'er the surface of the refluent tides 
The stately bark majestically glides, 
Till the steep cliffs on Albion's sea-girt shore, 
In ocean sunk, are now beheld no more. 



NAVAL POETRY. 147 

O'er all the wide expanse I cast my eyes, 
And view the boundless plain in mute surprise. 
See ocean's waves receive the orb of day, 
While round him evanescent glories play ; 
And evening clouds, a gay fantastic train, 
All shapes assume along the western main : 
With secret joy my youthful bosom glows, 
As Nature's matchless scenes around disclose 
The varying God, whom rolling spheres obey, 
And at whose nod those spheres shall melt away! 
Whose potent voice can M'arring winds contrdul^ 
Bid livid lightnings gleam, or thunders roll; 
Whose pure unerring wisdom governs all, 
And wills a sparrow's or an empire's fall ! 

Twelve days our mazy courses we pursue, 
The next, Madeira's mountains rise in view, 
Along the verdant coast we slowly sail, 
Survey each pine-clad hill and flow'ry vale ; 
Admire the sloping glades with vines o'erspread ? 
Where many a villa rears its stately head; 
While far above, Religion's hallow'd fane 
O'erlooks the glitt'ring town, and azure main : 
'Mid airy clifl's the sacred anthems swell, 
Where cloisterd nuns in det-p seclusion dwell. 
And pour their VIRGIN praises to the skies, 
Or tend the quivering flame that never dies 3 

Deep in a bay our anchors now we cast, 
And moor securely from the northern blast j 
A gay romantic scene before us lay, 
Where light and shade their magic tints display ; 
Here citron groves perfume the air around, 
And vines with nectar-bearing grapes are crown'd, 
There peasants' cots, and green-scquestef'd bow'rs^ 
Ward off the summer's suns, ^nd autumn's shoVrs; 
Behind, the craggy cliff and lofty hill, 
(Adown whose sides the crystal streams distil) 
Project their ev'ning shadows o'er the scene, 
And from the wintry winds the vallies screen. 

On this fam'd isle the mantling vines produce 
A wine surpassing the falernian juice: 
Not mqre delicious, quaff'd the Cyclop dire. 
When griey'd Ulysses saw his friends expire I 
Who still prepar'd for every new distress ; 
Beguil'd the monster by his smooth a.#dressj 



148 NAVAL HISTOttY Of THE PRESENT YEA.?, 1807. 

Then crown'd with potent draught the sparkling bowl, 
And steep'din Lethe's streams the tyrant's soul !* 

Here, though the toi'ing hinds with anxious care 
The vineyards-cultivate, and grapes prepare, 
One fourth alone of all the annual store, 
Rewards their labour when the work is e'er! 
At night returning tp his humble cot, 
The day's fatigue and sultry heat forgot, 
No chcoring draughts the peasant's bosom warm, 
And to the ev'ning banquet lend a charm ; 
Ah, no \ content the acid lees to drain. 
The luscious cask is launched across the main, 
On distant shores the festive board to grace, 
Corroding cares, and sickly fears to chase : 
To add fresh lustre to the sparkling eyes, 
Bid secret transports giow, and sweet eaiotions rise! 

J. J. 

[To be continued.] 
jfis Majesty's Ship C * * * , 
JPorismauth, Au&. 1807. 



NAVAL HISTORY QF THE PRESENT YEAR, 1807. 

(July August. ) 
RETROSPECTIVE AND MISCELLANEOUS. 

E principal objects 6f attention to the naval historian continue 
nearly the same the operations of the powerful fleet which lias 
been sent to the Baltic, and the conduct of the Americans. Respecting the 
first, the following is the fyrest and most correct information we have been 
enabled to collect from a variety of sources. ^ In an interview with the 
Prince Royal of Denmark,. Mr. Jackson requested to be informed, whether 
the Danish Government intended to declare for, or against England : be- 
cause ia the present system of violent measures adopted on the Continent, 
the neutrality Of Denmark could no longer b'e acknowledged. His Royal 
Highness made this reply : "T shall consider any power as my enemy, which 
shall endeavour to make me'depurt from my neutrality." And having thus 
delivered his sentiments, the Prince immediately set off" from Kiel for 
Copenhagen where lie arrived en the llth of August. It appears that our 
Admiral waited the result of Mr. Jackson's mission before he commenced 
his operations. According to a private letter, August 14th, the British men 
of war, with the troop ships, form a complete line of circumval.laliun round 
the island of Zealand,' some divisions have also entered the great and Jiule 
Belts. That excellent omce'r, Commodore Keates, with four sail of the 
Jine, and some frigates^ parsed the Belts oii the -jtli. Between Copenhagen 
and Elsineur there were, ou the Stli,' eighteen' sail of life line, besides 
Frigates. The English flee.t formed. a. telegraphic line .from Copenhagen to 

* Vide Odyssey. 



NAVAL HISTORY OF THE PRESENT YEAR, 1807. 149 

Kiel. Such was the stale of our naval prqc.e/edings in the Baltic at the be- 
ginning of the month of August. The fii>t great object which our minister* 
had in view was to secure the Danish fleet from becoining a powerful weapon 
in the hands of our inveterate enemy; and in the accomplishment pf this, 
they have certainly shewn a laudable promptness of decision accompanied 
with a dignified forbearance. Our admiral has 90 pendant's tinder his com- 
mand, with near thirty thousand troops. An expedition more formidable 
in point of force, and fitted out with more*activity, never sailed from a 
British port.* We trust, that having secured the Danish fleet, it wjll after- 
wards be direc'ed against the Russian navy. 

Buonaparte has placed us, as it were, under the ban of the Copdnent lie 
lias endeavoured to set all the Continent against u?, and we are justified in 
taking such measures, as our safety may render necessary, against all those 
nation's which he can controul. He will not permit any nation to be neutral 
towards us. Switzerland, whom we have never injured, is not to receive 
our merchandize. Portugal who bribed him to let her remain neutral, is 
forbidden to open her ports to us. Our property is to be seized on neutral 
ground, and vet Buonaparte cries out for the freedom of the seas, and the 
abandonment of our maritime rights. - We are placed in a situation in 
which we must use the same weapons which he docs. The necessity is to 
be lamented, but the necessity is our justification. 

Respecting peace, we can only repeat the following just observations: 
** It see.as strange that there should yet iv main persons vvhq entertain ex- 
pectations of peace from the article inserted in the treaty of Tilsit, relativq 
to the mediation ol Russia. The imperative nature of that article shews 
that France and Russia have certain plans in common against us, which ai^ 
to be acted upon at the expiration of a given period. It is almost evident 
that the two powers expect, from the suspicious mode in which the commu- 
nication was made to us^ and from the terms of the article itself, that we 
shall refuse to accept the mediation unless it be accompanied by some 
information which they will not give, relative to the secret anicles of the, 
treaty ; for that there must be secret articles no one can doubt \\lio sees, 
that in the published articles, no mention at all is made of the main points 
in dispute between the two powers, of the Ionian Republic, of Cattaro, of 
Sicily. &c. That the period for accepting or rejecting any offer of media- 
tion should be limited, and limited to a short period, is, we believe, a cir- 
cumstance unprecedented." 

There is in fact no possible basis upon which such a peace could be 
concluded. 

Will France consent to rhe re-delivery of Hanover, which already makes 
a component part Gt'lhekiiigdonj of Westphalia? An inference is attempted" 
to be di-duced from the circumstance of Hanover not being mentioned cjtlier 
in the Ruwian or Prussian Ut-a;ies. This i? nothing, as Uunover is the central 
part of the iu-w kingdom, and therefore was not required to be mentioned 
in tne enumeration of boundaries, 

Wifl France, moreover, consent to the severing of Sicily from the Nea- 
politan monarchy ? We should think not Naples is in .good pait supported 
by the harvests of" Sicily . 

These in fact are the sole, subjects which can constitute the fund of ces- 
sion on the part of France: England; UJJOD her pait, must purcaase them 
by colonial equivalents.. 



150 NATAL HISTORY OF THE FftESEXT YEAH, 1807. 

Respecting the invasion, which we must expect the wily usurper will soon 
'at least threaten us with, it lias been well observed by Redhead York in his 
Political Review, " The tyrant has at his command an highly disciplined 
and expert array of 400,000 ruffians. This number is, I believe, rather be- 
yond his exact establishment : but I prefer taking it upon an enlarged scale, 
in order to place my reasonings upon a less objectionable foundation. Of 
this large force we shall find, by a slight inspection of the map of Europe, 
that Buonaparte must withhold at least, 250,000 men for the preservation of 
Lis empire, and the controul of his vassal states. The residue may be 
spared for the conquest of this island : that is, 150,000 may attempt to 
conquer. Now, I defy any man living to shew how these miscreants are to 
come, The French cannot invade this country without a powerful navy to 
cover their landing; and unless we conclude a peace with them, thut navy 
can never be formed." 

The unusual interest which has been excited in this country, by the late 
rencounter between his Majesty's ship Leopard, and the American frigate 
Chesapeak, off the Capes of Virginia, has induced us to devote a consi- 
derable portion of room to the insertion of such documents as have come 
to hand. Nothing, indeed, of importance has been omitted. It is under-* 
stood, that no official communication, whatever, has yet taken place be* 
t\veen his Majesty's ministers and the American ambassador in this country. 
The latest accounts from America fire of a pacific nature 5 and the probability 
js, that tlje fermentation of the people will' subside, and that the affair will 
be amicably adjustpd between the respective governments. An American 
vessel, which has since reached England, passed through Commodore 
Douglas's squadron on the night of the 17th of July, without experiencing 
the slightest interruptions. Commodore Douglas arrived at Halifax, iu 
Nova Scotia, on the 28th of July. 

The observations of Mr. Canning, with respect to America, a few dajs 
before the breaking up of Parliament, are particularly deserving of notice. 
He expressly stated, that the misunderstanding had in no degree arisen 
from the views or conduct of his Majesty's present ministers; that on com- 
ing into office they had conceived it to be their dutv to act up to the 
spirit of the treaty which had been framed by their predecessors ; and that 
no new instructions whatever had been sent out, either to his Majesty's 
representative in America, or to the naval commanders on that station. 

A report is prevalent, that Buenos Ayrcs has been recapture-l. The 
xpedition for that purpose sailed from Monte Video on the tth of June. 

Another report states, that South America has been transferred to Buona- 
parte, by the Spanish government, in exchange for European dominions. 

A serious disturbance is said to have taken place at Canton, in con- 
sequence of aChinese having been accidentally killed by one of our seamen. 

Portsmouth, August 17. Notwithstanding the hopes that were entertain- 
ed respecting the Blenheim in our last, we are obliged to insert the following 
contradiction: Arrived his Majesty's ship Concord, of 36 guns, from the 
East Indies: she brings the melancholy account of the loss of his Majesty's 
ship Blenheim, of 74 guns, Vice-Admiral Sir T. Troubridge; which ship is 
supposed to have foundered in a heavy gale of wind. They also report the 
loss of the "East India Company's ship Ganges, in the East Indies, but the 
crew were saved. 



NAVAL HISTORY OF THS PRESENT YEAR, 1807. 151 

At the Court at the Queen's Palace the 19th of August, 180f . 

PRESENT, 

The King's Most Excellent Majesty in Council. 

His Majesty, taking into consideration the measures recently resorted to 
by the enemy for distressing the commerce of the united kingdom, is 
pleased, by and with the advice of his Privy Council, to order, and it 
is hereby ordered, that all vessels under the flag of Mecklenburgh, 
Oldenburgh, Papenburgh, or Kniphausen, shall be forthwith warned not to 
trade in future at any hostile port, unless such vessels shall be going from 
or coming to a port of the united kingdom ; and in case any such vessel, 
after having been so warned, shall lie found trading, or to have traded, after 
auch warning ; or in case any vessel or goods belonging to the inhabitants 
of such countries, after the expiration of six weeks from the date of this 
order, shall be found trading, or to have traded, after six weeks have _ 
expired, at any hostile port, such vessel and goods, unless going from 
or coming to a port of the united kingdom, shall be seized and brought in 
for legal adjudication, and shall be condemned as lawful prize to Ins 
Majesty : And his Majesty's principal secretaries of state, the lords - 
commissioners of the Admiralty, and the judge of the High Court of 
Admiralty, and judges of the Courts of Vice-Admiralty, are to take 
the necessary measures herein as to them shall respectively appertain. 

STEPHEN COTTRELL. 

NOTICE TO MARINERS. 

In virtue of an act of parliament, Geo. III. c. 132, authorising the 
honourable the commissioners of northern light-houses to erect a light-house 
on the Bell-Rock, to place a floating light there, and to collect duties 
thereupon, notice is hereby given, that a vessel, fitted out for a floating 
light, is now moored off the Cape or Bell-Rock, situated at the entrance of 
the Friths of Forth and Tay, in N. lat. 56 27' and W. long. 2 27'. 

The moorings of this light consist of a mushroom anchor, with a chain, 
laid down in 17 fathoms water, the Bell-Rock bearing by the compass, 
E.S.E. distant one mile ; the Red Head, N. by E. E. distant thirteen 
miles ; Fifeness, S.W. J W. distant twelve miles ; and the Island of May, 
S.\V. f S. distant seventeen miles. 

The light wi'l be from oil, and will be lighted upon the night of the 15th 
day of September 1807, and thereafter every night, from the going away of 
daylight in the evening till the return of daylight in the morning. To 
distinguish this light from the double lights at the Tay and Scares, and from 
the single light on the island of May, three distinct lights will be shown by 
a lantern hoisted to the top of each masr, and these will be visible from 
every point of the compass; the lanterns on the fore and mizen mast bei g 
elevated 23 feet, and that on the nii?en mast 31 feet above the vessel's 
deck : the lights, when seen from either side of the ship, will have, 
the appearance of a triangle, but if seen end on, will appear as two lights, 
the one above the other. 

This vessel was formerly a fishing dogger, and at the distance of seven or 
eight miles is like a ship under jury-masts ; in the day-time a blue flag, with 
a light house in the Held, will be displayed from the main mast; and 
in thick and foggy weather, a bell will be tolled on board, with an interval 
of a minute, night and day. 

Although this vessel has been fitted out in the completest manner, 
and every attention paid to mooring her properly, yet as all floating lights 
are liable to break adrift in the tempestuous weather of winter, mariners 
arc recommended not to neglect their land marks, and to run with caution, 
for the floating light. 

This vessel is also intended to answer the purpose of a store ship, whil* 
the liiijit house is building on the; rock, and should it be found IK vi -s iry to 
niter her present station, during the working months of summer ; Jue notice 
tvilj be given. By order of the honourable commissioners of the northem 
light house* C. ClLNiN L\ Gl 1 A :!, Sec. 



JUYAL BISTORT OF THE PRESENT TEAR, 1807. 



. 3Utw r* on 

jCopied verbatim from tlie LONDON 



ADMIRALTY OFFICE, AUGUST 15, 1807. 

Copy of a Lftterfrom Adwiral Lord Gardner to the Honouralle WilKar* 
WeHcsley Pale, daltd V'dle, de Paw, off' Ushant, August 11, 1807, arid 
received this day, 

SIR, 

I TRANSMIT herewith, for the information of the Lords Commissioner* 
of the Admiralty, a letter which I received this day by the Laviniafrom 
Plymouth, from Rear-Admiral Sir Richard Strachan, dated off Rochefort, 
the 28th ult. accompanying a letter from Captain Diikes, of the Hazard, 
giving an account of the boats of the vessels stationed oft" the Pertuis 
Breton having, on the 27th July, succeeded in capturing; and driving 
on shore sixteen chasse marees of the enemy ; the performance of \viuch 
service appears to reflect ereat credit on Captain Diikes, as well as the 
other officers and meu employed on this occasion. 

I have the honour to be, &c. 

GARDNER. 

Caesar, off I fie Pertuis cT Antioclie t 
MY LORD, July 28, 1807. 

On the morning of the 27th,_Captain Bilkes having observed at daylight 
several small vessels under sail in the Pertuis Breton, sent the boats of his 
squadron in chase, and they succeeded in capturing, in a manner highly to 
the credit of the officers and crews concerned, nine sail, and drove six 6a 
shore ; and one was destroyed by the enemy. 

1 herewith enclose Captain Dilkes's letter, and beg strongly to re- 
commend that meritorious- officer to your lordship's notice. He has 
commanded the blockading squadron in the Pertuis Breton since the 1st of 
April, and during- that time we do not know of any vessel of the enemy 
having escaped his vigilance. I have directed him to send the Colpovg 
brig with the prizes to Plymouth, which I hope your lordship will 
approve of. 

I have the honour to he, &c. 
Admiral Lord Gardner. R. J. STR AC HAN. 

His Majesty's sloop Hazard, off' I fie 

SlE, Pertuis Breton, July 27, 1807. 

I tyave the satisfaction to inform you, that at daylight this morning 
Bixt'esn of the enemy's vessels were discovered in the entrance of the 
Perttiis making to the eastward ; it being nearly calm, and no chance 
of the ships closing them, I made the signal for boats to chase, which was 
obeyed with the greatest alacrity, by the brigs you honoured me with 
placing under my command. 

The boats succeeded in capturing nine chasse marees, two of them 

bearing pendants, and armed with two four pounders and four swivels : the 

crews of the whole having taken to their boat*, and escaped to the shore 

with all their papers, the tenth vessel was scuttled by the enemy, and sunlf 

as the boats were taking possession ; the remaining six were driven on 

just * 'd as a very heavy swell is setting in, I have hopes they will 

shore* au. 

all bulge. ' Pleasure in this service having been performed without 

I feel additions. -s- employed in the boats being hurt, though uhd-er'a 
any of the brave t'eilo* '> ti' 00 !' 8 ^ ie beach, 
heavy fire of musketry fro* 



fc AVAL HISTORY OF THE PRESENT YEAR, 1S07. 

I beg leave to enclose a list of the vessels captured this morning by 
the boats of'the Hazard, Conflict, Growler, and Colpovs, with an account 
of the enemy's vessels that have been destroyed 'by the Hazard's and other 
boats in company, since the 1st of April last. 

1 have the honour to be, &c. 
(Signed; CHARLES DiLKES. 

Sir Richard J. Strachan, Bart, and K. B. SfC. <r t $c. 

List of French vessels taken on the. morning of the 0.7th July 1807, by the 
Louts of the Hazard, Conflict, Growler, and Culpoys. 

C/iasst Marges. 

Les t)eux Am?*, armed with two four pounders. 

Les Trois Frere Horaces, armed with four swivels. 

La Veroniqtie, laden with wheat. 

Le Sans Pareil, ladsn with wheat* 

La M.-irie Fran^oisc, in ballast. 

La Marie Louise, in ballast. 

La Bonne .Tanton, in ballast. 

Le Pascal, in ballast. 

Le Galisle, in ballast. 

Name unknown, sunk by the enemy to prevent falling into our hands. 

Name unknown, armed with six guns, run on shore in the surf. 

(Signed) C. DILKES. 

List of vessels taken and destroyed between the 1st of April and 10//t 
of 'June 180T. 

Sloops. 
La Rosalie and La Jeune Marie. 

C/tass& Mattes* ^ 

La Petit Marie* 

Le Patriot. 

La Marianne. 

La Belle Louise Josephine. 

La Marie Fraucjoise. 

Name unknown, sunk by the batteries after taken possession of 

(Signed; C. DILKES. 

ADMfTiALTY OFFICE, AUGUST 7, 1807. 

The King having signified to my Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty 
his royal pleasure that the following uniform clothing shall in future 
be worn by the masters and pursers in his royal navy, their lordships 
do hereby give notice thereof to all masters and pursers in his Majesty's 
royal navy accordingly, and require and direct them to conform strictly 
thereto". 

FULL DRESS. 

" Blue cloth coat, with blue lappels, cuffs, and collar, collar to stand up, 
three buttons on pockets and cuffs, white lining } white cloth waistcoat 
und breeches ; plain hat." 

UNDRESS. 

Blue cloth coat, blue lappels and round cuffs, fall down blue collar; 
waistcoat and breeclies of white or blue cloth as may be convenient. 
The buttons worn by the masters to bear the arrus of the !Navy Office, and 
by the pursers those of the Victualling Oflice." 

* &&ron Otol, XVIII. x 



154 NAVAL HISTORY OF THE PRESENT YEAR, 1807. 

And the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty do hereby further 
give notice, that the uniform directed, in pursuance of his Majesty's order 
on the 17th November 1787, to be worn by the warrant officers of 
his Majesty's fleet, viz. 

** Blue cloth coat, with blue lappels and round cuffs, fall down 
collar, three buttons to the pocket and cuff, white lining, but not 
edged with white ; button xvith an anchor, same as the captain's former 
one; white cloth waistcoat and breeches -." 

Shall be worn only by gunners, boatswains, and carpenters.; and the 
subordinate classes of waurunt officers shall not be allowed to wear 
lappels. 

W. W. POLE. 



Imperial parliament, 

HOUSE OF LORDS,, TUESDAY, Jurr 28. 

"TT ORB HAWKESBURY brought down a message from the Kins:, Jin- 
J" A nouncing that his Majesty had entered into subsidiary engagements 
with the King of Sweden that his Majesty's minister at the court of 
Prussia had advanced 100,0001. to the Prussian government; and that his 
Majesty had furnished arms for the Prussian army, to the amount of 
306,0061. more. 

WEDNESDAY, .29. 

Lord Hawkesbury, in moving an address to his Majesty, on the royal 
messages relating to Sweden and Prussia, stated, that his Majesty's present 
ministers would not have thought they had done their duty, if they had con- 
fined themselves to such scanty means of assistance to our allies as their 
predecessors had been disposed to do. If what appeared in the message 
were all that had been done, the speech delivered at the opening of the ses- 
sion would not have been acted up to : but his Majesty's ministers had 
.thought it their duty, immediately on their entrance into office, to make 
propositions of a far more extensive nature than any thing contained in the 
message was calculated to suggest. The address was agreed to. 

SATURDAY, AUGUST 1. 

The Naval Stores Importation bill, and a bill for making the harbour of 
Amsterdam, in the island of Curacoa, a free port, received the royal 
assent. 

SATURDAY, 8. 

The Sierra Leone bill received the royal assent. 
THURSDAY, 13. 

Lord Stanhope moved a resolution, importing that " equality and com- 
plete reciprocity ought to form the invariable rule of conduct of the go- 
vernment, with regard to states tit peace with this country." His lordship 
observed, that if any man wished to complete tne ruin of our commerce ; 
if he wished to add to the already nearly insupportable weight of taxes ; 
if he wished to increase bloodshed, and to second the views of Buonaparte, 
he would, as the most likely means of accomplishing his purpose, be eager 
to involve this country in a war with America. Within the last fifteen 
years, upwards of 40,000,0001. had gone out of this country for the pur- 
chase of corn. Poland had hitherto been our granary ; but in the present 
state of Europe, where, in future, could we look to for a supply, but 



NAVAL HISTORY OP THE PRESENT YEAR, 1807. 155 

America. It was the same with respect to naval stores. He wished their 
lordships also to be aware, that the man who had offered his secret to 
government for destroying ships of war, ly a speedy and infallible method, 
was at this moment in America, and employed in extensive preparations 
for carrying his plan into execution. The American government had re- 
warded him with a sum of IS,OOOl. He was assured that a ship of the 
largest size could be destroyed on the principle of the invention alluded to, 
at an expence not exceeding 201. 

The Lord Chancellor moved the previous question, which was put and 
carried ; consequently Lord Stanhope's motion was lost. 

FRIDAY, 14. 

The ford Chancellor delivered the following speech, by commission, to 
both Houses, for proroguing the Parliament : 
" Mi/ Lordt and Gentlemen, 

We have it in command from his Majesty to express the satisfaction 
with which lie finds himself enabled to give you that recess which, after 
the great and diligent exertions you have made in the despatch of public 
business, must at this advanced season of the year be so peculiarly de- 
sirable. 

His Majesty has been graciously pleased to direct us to return you his 
thanks for the steady loyalty and attachment to his person and government, 
and the zealous devotion to the public service which have characterised an 
your deliberations, and most especially to thank you for the seasonable 
exertions which you have enabled him to make for the augmentation of the 
military force of his kingdom. 

" Gentlemen of the House of Commons, 

His Majesty has commanded us to return you his warmest thanks for 
the supplies which you have granted, with so much cheerfulness, for the 
'current ye:ir; and when he considers the provision which you have made 
for those contingent and unforeseen services which the events of the war 
may render necessary, his Majesty has the great satisfaction of recognizing 
the wisdom wherewith, in a time of extraordinary difficulties, you have amir 
cipated the possible demands which those difficulties may occasion. 

" My Lords and Gentlemen, 

His Majesty commands us to assure you, that he deeply deplores the un- 
fortunate issue of the war on the Continent. 

The immense extension of the power and influence of France, nnd the 
undisguised determination of the e:iemy to employ the means and resources 
of those countries which he possesses or controuls, for 'he purpose of effect- 
ing the ruin of this kingdom, undoubtedly present a formidable view of the 
dangers and difficulties which the country has to encounter. 

But his Majesty trusts, that the loyal and brave people over whom he 
reigns are not to be daunted or disheartened. 

From the recollection of those difficulties under which his people have 
successfully struggled, and of those dangers which they have happily sur- 
mounted, his Majesty derives the consolation of believing, that the same 
spirit and perseverance which have hitherto remained unbroken will con- 
tinue to be exerted with unabated vigour and success. 

And while his Majesty commands us to repeat the- assurances of his con- 
stant readiness to entertain any proposals that may lead to a secure and 
honourable peace, he commands us at the same time to express his confi- 
dence that his parliament and his people will feel with him the necessity of 
persevering in those vigorous efforts which alone can give the character of 
honour to y negotiation, or the prospect of security or permanency to any 



156 NATAL HISTOUY OF THE PRESENT YEAR, 1807. 

peace: his Majesty, therefore, trusts that his peopln will always be ready to 
support him in every measure which may be necessary to defeat the design 
of his enemies against the independence of his Majesty's dominions, and to 
maintain against any undue pretensions, and against any hostile confederacy, 
those just rights which his Majesty is always desirous to exercise with tem- 
per and moderation, hut which, as essential to the honour of his crown, and 
true interests of his people, he is determined never to surrender." 

The royal commission for proroguing the parliament being then read, 
the Lord Chancellor spoke as follows : 

'* Mi/ Lords and Gentlemen, 

" By virtue of his Majesty's commission under the great seal, to us and 
other .lords directed, and now read, we do in his Aiajesty's name, and in 
obedience to his commands, prorogue this parliament to Thursday, the S4th 
day of September next, to be then here holden, and this parliament is ac- 
cordingly prorogued to Thursday, the 24th day of September next." 

HOUSE OF COMMONS, SATURDAY, JULY 25. 

A bill, for the improvement of Folkstone harbour, received the royal 
assent. 

.MONDAY, 27. 

The Dover Ilarhour bill, and the London Dock Company bill were read 
a third time and passed. 

TUESDAY, ?3. 

The Chancellor of he Exchequer, and Mr, Canning, brought down three 
Mes-.ages from his Majesty, (vide LORDS.) 

WEDNISDAY, 29. 

The Sierra Leone bill wa read a third time arfl passed. 

Oi; the motion forci anting a ftirihtr remuneration of lC',OOOl. toDr. Jenner, 
for his di-covery of the vaccine inoculation, Admiral Sir C. M. Pole stated, 
that he had been thirty years at sea, in the course of which time lit had M t ;i 
many melancholy proofs of the mortality occasioned in the navy by the 
inoculation for the sma'l pox; but he is happy to be able to av that the 
vaccine inoculation had been aMc-nded with tl.e utmost possible success. 
Thousands used to pe.r>h formerly on board his Majesty's fleet of the small 
pox, Li:t since the introduction of the vaccine inoculation, our bnne tars 
were saved, not only frcm -m knobk- dt.-i'tl., l.ut preserved to live with 
glory- 'r die with honour and substantial advantage to the country. 

T*he motion of the Ch/mccl or nf the F.rhtqne.r had been, for a further 
femuneratic ii of 10.< ! 00l.; but Mr. M6rris iiteved an ..inendimnr, vvhich 
was carried by a majority of 60 against 4?, that the additional sum be 
20,0001. 

THURSDAY, 30. 

An account from the commissioners of the Royal Naval Asylum was pre- 
sented, stating the receipts and expenditures of the several SU.IDS already 
voted in support of that establishment ; also estimates of the txpendiuu t t'cj 
the ensuing year. 

MONDAY, AUGUST 3. 
The Dover Pilot bill was read a third time and passed. 

MONDAY, 10. 

A resolution was agreed to," that this house will, early in the next session, 
of Parliament, take into consideration the report of the committee appointed 
to inquire into the commercial state of thu West India colonies." 



KAVAf, HISTORY OF THE TKESENT YEAtt, 1807. 157 

LAW INTELLIGENCE. 

COUFIT OF ADMIRALTY, AUGUST 18. 
BONAPARTE'S BLOCKADING DECUEE. 

AN interesting question was decided by Sir \Villinm Scott, which aros 
out of the decree of Bonaparte, Kir placing this country in u state of 
blockade, and thus aiming an ineffectual blow at. the commerce of neutral 
.nations with this country. Under the decree of blockade issued by 
Bonaparte, an American ship, the Sanson, hud been captured by a French 
cruiser, and was afterwards recaptured bv a British ship of war. Tn con- 
.sequence of the recapture, a demand of salvage was made, which was 
resisted by the American, on the ground that the decree of blocka le 
was not to be carried into effect against Americans, and that the vessel 
would have been restored to the owners by the French Tribunal. 
On this question Sir William Scott was clearly of opinion, that th? owner* 
having received real benefit by the recapture, were clearly bound to pay 
salvage. The decree of France was declared to form a solemn anrl 
fundamental law of the empire, till such time as England chose to relax her 
claims, and recognize certain terms more compatible w'th the rights of 
other nations. The meaning of the word blockade in 'his decree irrist 
necessarily be the same as when applied to the blocking up of a .-ingle 
port or harbour, and therefore the decree must be clearly understood 
as extending to prevent all intercourse of the subjects of neutr.d stales 
with this country. Such being the state of things, it was impossible not to 
say, that, prima facie, great service had been done to the American owners 
by the recapture. There was nothing in the decree to distinguish the 
Americans from other nations, or to exempt them from its effects. 

Sir William Scott therefore pronounced a decree granting salvage to the 
re- captors, 

THE BRIG FRIENDSHIP. 

August IQ.'A. 

TTTE owners of the vessel in question were subjects of the United State? 
oC America, and the ship sailed from Baltimore tor Bourdeaux, laden with 
staves, empty barrels, Sec. and having on board the master (a native 
of France), me Freiuii merchants, seven French marine officers, and 
eleven French mariners, with a number of boys and other persons. She 
was captured on her voyage to Bourdeaux by his Majesty's ship Emerald, 
and carried into Plymouth. 

The learned advocates, Drs. Arnold and Robinson, on the pnrt of 
the caj tors, contended that this was an illegal hiring of a neutral vessel for 
the purpose of carrying persons of a naval and military character, subjects 
of a country with whom we were at W.T, contrary to the law of nations, and 
by which the ship and cargo became oniis-catcd to the captors. The cap- 
tain of the ship had been by i-irth a Frenchman, although now a naturalized 
subject of the United States j the ortJcers were all Frenchmen, belonging to 
French ships of war, i:> the service (as appeared from the documents before 
the Court), of " his royal and imperial Majesty;" the eleven mariners were 
also French subjects, serving a-board ships of war, in the service of France; 
all of whom were shipped on bo ird by an officer in the French service 
(a consul), resident at Baltimore, and authorised to provide a passage home 
for ail subjects of FraiKfc ; and all of whom were victualled and provided 



45$ JJAYAL HISTORY OT THE PRESENT TEAR, 1807. 

for at the expence of the French Government, while on board ; tliey were 
all under the command of one particular officer, and returning to their own 
country, probably for the purpose of being employed against this. From 
the nature and amount of the cargo, it was further argued, that this vessel 
was purposely fitted out as a transport, to carry enemy's troops. Under all 
these circumstances, both ship and cargo were liable to confiscation. 

Doctors Lawrence and Swabey, on behalf of the claimants, contended, on 
the other side, that this ship was fitted out, chartered, freighted, &c. for the 
sole purposes of mercantile transactions, and none other. The persons 
tound on board were neither in a military nor naval character at the time, 
bnt merely passengers returning from a distant place to their own port. 
They were shipped by a person authorised to provide for and protect 
the subjects of his own country, but who was not armed with any military 
or naval authority, and acted merely in his character of a commercial agent. 
These passengers were provided for by the master of the vessel in the usual 
way of all passengers in merchant ships ; besides, they had no arms on 
board, nor any thing which could Le construed into an intention of hostility 
against this or any other nation. With respect to tht cargo, they contended, 
it was exactly the cargo fitting for such a voyage ; it was the usual cargo 
from that part of the United States to Bourdeanx, and in return for which 
the ship wits to have carried home wines and other commodities, chiefly 
dealt in at that place.' Judgment deferred. 



^afeal Courts Partial 

TRIAL OF CAPTAIN LAROCHE, FOR COWARDICE. 

Portsmouth, July 23. 

ON Monday, nnd the three following days, a court martial was held on 
board the Gladiator, W try Captain Laroche, late commanding his 
Majesty's ship Uranie, for not doing his utmost to bring the enemy to 
action on the 15th of May and the 22d of June last. The members com- 
posing the court were 

Captain Bradley (commanding the Plantnprenet), President. 
Captain Irwin, Captain Hoste, 

Boyle, Vashon, 

- Scott, Woolcombe. 

Lieutenant Morrison, first lieutenant of the Uranie, wa? the prosecutor. 

The Admiralty order for the trial was read, and then a letter from Lien- 
tenant Morrison, and other officers of the Uranie, and also a letter from 
part of the petty officers and ship's crew of the Uranie, to the Lords of the 
Admiralty, stating the conduct (as they alleged) of Captain Lnroche, and 
the reports which prevailed to the disadvantage of the character of the 
Uranie, imputing-eowardice to her on the above days, mid demanding a 
court martial on Captain Laroche, to clear their fame, were severally 
read. 

The court being then sworn, they proceeded to the examination of wit- 
nesses. 

The witnesses in behalf of the prosecution were, the second lieutenant, 
master, master's mate, carpenter, pilot, surgeon, lieutenant of marines, 
and a seaman of the Uranie, who deposed, that four of the main-deck guns 
were in the hold when the enemy was first seen (on the 5th of May, when 
a corvette came out of Cherbourgli, and having looked at the Urnnie, ran in 



WAVAL HISTORY OF THE PRESENT YEAR, 1807. 159 

again) ; that they were not mounted till the next day after the enemy was 
seen a second time (on the 15tb of May when a corvette and a frigate came 
out, and, after a few movements, returned to port) ; that on the 22d of 
June, the frigate nnd corvette came out, and stood towards the Uranie ; 
and that the Uranie wore from the enemy for some time, and was an hour 
before she was readv for action ; that there was great confusion on board 
the Uranie during that time ; .that Captain Laroche betrayed symptoms of 
agitation, fear, and (one witness swore to a question put by the prosecutor) 
of cowardice ; that he frequently changed colour, and was agitated in a 
manner that he never betrayed before or since ; that the Uranie did not 
carry all the sail she could have done; that if she had, and Captain Laroclu} 
had done his utmost to bring the enemy lo action, he must have cut oft" the 
corvette, and must have brought the frigate to action, if she did not 
abandon the corvette, and that he passed the enemy's frigate within gun- 
shot (giving a broadside), and wore, and must luive been in close action 
within a few minutes, if he had chased the frigate, arid carried all 
sail. 

The surgeon (on cross-examination) said, that Captain Laroche had been 
ill three or four days of a bilious fever, and had fa^en medicine that morn- 
ing calomel and salts; and others admitted that he had not dined witii his 
officers, through in iisposition, for three or four days. All the witnesses for 
the prosecution said, that Captain Laroche had lain at anchor close in shore 
several times, and for a long time together, and had on one occasion, when 
the enemy's frigate was saluting the governor of Paris, stood close into the 
works, hove to, hoisted his colours, and fired at the frigate, by way of 
defiance. The witnesses admitted that Captain Laroche and his offiix-rs 
were on ill terms : one witness said that Captain Laroche was on ill terms 
with all at times, and with some at all times. 

The case for the prosecution closed at ten o'clock on Tuesday, when 
Captain Laroche requested a short time to prepare his defence. In about 
two hours, the court again opened, and Captain Laroche's friend read a very 
able defence, which insisted that his prosecutors were in a combination 
against him, from personal prejudice ; that he had watched the enemy at 
anchor (except when the weather would not permit) incessantly ; had fre- 
quently defied him, and that when the enemy came out, he had endeavoured 
to decoy him further from under the batteries, and that the enemy's object 
was to decoy the Uranie under the batteries ; that the enemy's frigate car- 
ried fifty 18-pounders, the Uranie only thirty-six 12-poandcrs; that the 
Uranie was foul in her bottom, and that the enemy's frigate was a faster 
sailer, and could bring him to action whenever she pleased, and avoid 
an action at her pleasure; that he carried all the sail he could with safety 
to his Majesty's ship, then on a lee-shore, and close in with it; that caution 
the more behoved him, as, during this war, the Minerva frigate had been 
captured by running on shore at this very place. 

The defence paid a most elegant compliment to the bravery of his 
Majesty's navy at this day expressed a confidence they would not lightly 
believe evidence to prove cowardice against an officer who had the honour 
to command one of his Majesty's ships it concluded by saying, Cnptain 
Laroche would call witnesses that could have no bias, to prove that he had 
done his utmost to bring the enemy to action, and had in no degree tarnished 
his Majesty's flag, or dishonoured the corps he was proud to belong 
to. 

The witnesses for Captain Laroche were, the lieutenant commanding the 
gun-brig Defender, in company with the Uranie on this occasion, and the 
other officers of that brig, and .several of the Urauie's seamen, among which 
last were the captains of the tops, and forecastle : they all deposed, that 
Captain Laroche did his utmost to bring the enemy to action ; that had the 



160 RIVAL HISTORY OF THE PRESENT YEAR, 1807. 

Urante carried all the sail she could, and done every thing that could b 
suggested, it was impossible for her to bring the enemy to action while he 
avoided it, which he did that the enemy could brin^ Cupiain Laroche 
to action when he pleased, and avoid it in like manner; that bpth force* 
were clo*e in shore, and had Captain I aroche continued the pursuit, when 
he fired and tucked, he might have fallen under the batteries, and greatly 
endangered the "-afety of the Uranie. 

Two military officers, who liad been on a cruise with Captain F.aroche, as 
visitors, deposed, thai he had always displayed the most undaunted courage, 
and tried every means to provoke the enemy to try hi* strenuth. Admiral 
Sir Isaac Coffin deposed, that Captain Laroche had, verbally *fcnd by 
letter, reported to him othcially, that the Uranie's bottom was foul, and that 
she wanted to be docked; Mr. Diddams (builder in the dock-vard} 
denoted, that the Uranie stood in need of several repairs, and that her 
bottom was very foul. The defence closed at ten o'clock on Thursday 
morning, and the court were in deliberation till half past one o'clock. 

The court being again opened, the Judge Advocate read the sentence^ 
which was. that '* the charge being in part proved, Captain Laroche 
fs sentenced to be dismissed from the command of his Majesty's .ship 
Uranie." 



Minutes taken at a Court Martial assembled on board his Majesty** 
Ship Gladiator, in Portsmouth Harbour, on Thursday and Fri- 
day the IQth and 17th of Jpril, 1807. 

(Now first published.) 
[Continued from page 82.1 

TTOHN WHITE, a branch pilot of New York, and belonging to the pilot 
^ boat Thorn, when called in and sworn, deposed as follows: 

On the 25th of April la?t I observed three ships reaching in from the 
eastward, in the afternoon : the Cambrian first, the Leandcr next, and 
Driver to the southward of them. We observed the Cambrian to bring to 
two or three vessels, which afterwards went to New York ; the Cambrian 
then reached in shore, and the Leander followed her to the southernmost 
end or tail of the outer middle, die Cambrian hove about, then fired to 
bring to some vessels coining from the southward, and lav with her main- 
top-sail a-back : a sloop and a brig were within shore very near one an- 
other : the Leander came along after the Cambrian hove about, and as she 
put her helm down, she fired a gun from her starboard bow as her head' 
came to the southward and westward, which shot struck a -head of the 
*loop, and the sloop rounded to with her head in shore, and then tacked 
and stood towards the ship. The Leander then fired again, how many 
times I can't exactly say; I saw one strike close to her. The Driver then 
came along shore, stretched in, and bore awav to the northward and west- 
ward, driving the vesseU down before her to the other two ships, within 
a quarter of a mile of the beach ; she fired some shot, which I saw, on* 
in particular, strike within twenty or thirty yards of the surf. 

President. Q. At what distance was the Leander from the shore whci^ 
she tacked ? A. About a mile and a half or two miles, not more thao 
two. 

Q. Are you a pilot ? A. Yes. 

Q. What distance is the shoal of the middle from the shore ? A. Th 
extremity of the northward, which is the furthest part of it, is -about twa 
miles to the southward, one mile and a half at furthest. 



NATAL HISTORY OF THE PRESENT YEAR, 1807. 161 

Q. What time of the tide was it when the Leander tacked ? A. It 
appears to me it was about first quarter or half flood. 

Q. Could the Leander have crossed that part of the shoal without strik- 
ing ? A. No, not between her and the sloop. 

Q. Supposing her to draw from 21 to 22 feet water, and you had charge 
of her, into what depth of water there should you have felt yourself jus- 
tified in carrying a ship of that description? A. To a half 'four; the ship 
was in as near or rather nearer than I would have taken her. 

Q. flow long have you been a pilot? A. Six years. 

Q. During the time you have followed the occupation of a pilot, off 
New York bar, have you ever known it customary for British cruizers to 
fire at and bring-to the American merchantmen in the way which was 
practised that day ? A. Yes, as far as I recollect, it was while the Cam- 
brian and Leander were blockading the two French frigates Didon and 
Sybelle in New York, the Leander commenced firing upon the ship John, 
that T had charge of, chased her in shore, and fired 106 guns, accord- 
ing to the best of my recollection. I have seen them bring-to vessels 
frequently, but not to fire with so much violence: they ran nearer in shore 
when they chased the John, than in the present instance. 

Cross-examined by Captain WIIITBY. 

Q. Do you know Captain Whitby ? A. No. 

Q. Who commanded the Leander on the 2th of April last? A. I 
don't know. 

Q. Did any shot strike the sloop ? A. I did not see any ; I did not 
know the man was killed until I got to New York the following day, 

Q. How do you know the Leander's fire was directed at that sloop or 
brig? A. From the direction the shot fell in. 

Q. Were there any vessels lying-to between the Leander and sloop ?- 
A. No, none that I recollect. 

Q. Could they have been there without your seeing them? A. There 
might have been: there were several vessels coming down in that direction, 
but not lying-to. 

Q. Might not the shot have been directed at those vessels, and not at 
the sloop. A. No, the ship must have had her head off S. E. before hep 
guns could bear. 

Q. How was the wind ? A. From S. S. E. to S. S. W. 

Q. Did any vessels bring-to on the first shot being fired ? A. I can't sny, 
as to the vessels that were first boarded ; the sloop Richard was the only 
vessel I saw come-to at the first fire. 

Q. At what time did this take place? A. About three, four, or five 
o'clock in the afternoon. 

Q. At the time the firing first commenced, how far was the Leander 
from the light-house ? A. I suppose about three miles, or three and a 
half, 

Q. Were any of the vessels that were fired at within the Hook ? A, No. 

Q. At what distance from the shore do pilots generally board fur the 
purpose of taking merchant vessels in? A. I have boarded vessels from 
40 miles to inside the Hook. 

Q. After being on board them have you ever been fired at, at the 
distance of 10 or 12 miles from the shore, and obstinately persisted in not 
bringing-to : might it not have been xhe case that afternoon ? A. There 
were none 10 miles off; the ship John was, when first fired at, 10 miles 
off; they chased within half a mile. 

Q. Could the vessel you was on board of have been in that situation 
as to have seen the sloop Richard, and the Leander not r.o have seeu her at 
the same time ? A. The Leander must have seen her when I saw her. 

. 2lo!,3tVIII. Y 



162 VAVAI. HISTORY Of THE PRESENT YEAR, 1807. 

Q. At the time the Leander tacked, how did the light-house bear, and 
at what distance? A. About the distance of three or three and a half 
miles N. W. 

Q. How do you know it was the Leander? A. I know the ship well* 
I have put pilots on board her. 

Q. You swear it was his Majesty's ship Leander that fired that day. -, 
A. Yes, I know the ship as well as I know my own. 

Here the evidence for the prosecution closed, and Captain Whitby asked 
the indulgence of a few minutes to prepare his defence, which was granted. 
At three o'clock he returned, the court was opened : when his defence 
:vas read. 

DEFENCE. 

Mr. President and Gentlemen of this honourable Court, 
After having endeavoured to serve my king and country with fidelity 
mnd zeal from my earliest period, and having been so fortunate as to rise 
rapidly in my profession, I cannot but deeply lament that I should be 
brought before this august tribunal, charged with offences of the most 
serious nature ; and if proved, productive of consequences, to me the most 
fatal. It is my wish to occupy no more of your time and attention than 
the importance of my case requires ; but should I trespass longer than 
may appear necessary, consider it not, gentlemen, as proceeding from 
even the smallest desire to create delay; but from a feeling of justice 
to my reputation, frosn the most anxious solicitude to exculpate myself 
in the fullest and strongest manner from the violent attempts of the Ame- 
rican government to overwhelm me with crimes, which, as a Christian and 
a man, I >hudder at, and must every hold in the greatest abhorrence. 

The charges, if I understand them rightly, accuse me of having, in the 
first instance, violated the neutrality of a state in amity with his Majesty, 
by having, on the 2;>th of April last past, within the waters and juris- 
dictions of the United States of America, unlawfully, wilfully, and of 
malice afore-thought, caused a shot to be fired from his Majesty's ship 
Leander into a ship or vessel (a coaster) then within the waters of the 
aid United States ; whereby, in the second instance, John Pierce, a citizen 
of the United States, then being on board the last mentioned vessel, was 
then and there feloniously killed and murdered. 

These, gentlemen, especially the latter, are crimes of the greatest atro- 
city, but on such slight grounds, as I trust it will appear to this court, 
have they been preferred, that I feel almost at a loss how and where to com- 
mence my refutation of them. Has it been proved by any one witness 
that I uuhuvfully, wilfully, and of malice afore-thought, caused a shot 
to be fjred by the Leander into any ship or vessel when within the watecs 
and jurisdictions of the United States ? Has any one asserted that any 
roasting vessel was fired int> by my orders? The charge is, to a certain 
degree. Specific; whereas, it states a particular vessel to have been tm-d 
into: Though it describes it no otherwise than as one on board of which 
was a man, by name John Pierce, who was feloniously killed by a shot 
from the I.Cander. T am prepared, however, to establish most indisputa- 
bly, th;if this vessel (as far as it can be recognised by this description) was 
not firtd uito by any one of his Majesty's squadron at that time under 
*ny command ; nor was. I believe, even seen by any one whiUt the tiring 
continued : ht'iice naturallv arises the inquiry, how came a shot to be 
firi-d at all, and against what was it directed? Though, gentlemen, it 
niiht be sufficient, in a legal point of view, to prove myself innocent of 
the express charges now before the court, yet I should not consider my 
Justification by any means complete, except the circumstance* which led 
to u>jr accusation, were must satisfactorily explained. 



KAVAL HISTORY OF THE PRESENT YEAR, 1807. 163 

On the 25th of April last, about half past two o'clock in the afternoon, 
there being no vessel then in sight of his Majesty's squadron, I went to 
dine on hoard the Cambrian ; during ray stay in that ship, a firing at 
several vessels making for the Port of New York commenced, it: order to 
bring them to. With regard to these vessels, I hope to ascertain (if the 
court shall deem such explanation to be relevant to my defence) that they, 
when first fired at, were not within the protection of the American coast ; 
that his Majesty's squadron were not nearer the shore than seven miles, 
nor the vessels fired at nearer than six. Some of them thought proper 
to bring-to, with their heads in shore and their foresails set, so as to dravv 
fast from us; they were, however, boarded and searched before they 
reached within the buoys, which have always, 1 conceive, been considered 
as the limits of the American waters. Did I not feel it material in this 
part of my defence, I should deem it presumptuous in me to state to this 
honourable court the generally received opinion, as to the limits which the 
aforementioned buoys appear to represent : They are the first visible sii;ns 
from the sea of an established government on that part of the American 
coast; and have always been held, by the officers commanding on that 
station, to be the marks of a jurisdictional right ; there is no flag, no 
battery within 20 miles of these buoys. Is it possible, then, that the 
neutrality of a state can be violated* by the searching of vessels beyond 
them. The commander in chief upon that station had never received 
information that the jurisdictional rights of the Americans extended into 
open seas where no marks of such rights had been fixed into seas which 
were out of reach of all batteries from the shore. When, in compliance 
with my orders from Captain Beresford, I went off New York, no particular 
instructions respecting these limits being given, I naturally felt myself 
justified in following the example of superior officers who had previously 
commanded on that station. The measures adopted against Admiral 
Cochrane, to whom an accident nearly similar had happened, did not 
charge him with a breach of neutrality, but a proclamation, precisely the 
same as that which was directed at me, was issued against him, and his 
ship was prohibited the use of their ports and harbours ; the admiral's 
remonstrance, however, against the hostility of such proceedings, accom- 
panied with threats to attack two French frigates, then lying near him 
in Hampton roads, occasioned it to be immediately repealed. Two years 
since, the Leander, then commanded by Captain Skene, chased an Ame- 
rican ship into four fathoms water, fired into her, cut away part of her 
rigging, but was unable to prevent her escape into port; yet no steps wcr 
then taken by the American government to point out or define their limits, 
although that ship was likely to continue cruizing off the same part of the 
coast, and might have daily been led to stand equally near the shore, for 
the purpose of examining all vessels passing to and fro. It therefore 
appeared to me that the jurisdictions of the Americans did not extend 
beyond their buoys ; nor do I comprehend why they should be entitled 
to greater indulgence than any other power in amity with us; particularly, 
when so 4ar from maintaining the neutrality of their own country, they 
actually allow vessels belonging to subjects of Great ttritaiu to be cap- 
tured off their very harbours' mouths by the enemy's privateers; and con- 
stantly afford concealment, by their flag, to the ships and property of 
hostile nations, to the very material injury of this kingdom. When I 
assert these facts, do not let me be thought to speak at random: I have 
now in my possession the original papers, wherein application is made 
by respccta'ole merchants in London, to the lords commissioners of the 
Admiralty, during the command of the late Sir Andrew Mitchell, nt 
Halifax, for ships of war to protect their trade from the numerous French 
said Spanish privateers that infest the American ports. Moreover, when 



1(54 NAVAL HISTORY OF THE PRESENT YEAR, 1807. 

the Cambrian parted company with the Leander, after the occurrences 
which h;ive occasioned this inquiry, Captain Nairne found it his duty 
to leave his cruizing ground, in order to open to the English merchants 
the port of Charlestown, which was then blockaded by three French pri- 
vateers; some, also, of the vessels which we boarded and searched were 
found to contain contraband goods, and not unfrequently, were actually 
the enemy's ships with cargoes from the enemy's colonies, covered by 
American flags. Under a knowledge of such circumstances, I felt it 
incumbent on. me to be more particular and vigilant in my search ; but 
trust it will be made most manifest to the court that I have not exceeded 
the bounds prescribed by my duty. Upon sending a flag of truce up to 
New York for the recovery of some of my officers, who were unjustifiably 
detained, I thought it necessary, for ensuring communication, to anchor 
off their buoys, and then considering myself within their waters, took 
especial care that no molestation whatever should be offered to any ships, 
either inward or outward bound. With respect to the second charge, 
which accuses me of the felonious and wilful murder of John Pierce, a 
citizen of the United States of America, I cannot but remark that the 
same facts which disprove the first offence must necessarily operate to 
substantiate my innocence of this. If the vessel, on board of which John. 
Pierce was unfortunately killed, was not fired at, was not even seen, how 
can his death attach to me ? Did I give orders for the Leander to fire 
at all? Did I order her fire to be directed at any coasting sloop ? Much 
less is it possible, that I, who was on board the Cambrian, could order 
the guns to be pointed at John Pierce, or at any individual on board of 
any vessel whatever. But surely, gentlemen, to prove me guilty of so 
atrocious a crime as this, of which I am now called upon to clear myself, 
it is necessary to shew that such orders were positively given by me ; and 
that I had malice afore-thought against John Pierce. But could that 
exist against a man whose very being was unknown to me against one 
whom I had never seen or heard of? To attempt reasoning upon any 
question so absurd as, whether or not I could possibly have a wilful and 
malicious intent to murder a man under such circumstances, would be to 
waste your time without advancing my vindication. 

Now what was the conduct pursued by the master of the sloop on the 
unfortunate accident taking place? Did 'he bring her to, under the idea 
that she was fired at for that purpose? Did he come down to acquaint 
me that such an event had happened, that she was a coaster, and not 
liable to be searched from the situation she was in? No, gentlemen, he 
proceeded on his voyage as if nothing had occured ; as if he was perfectly 
aware that the firing from his Majesty's squadron was in no wise directed 
-at his sloop. From this circumstance, I am led to doubt the fact of John 
Pierce having received his death by a shot from any one of the squadron : 
I am naturally induced to believe that the whole is a fabrication for the 
-purpose of inflaming the populace (then, in a state of great commotion on 
account of an election) against the British nation in general. Who lias 
proved that the said John Pierce was killed by a shot from the Leander ? 
'Assertions, the asseverations of faction, are not proof, particularly when 
made, as it is well known they were, by leaders of different panics who 
had their own views to serve, and thought of nothing less than the merits 
of the case, or the dignity of their national character. I am no stranger 
to the violent unseemly proceedings of the Americans upon this occasion. 
The publicity of them must necessarily make me more anxious to clear 
myself from all such aspersions, to have my conduct justified in the eyes 
of my country. Nor do I wish to re-t my defence on the absence of many 
persr>i s, whose vehemence at the time was notorious ; my earnest endea- 
vour is to manifest to my countrymen, whose good opinion must always 



KAVAL HISTORY OF T1IE PRESENT YEAR, 1807. 165 

fcfford the most heartfelt satisfaction, that I not onfy have not merited the 
obloquy which the American government has so eagerly, so assiduously 
attempted to cast upon me ; but that it has always been the chief aim 
and delight of my soul to swpport, as far as opportunity was afforded to my 
humble abilities, that high character for justice and generosity which has 
always been attendant en British warfare. 

This, gentlemen, is the simple unadorned statement of facts, which 
I most confidently expect to substantiate by the witnesses whom I intend 
to call. With regard to the evidence adduced on the part of the prose- 
cution, much, gentlemen, might be said, as to its inconsistency en manj 
material points, but I am so unwilling; to take up the time of this 
honourable court one moment more than is absolutely necessary, and 
feel so confident that nothing will escape the notice of every honourable 
. member, that I shall nave every furtlier observation upon it. On the 
papers, however, which have been read, I cannot but observe, that they 
were written almost entirely from rumour; and I do not, therefore, con- 
sider myself pledged as -to their correctness in all points. But it is im 
possible for me to close my defence without entering a little more at 
large into the malignant effects of the Americans to calumniate my cha- 
racter, both public ami private : their object was to make my conduct 
appear outrageous and illegal ; for that purpose they circulated and for- 
warded to the, British government, affidavits, which, though they cannot 
be admitted in court, may, nevertheless, prejudice numbers against me. 
Could they have been brought forward, I am prepared with evidence of 
most undoubted veracity to expose their shameful falsehood, and at the 
same time proclaim to Great Britain that their rancorous hatred of me 
has its origin in a most inveterate disposition of enmity towards this coun- 
try ; such must have been the sentiments winch occasioned the grossest 
insult that was ever offered to the British flag : not satisfied with publishing 
the most libellous and false affirmations against me, as an c4lcer who 
was in the service of his Britannic Majesty against me, who, either in a 
public or private situation, was amenable, upon a fair representation, to 
the laws of my country for every species of delinquency (to which very 
Jaws I now look with confidence for protection against such foul attacks); 
not satisfied with every threat and action of violence against ino which 
malevolence could inspire, and their power (God be thanked, for its ineffi- 
ciency !) could execute; not satisfied with illegally, and in defiance of all 
treaties of amity, detaining my officers, who, at any rate, were innocent 
of the misconduct imputed to me; not satisfied with seizing the boats 
laden with provisions, which had been publicly purchased for the me of 
his Majesty's ships, they dragged, ignomimously dragged through the 
streets at a cart wheel the British flag, and burnt it with shouts of exulta- 
tion in front of the British Consul's house. They, moreover, fitted opt 
armed vessels, and sent them in quest of two merchantmen which had been 
searched by his Majesty's squadron, and ordered to Halifax for adjudica- 
tion. Such were the insults offered, with every possible aggravation they 
could devise, by the Americans to the British nation in general, and sanc- 
tioned by the chief magistrates of New York. Such are the persons, the 
authors and abettors of such outrages, who cry out their neutrality is vio- 
lated by the searching of ships on the open sens, by the maintenance 
of that right which the British navy, by their superiority, have acquired, 
and which every Englishman must hope may never be given up. Such are 
the persons who demand vengeance for tiie death of a man, whose death 
(if he received it from a shot at all) is to be attributed to the resistance 
which was made t that right of search, which has been acknowledged and 
universally conceded to belligerent powers. But upon what principle did 
the Americans resist the search? upon what grounds do t':i j y now call alcud 



186 NAVAL HISTORY OP TffE PRESENT YAR, 1807, 

for revenge? Consciousness of carrying on an illegal trade occasioned 
these efforts to escape ; shame and rage at .their illicit traffic being disco- 
vered, and publicly made known, together with the fear of its being by 
any means put a stop to ; prompted their violence against me, and their 
unparalleled insult of the English flag. 

I must now, gentlemen, beg leave to refer to your serious consideration 
the great length of time which this trial has heen hanging over my head : 
though, on the day of my arrival in England, I declared myself ready and 
solicitous to meet the investigation ; such a delay, by no means necessary, 
as all witnesses from America might have arrived as soon as myself, ha 
been the source of much inconvenience to me, of much uneasiness and 
anxiety of mind ; to be kept under arrest at Portsmouth nearly six weeks, 
at a great distance from all my friends, whom I might wish to consult, 
after an absence of six years from my native land and all a man must hold 
most dear in this life; in the daily expectations of my trial coming on, and 
as often disappointed in my wishes upon that head ; to be then informed 
that no witnesses were forth-coming who could allege any thing in proof 
of the charges exhibited against me ; and that America must be searched 
before the proceedings could advance ; to be thus detained, in fact a pri- 
soner, though at large, nearly five months longer in all the torture which 
the suspense must necessarily create, and unable to enjoy what (God 
forbid I should ever forfeit!) the estimation and good opinion of my friends 
and acquaintance; to be held in such a situation, is it not a real, a severe 
punishment? Nor has it ended here : for on positive assurances from the 
late lords of the admiralty that no circumstance should prevent this inves- 
tigation from being brought to a conclusion in the middle of March last, 
I repaired a second time to Portsmouth, and had collected my evidence 
together from the different parts of England, in the fullest confidence that such 
assurances were most implicitly to be relied upon. But again was I cruelly 
disappointed ; after remaining most anxiously, though patiently, for a week, 
again I was informed that the witnesses from America were not arrived, 
that my prosecutors were to receive further indulgence, additional delay, 
and that I was to await the pleasure, and submit to the tardiness of the 
Americans for two months longer. Upon such facts, I am sure all com- 
ments from me must be needless; they require only the bare mention to 
shew the severity which I have experienced. Severely indeed have I 
felt such treatment, and the more so because my most ardent wish has 
always been to adhere most rigidly to the path of duty, aud my conscience 
does not accuse me of having failed in my endeavours. 

Should T, gentlemen, in the course of my defence, have unintentionally 
departed from the prescribed rules of this court, it will, I trust, be im- 
puted to the anxiety which I cannot but entertain to establish my innocence 
of the crimes now laid to my charge, and to convince this honourable court 
and my country how glaringly unjust is the attack that has been made on rc.y 
character. 

Mr. President, and gentlemen, I cannot express what I feel for your 
indulgence during my trial, and am most confident that in vour hands 
my honour and all that is sacred and dear to me in this world, is secure ; 
nd whatever may be the result, I shall bow with submission to the justice 
ct'your decisioji. 

EVIDENCE ON THE DEFENCE. 

Lieutenant John Smith Cowan, of the royal navy, was called in, and 
sworn. 

Examined by Captain WIIITBY. 

Q. Was vou on board his Majesty's ship Lcander on the 25th df Aprii 
last ?-A. Yes. 



VAVAL HISTORY OF THE PRESENT YEAR, 1807. 167 

Q. In what situation ? A. First lieutenant. 

Q. Was I on board that day? A. Yes. 

Q. Did I leave her in the course of the day ? A. Yes. 

Q. At what hour? A. Ahout twe in the afternoon. 

Q. What distance was the Leander from the light-house when I left her ? 
A. As well as I recollect about five or six leagues. 

Q. Were any vessels then in sight ? A. None but our squadron. 

Q. Were any shots fired from the Leander on that afternoon ? A. Several, 

Q. At what time were they fired? A. Between the hours of four and 
six. 

Q. What was the cause of their firing? A. To bring down merchant 
vessels that had hove to in shore. 

Q. Previous to the Leander firing, had any other ships fired ? A. Yes, 
'the Cambrian. 

. Q. When the vessels first brought to, were they sufficiently near the Le- 
ander to be boarded by the boats ? A. They were two or three miles from 
us when they brought to, in consequence of the Cambrian's firing. 

Q. Was any shot fired from the Leander on the 25th of April last at any 
coasting sloop ? A. No. 

Q. Could such shot have been fired without your knowing it ? A. I saw 
no such vessel during the firing. 

Q. Could any sloop have been in such a situation as to be concealed from 
the Leander by merchant vessels when the firing took place? A. Yes, this 
sloop was : on the brig's bearing up, in consequence of our fire, we then saw 
a sloop, which we supposed to be the vessel on board of which the accident 
happened. 

Q. Was it possible for any of the shot fired from the other ships to have 
hit the sloop in question ? A. Certainly, the Driver and Cambrian were 
firing at the same time. 

Q. Had any vessels acknowledged the right of search by bringing to be- 
fore the Leauder tacked ? A. Yes, several. 

Q. In what manner did they bring to ? A. By backing their main-top- 
sails with their heads in shore, and fore-sails set. 

Q. By bringing to in that manner, did they not increase the distance be- 
tween them and the squadron ? A. Yes. 

Q. Is that the customary way for vessels bringing to when fired at by a 
man of war for tiiat purpose ? A. Not in general, when they wish to 
be boarded. 

Q. Was the Leander, on the 25th of April last, ever between the buoys 
and the land ? A. N o. 

Q. If she had been, must you have known it ? A. Yes. 

Q. Were ai>y of the merchant vessels within gun-shot of the shore at the 
time of the firittg? A. I think they were about two miles from the s.hore. 

Q. What do you understand to be the limits of the jurisdiction of the 
United States of Jvorth America? A. I never have heard. 

Q. While the firing continued, was the Leander ever within pun-shot of 
the shore ?- A. The j Leauder during that day was never within three miles of 
the shore. 

Q. Were any shot fired from the Lennder on the 25th of April last, in a 
wanton, illegal, or improper manner? A. I hope no:. 

Q. Among the number of vessels that were boarded by the Leander on : 
that day, were there anv that were detained for carrying on an illicit trade, 
mid aent tu Halifax? A. Yes, one from the Havanna. ' 

Q. Do you know of any part of her cargo being condemned ? A. Yes, I 
have heard so. 

Q. After the firing ceased, and the vessels were boarded, was any a;ap 
-reported to you co have been killed? A. No. 



C8 NATAL HISTORY OF THE FliESrEJJT YEAR, 1807. 

Q. Was any report made to you of their having been illegally fired at or 
searched by the masters of merchant vessels ? A. None. 

Q. Did you receive any order from me to fire at any coasting sloop o* 
the 25th of April last? A. I was ordered by Captain Nairne to stand on, 
and endeavour to bring; down the vessels that had hove to in shore 

Q. Was any coasting sloop among those you saw? A. I have already 
said she was not seen, until the firing ceased on the part of the Leander. 

Cross-examined by the Court. 

Q. Was Captain Whitby on board the Cambrian when you received the 
orders from Captain Nairne to bring down the vessels to windward ? > 
A. Yes. 

The president ordered that the court be adjourned until the next morn- 
ing, nine o'clock, and it was adjourned accordingly. 

Friday morning, nine o'clock, the court met as per order, ani 
Lieutenant Cowan's cross<-examination was continued. 

President. Q. Was Captain Whitby on board of the Leander at any 
part of the time you were firing at those vessels to bring them down ? 
A. No. 

Q. Did he from the Cambrian give you any directions to fire at any par- 
ticular vessels? A. No- 

Q. What water was the ship in when she tacked ? A. Five fathoms. 

Q. Who had charge of her as pilot? A. Mr. Cunningham, the master. 

Q. You said that you were never within three miles of the shore on that 
day ; do you think a thot fired from your ship could have reached the shore 
without a gun being elevated? A. No. 

Q. Were any directions given for the guns being elevated for that pur- 
pose ? -A. No. 

Q. How many guns do you suppose you fired that day for the purpose of 
bringing them to? A. From twelve to eighteen. 

Q. What orders did you give when the ship was put in stays off the 
middle ground to the officer who fired those guns, and how many were there 
fired when the ship was staying ? A. There were none fired in stays; I 
shortened sail, and hove the ship to, and then ordered the officer to 
endeavour to bring .those vessels down \ after the first six or seven guns 
were fired, and no attention was paid to the firing, I then desired them to 
fire as close a-head as possible without striking. 

Q. When did the officers of the Leander and other ships quit their ships 
to go to New York for intelligence and refreshments ? A. On the day of 
our arrival off the Hook. 

Q. Were they at New York at the time the firing commenced on those 
vessels? A. They were absent from the ship for that purpose. 

Q. At the time you gave orders to fire as near as possible to the vessels, 
was the brig within gun-shot of the shore, or any part of the shore ? A. She 
was about two miles off. 

Q. What distance was you from her ? A. A mile, or a mjle and a half* 

Q. Had she her colours up? A. I think one had. 

Q. What distance was the Leander from shore when you tacked ? A. 
Never within three miles. 

Q. What was the cause of your tacking ? A. To prevent grounding on 
the middle ground. 

Mr. Cunningham, master, in the royal navy, called in, and sworn. 
Examined by Captain WHITBT. 

Q. Was you on board his Majestv's ship Leander on the 25th of April 
last ? A. Yes. 

Q. I;i what situation ? A. Master. 



3JAVAL HISTORY OF THE PRESENT YEAR, 1807. 169 

Q. Did I leave her in the course of that day, and at what time? A. Yes, 
ftt half-past two, or thereabouts. 

Q. What distance was the Leandcr from the light-house when I left 
her? A. About six leagues E.S.E. from the light-house. 

Q. Were any vessels in sight when I left Her? A. I believe there wa$ 
a coasting sloop or two in shore, but nothing in the oiling. 

Q. Were any merchant vessels seen in the course of the afternoon ? A. 
There were several in the ofiing about three o'clock. 

Q. In what direction, and how far from land ? A. About S. W. by S. 
and about four leagues from the Jersey shore. 

Q. Were any shot fired from the Lc;mder on that day ? A. Several. 

<>!. At what time ? A. Between four and six o'clock, in the afternoon. 

Q. What was the cause of the firing ? A. To bring vessels to. 

Q. Did any bring to on first or second shot being fired from any one of 
the squadron?- A No, I think not. 

Q. When they brought to, were they sufficiently near to the Leander to 
allow her boats to board? A. I think not. 

Q. In what manner did they bring to? A. On the larboard tack, with, 
their Leads in shore. 

Q. In bringing to in that manner did they not increase the distance 
between us? A. After we brought to ourselves on the othei tack they cer- 
tainly must. 

Q. Is that the usual way of vessels bringing to when fired f\t by a man of 
war for that purpose ? A. No. 

Q. Describe the particular situation of the two vessels the Leander fired 
at after she tacked? A. I think they bore about S. W. by S. about a mile 
distance. 

Q. Had they not acknowledged the right of search by bringing to previous 
to the Leandcr's tacking ? A. Yes, they hove to by ttie shot of the 
Cambrian. 

Q. At what distance were they from the land when they first hove to ? 
A. 1 think about two miles and a half. 

Q. Was the Leander on the middle ground that day? A. We wer 
shoaling on that bank when we stood in shore. 

Q. Mad she been within a mile and a half of the shore in the situation we 
were then in, would not the middle ground have brought her up ? A. 
Certainly. 

Q. Did you consider her at anytime of the day in danger of standing too 
near in to the middle ground ? A. Not that day. 

Q. Did the Leandcr lire at any coasting sloop that day ? A. No, not 
intentionally. 

Q. Did she knowingly ? A. The sloop was not seen, I believe ; I did 
not see her. 

Q. Had she been fired at from the situation you were in, must you not 
have seen her? A. If intentionally, undoubtedly. 

Q. During the firing did you see any sloop ? A. Yes, three or more coast- 
ing vessels. 

Q. Where were they ? A. Standing in for the Hook. 

Q. Could any of the shot fired from the Leander after she tacked have 
.struck any one of those sloops r A. I cannot say. 

Q. Was any sloop discovered after the two brigs bore up to come down 
to the Leander ? A. Yes. 

Q. .Did vou see her r:ring the firing? A. No. 

Q. Could that hloop have been in such a situation as to be concealed 
from the Leander by those two brigs when the firing took place ? A. I 
think so, when the northernmost brig wore we saw her. 

/2atn>ron. (BoLXVIII. z 



NATAL HISTORY Ot TfiE PRESENT EARj. 

Q. Then there were two vessels between that sloop and 
A. Yes. 

Q. Was any one reported to have been killed by any of the vessels tha* 
you boarded? A. No. 

Q. Or any complaint made of thtir being illegally boarded or searched ?'- 
A. None at all. 

Q. Was the I.eamler on the 25th of April last ever between the buoys 
and the land? A. No. 

Q. While the firing continued was the L<?andc-r within gun-shot of auy 
part of the shore ? A . I think it impossible our shot could rcuch tlie 
shore. 

Q. How far was she from the shore ? 'A. Not Irss than thrre miles. 

Q. What do von understand to be the limits of the United States of 
America? A. I ncrer heard. 

Q. Were any shot tired from the Leander on the 26th of April last, in a 
wanton, illegal, or improper numner? A. 1 think not. 

Q. Were the merchant vessels that occasioned the firing all off trading 
voyages as far as yon know? A. Yes. 

Q. Among the number of vessels that were boarded on that day by the 
boats of the Leander, was any detained for carrying on an illicit trade ? 
A. Yes, one, the Aurora. 

Q. Did I give any order for the Leander to fire at any particular coasting 
sloop on that day? A. There were no such orders given 

Q. What number of guns were fired from the Leander after passing the 
Cambrian previous to her tacking? A. Two. 

Q. Had the vessels brought to in a proper manner in that instance, would 
the firing have been continued ? A. 1 think not, if they had hove to on the 
starboard tack. 

Q. Do you believe that the fire of the Leander was directed or intended 
for any coasting sloop on that day ?- j -A. No. 

Cross-examined by tfic Court. 

Q. You had a man at tlie lead I. suppose standing in at tf>c back of the 
ihoal? A. Yes. 

Q. What water lu-wl you when you tacked ? A. Five fathoms. 

Q. With respect to the manner those vessels brought to, did they not 
bring to on the same tack with you before you tacked? A. Yes>, the Cum- 
brian brought them to, and she was on the starboard tack. 

Q. I ask whether those vessels that were fired at did not bring to on tlic 
same tack with the Leander ? A. The Leander was on the starboard tuck ; 
when we fired at them, they were on the other tack. 

Q. Were the Cambrian or Driver at any time during the day within gun- 
shot of the shore? A. I tliink it impossible they were. 

Q, Was Captain Wlntby on board the Cambrian at the time any shot 
were fired from her at those vessels? A. Yes, during the whole firing. 

Q, How long prior to this had your ofiicers left the ship to go to New 
York for intelligence and refreshments? A. Two days before. 

Q,. How near were you to the buoys at any time of the firing ? A. Wft 
were standing in when we were firing ; we were about two miles and a half 
S. E. by - 1 " '. tVorn tTie white buoy when the firing erased. 

Q. Did the Leander fire at the two brigs that were between her and the 
coatin<: sloop ? A. Yes. 

Q. Is it possible rtny shot fired at those brigs might have struck tha 
sloop? A. I don't know. 

Q. Did the Leander fire any shot whilst in stays ? A. No. 

Q. Was tta gunner of the Leander direciod to tire a-ltead of t^ose brigs 
r into tlicra ? A' I don't know what orders were given. 



SAVAL HISTORY OF THE PRESENT YEAR, 1807. 171 

Captain Nairne, of the royal navy, called in, and sworn. 
Eramined by Captain WHITBY. 

Q. What ship did you command on the 25th of April last ? A. The 
Cambrian. 

Q. Was you in company with tlie Leander on that day? A. Yes. 
., Q. Did you see me on hoard the Cambrian on that day, and at what 
time? A. Ye-, you were there at half past two o'clock. 

Q. How fat- was the squadron then from the light-house? A. The Cam- 
brian wys about five leagues. 

Q. Where was the 1. minder ? A. Within hail, nearer tlie shore, 

Q. Were any vessels in sight when I came on board the Cambrian ? A. 
No, none but the squadron, perhaps a pilot-boat 01* tw.o in shore. 

Q. Was any shot fired from the Leander on that day, and at what time ? 
-A. Yes, there was, between half-past four and halt-past five o'clock. 

Q. What was the cause of her firing r A. To endeavour to bring to 
several merchant vessels that were running from the squadron with neutral 
flags up, while we had Knirli^u colours and pendant?. 

Q. Were the vessels coming off a trading I'wyage, and what distance from 
tie land when first fired at? A. They all appeared so ; they were aJl 
coming in from sea : those that were boarded were from tlie West Indies; 
about six or eight miles from the land. 

Q. Did they bring to with the first or second shot ? A. No, 

Q. If they had come down to the squadron would the tiring have been 
continued ? A. No, I suppose not. 

Q. Did you see the Leander tire at any coasting sloop? A. No, I dkl 
not, I never saw a sloop. 

Q. When the Leander passed the Cambrian, what were the orders you 
gave Lieutenant Cowan? A. To stand on, and endeavour to bring thosp 
vessels down ; I repeated it, by saying, " Stand on, and bring those ves- 
sels down if you can." 

Q. What vessels were they ? A. Severn! brigs, one or two schooner?, 
and a ship, which we detained afterwards. 

Q, Were there two brigs lying to close together, at which the Leander 
directed her fire ? A. Yes. there were, with a fresh breeze lying to, their 
ir.ain-top-satl only aback at dead low water. 

Q. Is that the usual way for vessels to bring to when fired at by a man 
of war ? A. No, when they bring to they generally do it with their heads 
towards a man of war. 

Q. Was the Leander within gun-shot of the shore on that afternoon ?-r- 
A. No, I don't think she was. 

Q. Did you think the order given to Lieutenant Cowan was illegal, from 
the situation tlie ships were then in ? A. No. 

Q. Among the number of vessels that were boarded on that afternoon, 
were any detained for carrying on an illegal trade ? A. Yes, one was, and 
part of her cargo afterwards condemned at Halifax. 

Q. Amongst the number of vessels that was boarded by the boats of th 
Cambrian, \vs there any report made to you of a, man having been killed ? 
A. No, not until the "29th of April. \ 

Q. Was any complaint made that the vessels were improperly fired af f 
or illegally seaichcd on that afternoon? A. No, not until the 29th, when 
the- Americans said they thought their vessels were examined within their 
waters. 

Q. Do you consider that was the cas^ ? A. NQ. 

Q. Did you receive any instructions from either the late Sir Andrew 
Mitchell, commander in chief on the Halifax station, or I'aptaiii Beresford, 
who succeeded him in the command, with respect to the limits of the 
American waters ? A. No. 

Q, Do you know if Captain Talbot or Captain Skene, \\l\Q commanded, 



172 NAVAL HISTO11Y OF THE PRFSENT TEAR, 1807. 

the Leander, had received any instructions on that head during the time 
you was first Lieutenant of the Leundor. A. No. 

Q. When the ships anchored at the buoys for the purpose of procuring 
the information from New York, was any molestation offered to vessels inward 
or out-.vard bound ? A. No, there were 110 vessels even hailed, 1 believe, 
you never lowered a boat down. 

Q. Did you consider any of the shots fired from the Leander as done 
in a wanton, illegal, or improper manner? A. No. 

Q. Do you to your knowledge believe that any shot was fired from any 
one of the squadron on that afternoon at any coasting sloop ? A. I never 
Saw a sloop. 

. Q. Had the Leander been within a. mile and half of the beach, from the 
situation she was in, must not the ground have brought her up? A. Yes, 
I think it must; I tacked in the Cambrian in seven and half fathoms water, 
#nd [ think three and half miles from the shore; and think the Leander 
stood about half a mile within me. 

Q. What do you consider to be the limits of the United States of America? 
A. I have always thought a gun-shot on any coast, but at New York I 
would not have examined a vessel that had passed the buoys, although I 
think them a little out of gun-shot. 

Q. During the time the Leander and Cambrian were in company were 
nny vessels ever boarded or fired at inside the buoys ?- A. No, none : the 
vessels were nearer the shore when fired at, but not nearer the buoys. 
Cross-examined by the Court. 

Q. What distance were the two brigs from the shore when the Leander 
fired at them ? A. I think about two miles : I do not think they were 
nearer. 

Q. When the Leander passed you, and you gave directions to Lieutenant 
Cowan to go in shore, by whose orders did you proceed on that occasion ? 
A. By Captain Whitby*s. 

Q. Did you send any officer up to New York for refreshment, and at 
'what time? A. Yes, I did : I sent the purser on the 2-4th. 

Q. Were the Cambrian or Driver at any time on the 25th within gun-shot 
of the shore? A. The Cambrian never was within gun-shot of the shore: 
the Driver stood considerably inside of me : I can hardly judge the distance. 
I think my shot could have reached the shore if I had been there, but I do 
toot think her short guns could. 

Captain Whitby informed the court he did not intend calling any more 
evidence. The court was ordered to be cleared, and after deliberating 
some time, the following sentence was read : 

(COP Y.) 

At a Court Martial assembled on board his Majesty's ship Gladiator, 
in Portsmouth harbour, on the 16th day of April, 1807, and con- 
tinued by adjournment on the following day. 

PKESEXT, 

GFOROE MONTAGUE, Esq. Admiral of the White, and Commander in Chief 
of his Majesty's ships and vessels at Portsmouth and Spithead, President. 
Rear-Admiral Sir Isaac Coffin, Bart. Captain John Lav ford 
Captain Samuel Hood Linzee Thomas Graves 

John Irwin The lion. Courtenay Boyle 

James Brisbane Henry Edw. Reginald Baker 

Philip SummerviJle Christ. J. Williams Neshana 

Geo. E. Byron Bettesworth Daniel M'Leod. 

Pursuant to an order from the Right Honourable Lords Commissioners of 
the Admiralty, dated the 13th day of April instant, and directed to the 
President, setting forth, that John Poo Beresford, Esq. captain of lits 



KAVAL HISTOJIY OF THE PRF.ST.VT YEAH, 1807. 173 

Majesty's ship Cambrian, and commanding officer of his Majesty's ships 
and vessels at Halifax, in Nova Scotia, had transmitted to their lordships 
letter, dated the 6'th of May last, which he had received from Captain 
Henry Whithy, commander of his Majesty'.. t\n\, Leander (which ship 
had betn sent bv Captain Bcrcsford off New York, for the purpose of 
obtaining information), representing, that on the 25th of the mouth pre- 
ceding, several vessels were coming do\vn for the light-house near New 
York; and us they obstinately persisted in not attending to the first shot 
fired from the said ship Leander, and endeavoured to haul from her when 
closely pursued, several of the said vessels were boarded, and among the 
number that did not bring to, or was not examined, was a coasting sloop, on 
board which it appears, by various letters and papers transmitted to us by 
the said Captain Beresford, an American seaman was unfortunately killed 
by a shot tired from his Majesty's ship Leander, or from some other of his 
Majesty's ships, whose commanders were at that time acting under the 
orders of Captain Whitby ; the court proceeded to inquire into the conduct 
of the said Captain Henry Whitby, in having violated the neutrality of a 
state in amity with his Maje.-.ty, by having, on the ^5th day of April last 
past, within the waters and jurisdiction of the United States of America 
(the said states being then in amir, with his Majesty), unlawfully, wilfully, 
and of his malice aforethought, caused a shot to be fired from his Majesty's 
ship Leander, into a ship or vessel then being and sailing within the waters 
and jurisdiction of the said United States, whereby one John Pierce, a 
citizen of the said United States, then being in and on board the said last- 
mentioned ship or vessel, wa< then and there feloniously killed and mur- 
dered, and to try him the said Captain Henry Whitby for such violation of 
the neutrality of the said United States, and for the wilful murder of the 
said John Pierce. And having heard the evidence produced in support of 
the charges, and by the said Captain Henry Whitby in his defence, and 
what he had to allege in support thereof; and having maturely and de- 
liberately weighed and considered the whole, the Court is of opinion, that 
the charge has not been proved against the said Captain Henry Whitby, 
and doth adjudge him to be acquitted, and the said Captain Henry Whir l >y 
is hereby acquitted accordingly. 

Geo. Montague James Brisbane 

Isaac Cotrin Henry E. Reginald Baker 

John Lawford P. Sommerville 

S. Hood Lin/.ee C. J. W. Ne'sham 

Tho. Graves G. E.'B. Bettesworth 

John Irwin Daniel M'Leod. 

Courtenay Boyle 

M. GnEETHAMjjun. Deputy Judge Advocate of the Fleet, 



UDromottona antJ appointments. 

WHITEHALL, AUGUST 5, 1807. 

The King has been graciously pleased, by warrant under his royal signet 
and sign manual, to give and grant unto Sir William Sidney Smith, Knight, 
Commander and Grand Cross of the royal Swedish military order of the 
Sword, and Rear-Admiral of the Blue Squadron of his Majesty's fleet, his 
royal license and permission that he may, in compliance with the desire of 
his Majesty Ferdinand IV. King of the Two Sicilies, accept and wear the 
Grand Cross of the order of St. Ferdinand and of Merit, conferred upuc 
{am by that sovereign, 



174 NAVAt KI^TOUY OP THE PRESENT YEAR. 1807. 

\ 

And also to order, that this his Majesty's concession and declaration, 
together with the relative documents, be registered in his College of 
Arms. 

Captain Manby is appointed to command the Uranie, at Portsmouth, 
vice Laroche. 

Captain Bromley, is appointed to the Statira, a new frigate, at Ports- 
mouth; Captain Sprowle, to the Solebay ; Captain Graham Moore, to the 
Marlborough ; Captain Parkinson, to the Favourite (lately his Majesty's 
ship, recaptured on the Barhadoes station). 

Captain Barton is appointed to tjie York ; Captain P. Hornby, to the 
Minorca; Captain T. Youns, to the Snake; Captain Cochrane, to the 
Prinre George ; Captain Losack, to the Northumberland ; Captain Morris, 
to the Reynard; Captain Coghlan, to the Elk; Captain Chamberlayne, u 
the Anieiu; Captaui ilej.enstall to the King's-Fisher. 

Sir Thomas Williams, to the Neptune of 98 guns. 

BIRTHS. 

On the 25th August, the lady of Captain O'Connor, R. N. of a daughter, 
at Innor Hili, near Frome. 

The wife of R. Seppings, Esq. master shipwright, of Chatham dock-yard, 
of a son and daughter. 

MARRIAGES. 

Lately, at St. John's, Newfoundland, Lieutenant Bishop, of the Mackarcl 
schooner, to Miss Duggin, daughter of Mr. David Duggiu, surgeon, of St. 
John's. 

Lieutenant Sprott, of his Majesty's schooner Herring, to Miss Kearnev, 
daughter of M. Kearney, Esq. merchant, with a very handsome patrimony. 

In July, C. Hazwfcll Towuly, Esq. ot the royal navy, to Miss Glegram, 
of Plymouth dock. 

T. Mac Arthur, Esq. purser in the rayal navy, to Miss Reid, only 
daughter of John Reid, Esq. of his Majesty's ship Queen. 

In August, Edward Lawson Long, Esq. of the nyai navy, to Miss Anna 
Georgians Boden?, daughter of the late Captain Bodens. 

On the I8th oi' August, at Mary-le-hone church, J. Maughan, Esq of the 
Hon. East India Company's Marine, to Miss Hoy, oi" Portland-place. 

OBITUARY. 

?5th Julv, at Portsmouth, Lieutenant VVallis, commander of the Bri- 
tannia cutter. 

Lately, at Andover, Captain II. Festing, commander in the royaj 
navy. 

Lately, at Cheltenham, where he went for the benefit of his health, Captain 
Thomas Holmes Tidy, of the royal navy, son of the late Reverend Thomas 
Holmes Tidy, rector of Redmarshall, in the county of Durham. 

On the' 12th of November last, at Prince of Wales^s island, after an illness 
ef three months, Mr. T. Qum, surgeon, of his Majesty's ship Blenheim, 
formerly of Hambleijon. 

At Barbadoes, on the 5th of May, Mr. Beswick, midshipman of his 
Majesty's ship Arab, sop of Mr. Beswick, of the Parade Coffee House, in 
Portsmouth. 

In j'uly, Edmond James Mood}', Esq. of the navy office. 

At Hackwood Park, the Right Honourable Ihoraas Lord Bolton, Vice 
A'iinirul and Governor of the Isle of Wight. 

At Hoddesdon, Herts, Iver M'Millau, late commander of the Valentine 
East Indiaman, 

On the 14th of May, Lieutenant Woodford Williams, late of the 
Sparton frigate. 

At Roddam, Northumberland, the lady of Robert Roddam, E.-j, 
Admiral of the Red, 



175 
NAVAL COMMERCIAL REPORT. 



Atu- UoytTs Cofee-llouse, 17 th August, 1&-T. 

A very gallant action has been recently fought oil" Guadaloupe, by bis Majesty's schooler 
Mc/ambique, witlj the French privateer General Eruouf, in which the enemy lost nearly forty 
iin.ii in killed and woumied, and w;ts so cut up :is to be compelled to sheer off, and take refuge in 
jjorh The Mozambique lost only two men, but was i-.till unequal to the capturing of the eueiuy, 
which was better equipped; having 110 men to 45, am} mounting 14 guns to 10. 

The Seahorse frigate captured the French schooner le Phemx, off Toulon, on the l">^)i May, 
ami sent her to Gibraltar 911 the 3d ult. This circumstance satisfactorily refute* the report of thu 
lot-; of the Seahorse. 

The Fortune schooner, of 16 guns, has taken, in the West Indies, after an action of six hours, a 
French brig, of 10 guns. The Curieux sloop of war, Captain Sherriff, has captured and carried 
into Hurbadocs a very valuable Spanish vessel, which she fell in with off Martinique. The Curieux 
and llosano sloups of war were about to sail in company, to cruise for some rich vessels from old 
Spain, of winch Sir Alexander Cochratie had received intelligence. 

\Ve are happy to announce the safe arrival of the Leeward Island fleet, consisting of about 6O 
nil. under convoy of the Canada. The ships bound for Bristol, Liverpool, and Dublin, parted 
compa-.iy at the entrance of the Channel. 

\\'huie Fisheries. The following vessels have arrived at Hull : from Greenland, the Sarah and 
F.ii/.abeth, Kubank, 7 rish, ik>0 butts of blubber: Acteon, Rose, 15 fish, 2fO.dir.ro; Walker, Sad- 
]<!. \i fish, 340 ditto; Oak hall, Bienkinsop, To tish, 320 ditto; Aurora, Sadler, 28 lish, o70 ditto; 
Perseverance, Hunter, 12 rish, 260 ditto; Minerva, Burrell, 7 fish, 240 ditto. The old .Manches- 
ter, with 18 tish, 320 ditto, was off Petcrhead. 

The following provisions have been exported from the port of Belfast since the 1st of November 
last : 20,623 tierces and barrels of salted bcf and pork ; 2,877 bales, 1,409 hogsheads of bacon. 
.Uo to England alone, since the 1st of January, 1807, 7,335,705 yards of linen. 

Russian produce had risen, in the supposition of the Baltic not been kept open for our shipping; 
but the arrival of sundry ships, and the sailing of our (leet, has considerably diminished all fear ou 
th.u subject, and articles from thence have again dropped in price. 

The following Indiamen arrived at St. Hc'ena, and sailed thence for England 27th June, of 
course thfcir arrival mav be hourly expected, and we hope our next will give the particulars of their 
ies : viz. Earl St. Vincent, Jones; lluddart, B.iylitf, from Bombay. Lord Nelson, Hutton, 
.from Madras; Lady Jane Dtnidas, Lindsay; Asia, Wardlew j Bengal, Cuming ; Hugh luglis, 
Fairfax; Walthamstow, M'Leod ; Lord Castlereagh, Kymer ; Harriet, Lynch. Alexander, 
Franklin; Monarch, Hawes; Sovereign, Campbell, from Bengal; Scorpion, Bunkeu, and Atlantic, 
iwiiin, from the South Seas; and the Fortuna (a Swede) from India. 

\Ve have the pleasure to announce the safe arrival of the homeward-bound Jamaica fleet, con- 
.sisting of above 170 sail of merchantmen, deeply laden with rum, sugar, cotton, coffee, &c. 
This rieet arrived off Cape Clear on the 14th inst. and are all safe at their destined ports ere now; 
the produce has come to a better market than might be expected, from the dull state of it for 
many months past. Rum has risen considerably, and the su<>ar market has been brisk for some 
days past, as considerable orders have arrived in town tor refined sugars for the north of Europe. 

NEW LLOYD'S COFFEE-HOUSE, 26 ni AUGUST, 1807. 
For the List of Premiums of Insurance we refer to page 87 of this Volume. 



ROYAL EXCHANGE, LONDON, 26ru 


AUGUST, 1807. 




cour.SE or EXCHANGF..* 






AmsterJam - 


36 o 


P-ik-rma 


. 


- 


Ditto, ac sight - 


3* 4 


Leghorn 


- 


- 


Rotterdam - 


ji d 


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_ 





Hamburgh - 


34 4 


Venice - 


- 


- 


Altona - 


- 34 S 


Naples - 


- 


- 


Bourdeaux - 


24. 10 


O'.-ono 


_ 


_ 


Madrid .... 


- 3^ <>'r 


Du'oiii! - 


_ 


- 


Cadiz - 


38 ov 


Cork - 





_ 


i 


- 3 oi * 


Agio of the bank 


of Holland 



^ 

103 

Ili 

54 percent. 

i'illCES OF BULLION. 
The same as at page 87. 



* Fur an explanation of the Courts of Exchange .-c<; 






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^WtSLLtm.; FiDSSS^ 



BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIR OF 

GEORGE MURRAY, ESQ* 

REAIl-ADMIRAL OF THE WHITE SQUADRON. 



" Albion, though oft by dread alarms 

Thy native valour has been tried, 
Ne'er did the lustre of thy arms 

Shine forth with more refulgent pride 
Than when, while Europe's sons, dismay'd, 
Shrunk recreant from thy mighty aid : 
Alone, unfriended, firm, you stood 
A barrier 'gainst the foaming Hood !" 

AXON. 

have introduced but few characters to the notice of 
the public with so much pleasure and satisfaction as 
Rear Admiral George Murray, the gentleman whose nautical pro- 
gress is now the immediate subject of our attention ; for these 
plain, but honest reasons, that few officers of his standing have 
seen more service, nor can any be more zealously attached to 
the interests of the navy, or be more cordially beloved by the 
members of that honourable profession. 

Mr. Murray was born at Chichester, where his grand- 
father, then an officer of marines, first planted himself; and 
where he married, lived, and died. That gentleman is supposed 
to have been descended from the same stock as the noble family 
of Murray, Lord Elibank ; whose ancestor was Sir Gideon 
Murray, knight, whose son was created a baronet by King 
Charles I. in the year 1628, and a baron in 1643. 

The grandfather of Mr. Murray left two sous : John, who 
lived and died a banker, in London ; and Gideon, \vho was 
many years a magistrate and alderman of the city of Chichester. 
To the latter, this officer was indebted for his birth. 

At a very early period, Mr. Murray evinced a strong predilec- 
tion for a sea life ; and in 1770, about two years before the 
death of his father, he was entered on the books of his Majesty's 
ship Niger, at that time commanded by Captain Francis Banks. 
He was then only eleven years of age. He acquired the rudi- 

/28t). <Zn?r0n. &01.XVIII. A A 



178 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIR Ot 

ments of professional knowledge under Captain Batiks/ 5 will* 
\vhorn he served for some time in the Mediterranean, and then 
returned to England. 

Mr. Murray was afterwards placed under the command of 
Admiral Ommaney, en the Newfoundland station. In conse- 
quence, however, of the American war, he was soon called into 
more active service, on beard of the Bristol; where he became 
the protege of her commander, Commodore Sir Peter Parker. 
That officer, as we have related at length in his life/]- was 
ordered to America, in December, 1775, with a squadron of 
vessels of war, and a fleet of transports, for the express purpose 
of reducing Charlestown, in North Carolina. Having crossed 
the bar, it w as found necessary to possess themselves of Sulli- 
van's island; , in the attack upon which the Bristol suffered 
exceedingly. The springs of her cable were shot away, and she 
was for some time exposed to a dreadful raking fire of rtd-hot 
shot. She was twice in flames ; twice her quarter-deck was 
completely cleared of both officers and men, excepting the 
commodore ; not an individual escaping being either killed or 
wounded. Her captain (Morris) after losing his right arm, and 
receiving several other wounds, died from the vast effusion of 
blood which had been thus occasioned. The loss of the Bristol 
amounted to upwards of 100; and that of the Americans was 
supposed to be very considerable, as most of their guns were 
dismounted, and reinforcements were continually pouring into 
the fort, during the whole time of the action. 

* Respecting the professional services of Captain Banks very little i 
known. On the 23d of March, 1757, he was made commander of a sloop 
of war. On the 14th of April, 1760, he was appointed captain of the Rose, 
uf 20 guus, on the North American station. Towards the end of 1761, he 
returned to England in another vessel, and remained for a short time out 
of commission ; but, before the conclusion of the ensuing year, he was 
appointed to the Lizard, of 28 guns. In that ship he is supposed to have' 
served on the West India station at the conclusion of the war. lie then 
returned lo England, and was paid oft". In 1770, as we have already seen, 
he commanded the Niger; ainl, in 1775, he was appointed to the Renowu, 
of 50 guns, and ordered to North America, where he died, oa the 18th of 
JUIH-, 1777. 

t f-'ide NAVAL CnROMe.Lr ; Vol. XII. page 173, et seq. 



CEO ROE MURRAY, ESQ. 179 

We have been the more particular in noticing this engnge- 
jsient, as it was the one in which Mr. Murray made his military 
debut. Like the departed Nelson, he " knew not fear" or its 
teat and severity were such as might have deterred him from 
the farther pursuit of a profession so hazardous as that of the 
navy. 

Sir Peter Parker, with his squadron, was occupied by 'various 
duties on the coast of America, till he was detached to Rhode 
island, in the reduction of which he rendered essential service to 
his country. 

Soon after the signature of the treaty between France and the 
United States, which was announced to parliament on the iGih 
of March, 1778, a French fleet made its appearance in America; 
and, in the month of August following, M. d'Estaing proposed, 
that, with the 6000 troops which he had whh him, he should* 
make a descent on the southern part of Rhode island, while a 
body of Americans should take possession of the northern. At 
the same time, the French squadron was to enter the port of 
Newport, and to take and destroy all the British shipping. But 
Lord Howe, the commander in chief, making his appearance, 
the French admiral, confiding in the superiority of the numbers 
and size of his ships, came out of port to attack him. A violent 
storm parted the two fleets, and several of the French ship's, 
which were afterwards attacked by ihe British, very narrowly 
escaped being taken. Our young midshipman acquitted himself 
with great credit on this occasion. 

Owing to the very strong recommendations' which he had 
received of Mr. Murrav, from Kugia d, L<>id H >\\e !v:d made 
an application to Sir Peter Parker, So* him t<> come on board 
the l^agle, which at that time bore his lordship's ti-ig; promising 
to Sir Peter that he would provide for him. Having acqu;U.ed 
himself with sq much propriety, and good and ga!iai;t conduct, 
while on board the Bristol, Sir Peter was exm-mdy loth to 
resign his charge ; but, feeling it to be an act of justice towards 
his young eltve, he explained to him w!iat u <.):_; /?<.$ luteniious 
with, respect to his promotion ; assuring him that, should he 
think proper to remain under his liujj A he wouid give ium ths 



180 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIR OF 

next commission, when the gentleman who was then acting as 
lieutenant should have been confirmed. He observed at the 
same time, that, as the commander in chief had applied for him, 
and as a much larger field for preferment was presented, than 
merely a lieutenancy, if he chose to go on board the Eagle, 
with Lord Howe, he would second the very high and respectable 
recommendations which his lordship had already received of 
him. Mr. Murray having then passed his examination for a 
lieutenant, consulted with his friends on board the Bristol ; 
after whieh he accepted his lordship's invitation, and proceeded 
with him to Long island. Under his new patron, he was 
employed on various naval services, until his lordship was 
called home. 

Either from chagrin or disappointment, it is certain that 
Lord Howe returned to England in great disgust ; and, what 
was deeply to be regretted, as casting a shade upon his lord- 
ship's character, notwithstanding the recommendations which he 
had had of young Murray, notwithstanding the assurances of 
promotion which he had given to his friend, Sir Peter Parker, 
(who afterwards possessed the means of promoting him, had he 
remained in the Bristol) he returned, leaving several vacancies 
in America, which he had a right to fill up. He brought home 
the subject of this memoir, with several other gentlemen on his 
quarter-deck, who equally looked to him for promotion ; and 
unjustly, as well as unnecessarily, left them to shift for them- 
selves, without assigning to them a reason, or even offering them 
an apology, for such extraordinary conduct. 

The late worthy Admiral Montague, father of the no less 
worthy admiral now commanding at Portsmouth, was a par- 
ticular and intimate friend of the father and uncle of the present 
Admiral Murray. Hearing of the very unhandsome treatment 
which he had received from Lord Howe, he desired him to 
draw up a memorial of his services ; which, with certificates of 
his good conduct, particularly one from the captain of the 
Eagle, was transmitted to Lord Sandwich, then at the head of 
the Admiralty. The consequence was, that a lieutenant's com- 
mission was forwarded to him, almost by the return of post. 



GEORGE MURRAY, ESQ. 181 

Shortly afterwards, Mr. Murray was appointed second 
lieutenant, and M. d'Auvergne, the present Duke of Bouillon, 
first, of the Arethusa, a beautiful new frigate, of 32 guns, com- 
manded by Captain Charles Holmes Everitt. 

He continued in the Arethusa, upon the home station, till 
February, 1779, when that ship was unfortunately wrecked near 
Ushant. She had been in pursuit of a French frigate, of 
superior force (1'Aigrette) and, getting entangled amongst the 
rocks, was lost.* The captain, officers, and crew were made 
prisoners of war. 

During the period of his captivity, Lieutenant Murray 
devoted himself to the study of the French language, and parti- 
cularly to the regulations of the French marine. He most pro- 
bably would have remained much longer a prisoner than he 
actually did, had not a singular circumstance occurred ; which, 
as a proof of the extraordinary vigilance of the police of the 
French government, when under the administration of Moiis. 
Sartine, and as connected with the history of this gallant officer, 
in procuring for him a more early release than he would 
otherwise have obtained, we shall venture to relate. America 
was still at war, or rather in open rebellion, against the mother 
country. An officer of an American privateer made his appear- 
ance in the town where the officers of the Arethusa were on 
their parole; and, paying his court to a young lady, the daugh- 
ter, or relation of the mayor of the place, he thought proper to 
adopt the uniform of the British navy, and took infinite pains 
always to appear in it, in the presence of the British officers. 
Considering it as a determined insult, they drew lots for the 
honour of explaining to the braggart, and, if necessary, of 
chastising his insolence. The lot falling to Lieutenant Murray, 
he, with great civility and good manners, desired the American 
to dispense with his dress as a British officer, and particularly 

* Vide biographical memoir of the Duke of Bouillon, NAVAL Cnuoxici.r, 
Vol. XIII. page 174. It was during the subsequent captivity of M, 
d'Auvenjne, that he was claimed and recognised by the then reigning Duke 
of Bouillon, as a member of a branch of his ancient house, which had 
emigrated as long back as the thirteenth century. 



182 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIR OF 

to renounce the cockade which he then wore. The privateer's 
man, however, shewing some reluctance, a scuffle ensued, in 
which Lieutenant Murray found the necessity of wresting from 
his hat, by force, the badge of honour which he had been so 
civilly desired to resign. Coolly putting it into his pocket 
though not without giving the pirate some sound reasons for 
remembering the rencounter Murray returned to his messmates, 
while the American proceeded to the mayor. In consequence 
of his application, a prosecution was ordered by the magistrate, 
and a report was made to Mons. Sartine, at Paris. So highly, 
however, did the minister approve the conduct of the English- 
man, that an express was immediately sent, with a passport, for 
Lieutenant Murray to proceed beyond the frontiers, and there 
to wait for farther orders. He accordingly went to Ostend; 
and, in a short time, on sending a report to the French consul, 
or minister, in Austrian Flanders, of his compliance with the 
orders of the French government, he received permission ta 
return to England, and was exchanged. 

We next find Mr. Murray, in the spring of 1781, as first 
lieutenant of the Momnouth, of 64 guns (commanded by the 
late Captain James Alms*), one of the ships which sailed under 
Commodore Johnstone, on an expedition to the Cape of Good 
Hope and the East Indies. The French, having obtained very 
early intelligence of the intention of the British government, sent 
out a fleet, consisting of eleven ships of the line, and several 
stout frigates, under the command of Mons. Suffrein, with 
orders to attack Commodore Johnstone wheresoever he should 
find him. About the middle of April, he accordingly came up 
with our squadron and convoy, which were then lying in the 
neutral harbour of Porto Praya, in the Portuguese island of St. 
Jago. Suffrein very resolutely attacked them ; but, owing 1 to 
the gallantry and firmness of the British officers and crews, his 
attempt was baffled ;f and, not succeeding in doing them any 

* For an extensive biographical memoir of this officer, the reader i$ 
referred to the second volume of The NAVAL CHRONICLI, page 519. 

t In this action, the Monmouth was disrnguished by the well-directed, 
fire that she kept up against Suflreiu's ship, which anchored abreast of her, 



GEOIIGE MURRAY, ESQ. I$3 

thischiefy* he proceeded, with the utmost expedition, to the 
East Indies, with the view of giving battle to our fieet there, 
under Sir Edward Hughes, before the reinforcement of Com- 
modore Johnstone should arrive. That part of the expedition, 
however, which was destined for the East Indies, under Captain 
Alms (consisting of a 74, a 04, and a 50 gun-ship) hud the 
good fortune to form a junction with Sir Edward Hughes, pre- 
viously to the arrival of Saffrein.-f 

Five days after that junction (on the 15th of February, 1782) 
M. de Suffrein appeared off Madras. At day-break, on the 
morning of the 16th, Sir Edward made a signal for a general 
chase; and the Monmouth was fast coming up with a 44 gun 
frigate, when the chase was recalled. In the action which 
ensued, on the 17th, the Monmouth led the squadron on the 
larboard tack ; but, as the enemy never advanced beyond the 
centre of the British line, she had no material share in the 
engagement. In the evening, agreeably to orders, she steered 
for the Exeter, Commodore King's ship,i which had been 
disabled. She stayed by her during the night, and on the 
following morning took her in tow, and kept her so till the 

* He afterwards captured the Hannibal, of 50 guus ; which had separated 
from the fleet. 

t The whole fleet left St. Jago on the 5th of May, and proceeded for the 
Cape ; where, on the 21st of July, a Dutch squadron, of five sail, perceiving 
our ships turning into Saldanha bay, cut their cables and drove ashore. 
One of thoin was set on fire, and destroyed : the rest were saved. The 
Monmouth left Saldanha bay on the 25th ; doubled the Cape, received 
General Medows on board, parted company with the commodore, and pro- 
ceeded for the East Indies on the 27th ; made Port Felix, in the island of 
Madagascar, on the 21st of August ; and came to an anchor, in Joanna 
road, on the 2d of September. Having landed and refreshed the crews, 
who were in a very weak state, they sailed for the island of Bombay, on the 
21th of the month; but, instead of making the coast of Malabar, Captain. 
Alms, on the 10th of November, found himself driven towards that of 
Arabia Felix, in the latitude of 17 Q north. On the 26th of that month, he 
anchored in Moribatt bay, and watered; but. not being able to fir.i 1 . a 
sufficient supply of provisions, he put the wh'jle squadron on half allow- 
ance, and made for Bombay harbour, where he arrived on the Cth of 
January, 1782. On the evening of the 9th ? he joined Sir Edward Hughes 
in Madras road. 

; The late Sir Richard King. 



184 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIR OF 

24th, when the whole squadron anchored in the outer harbour 
of Trincomale. On the 4th of March, Sir Edward Hughes 
left that station; on the 12th he anchored off Madras ; and, on 
the 30th, he was reinforced, at sea, by the Magnanime and the 
Sultan. On the 6th of April, a strange sail having been 
descried, a signal for chase was thrown out ; and the Monmouth, 
getting up first, drove her on shore. She was afterwards burnt, 
proving to be a small frigate, from France, with orders for M. 
Suffrein. On the 12th of April, another action took place, off 
the island of Ceylon, in which the Monmouth was desperately 
engaged. She was in close fight with the French admiral's 
flag-ship, from a quarter past one, till three, P.M. when her 
mizen-mast fell over the stern, and the main-mast over the lar- 
board quarter. Suffrein seized this moment for escape, in 
which, however, he was greatly interrupted by a brisk fire from 
the Monmouth. In this battle, the Monmouth had seven of 
her guns dismounted, 45 men killed, and 102 wounded. Before 
the fall of her masts, eight men had been killed, or wounded, 
at the wheel; and the wheel itself had been dismounted, the 
ensign shot a\vay from its staff, and another hoisted at the mizen 
peek. After the loss of the masts, Captain Alms ordered the 
colours to be nailed to the stump of the mizen, and secured 
the pendant on the stump of the main. " Captain Alms 
received two wounds in the face from splinters, t\vo musket ball* 
passed through his hat, his hair was on fire, his coat torn be- 
tween the shoulders, and part of it shot away : in this situation 
he was left on his quarter-deck, rcith only his Jirst lieutenant, 
Mr. George Murray, and Mr. Tatlock, his master; every other 
person quartered there, and on the poop, having been killed or 
wounded, except Captain Pierce, of the marines, and his second 
lieutenant, M. Minheer, who, after their men had been all 
killed, or wounded, nobly went down and assisted at the guns 
on the main deck." In the evening, at a quarter past five, when 
the admiral threw out a signal to anchor, the Monmouth struck 
hard upon a shoal, with rive feet water in the hold. A little 
after six, three of the enemy's ships were observed bearing down 
to attack her ; oil which, hav ing driven over the shoal, she cut 



GEORGE MURRAY, ESQ. 185 

her cable, and ran within shore of the admiral, where she took 
shelter for the night. For six days, her crew \vas employed in 
raising jury-masts, and in getting ready to proceed to sea. 

On the .5th of July following, another battle was fought, in 
\vhich victory declared in favour of the English ; and, had it not 
been for a shift of wind, which gave the French the weather 
gage, and threw our squadron into some disorder, the defeat of 
the enemy would have been decisive, total, and ruinous. The 
Monmouth was not very hotly engaged in this action ; but she 
had fourteen men wounded, the greater part of whom died. 

On the 1st of August, the Monmouth, and the Sceptre, Cap- 
tain Graves, left Madras, with troops and stores, for the garrison 
at Trincomale. That service having been -very satisfactorily 
performed, they rejoined Sir Edward Hughes on the 10th of the 
unic month. 

A fourth action took place, on the 2d of September, between 
Sir Edward Hughes, with twelve ships of the line, and M. de 
Suffrein, with fifteen ; the result of which was no other than 
that of shattering the respective fleets, and killing and wounding 
a number of men. " From the second broadside which the 
Monmouth sustained in this action, she received a shot nine feet 
below the water line, that entered her fore magazine, and caused 
her te make four feet water in the space of an hour : in conse- 
quence of which six of her lower deck guns became useless, all 
the hands quartered at them being taken off, and obliged to 
work at the chain pumps no spare men having been this day 
on board the Monmouth." On the contrary, instead of her 
proper complement of 500, she had only 300 on board ; 
including the captain, officers, and boys. She, however, had 
not a man killed, and but two woundejl. 

So highly did Sir Edward Hughes estimate the services of 
the Monmouth, in these several actions, and so cordially did he 
approve the gallant conduct of her officers, that, immediately 
after the last-mentioned engagement, he made Lieutenant 
Murray a master and commander; and, within a few days, pro- 
moted him to the command of a very fine frigate.* 

* Captain Murray took his post rank from the 12th of October, 17 iW, 

8ato.er$i0n.fflol.XVHI. B B 



186 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIR OF 

Sir Edward Hughes's last action with Suffrcin took place on 
the 20th of June, 1783; not long after which, the war having 
terminated, Captain Murray was appointed to the Indefatigable, 
of 74 guns, in which he returned to England. 

Thus, at the age of about three-and-t\venty, through severe 
and active service in America, and afterwards through the 
bravest and most desperate actions of those days, did thii 
officer, by his own merit and indefatigable exertion, tight his 
way, from the humble station of a midshipman, to the com- 
mission of a post captain. 

Having quitted school at a very early age, the peace most 
opportunely afforded him the means of resuming his studies to 
advantage. In 1786, Captain Murray quitted England, and, 
in a secluded situation in France, devoted himself to general 
literature, and particularly to the belles Icttres; in which lauda- 
ble and improving pursuit he passed nearly two years. 

A more active scene at length presented itself. At the 
breaking out of the war with France, he was called to the com- 
mand of the Triton frigate, upon Channel service, and after- 
wards to la Nymphe, which had been taken from the French, 
by Sir Edward Pellew, in June, 1793. In the latter ship he wa 
with Sir J. B. Warren's squadron, on the 23d of April, 1794, 
when they fell in with a squadron of French frigates from Can- 
cale bay. " The engagement lasted nearly three hours ; and 
gloriously terminated in adding to the British navy, la Pomone, 
one of the finest frigates ever built in France, 44 guns, twenty- 
four pounders, 400 men ; 1'Engageante, 34 guns, and four carro- 
nades, with 300 men ; and la Babet, 22 guns, nine-pounders, 
200 men : another frigate, la Resolue, escaped, by out-sailinj 
the Melampusand Nymphe, who chased her into Morlaix."* 

On the 22d of June, 1795, Captain Murray's ship, la 
Nymphe, was one of the look-out frigates which discovered the 

* Vide biographical memoir of Sir J. B. Warren, NAVAL CHRONICMS, 
Vol. III. page 338. Sir John's squadron consisted of the Flora, of 36 
guns, and 260 men ; la Nymphe, of 36 guns, and 2<50 men ; the Arethusa, 
of 33 guns, and 280 men; the Melampus, of 36 guns, and 260 mcu; and 
la Concorde, of G6 guns, and 200 mu. 



f.EOROE Mt'RUAY, ESfc. 137 

French fleet; on which Lord J3ridport, the commander in 
chief, gave chase, and brought them to an action oft' 1'Orient, 
on the 23d.* 

In the course of the ensuing year, Captain Murray was 
appointed to the Colossus, of 74 guns, and joined Sir Johu 
Jervis, in the Mediterranean. During the blockade of Cadiz, 
he commanded the advanced squadron ; and, so much \vas his 
c( nduct admired by the enemy, the Spanish admiral, under 
a flag of truce, sent him an invitation to be present at a bull 
fight; offering to leave his nephew on board of the Colossus, as 
a pledge for his safe return. This honour, however, Captain 
Murray thought proper to decline. 

In the memorable action of the 14th of February, 1797., 
from which Earl St. Vincent derives his title,-f- the Colossus 
Mas ordered by his lordship to lead the van of the fleet; but, 
carrying away her fore-top-sail-yard, and, of course, falling to 
leeward, she lost her portion of the honour of that day. It was 
but upon one fack that the Colossus could carrry sail at all ; and, 
being extremely defective in other respects, Lord St. Vincent, as 
soon as he could spare her, sent her home. This, however, 
was not until the close of the following year. 

When Captain Murray sailed for England, he was the bearer 
of a particular request, from the commander in chief to Lord 
Spencer, that his lordship would give him a better ship, and 
return him to the fleet as soon as possible. -The Colossus had a 
convoy from Lisbon hi charge; and on board of her were the 
remains of Admiral Lord Shuldham, which Mere coming to 
England for interment. 

On entering the Channel, Captain Murray found the wind 
blowing strong from the north-eastward ; and, being in a very 
crazy vessel, with but little provision on board, he thought it 
best to take the Colossus into Scilly. She had been but a short 
time in the road, when the gale increased to such a degree, 

* Vide biographical mcinuir of Lord Briciport, XAVAL CUUOMCLE, Vol.1. 
page 279 

f Vide biographical memoir of his lordship, NAVAL CHRONICLE, Vol. IV 
pa^c 35, ct seq. 



188 T5TOGUAPHICAI, MV.MOIR OF 

that, although completely land-locked, she was forced from her 
anchors, and driven upon a ledge of rocks, called Southern Wells, 
where she was totally lost. With the exception of one man, 
however, who fell overboard in the act of sounding, the whole 
of the crew were saved.* 

A court martial sat, on the 19th of January following, to 
inquire into the loss of the Colossus, when the captain and all 
the officers were honourably acquitted. 

Captain Murray was, almost immediately afterwards, 
appointed to the command of the Achille ; in which ship he 
was for some time employed in the Channel service; and, on 
the approaching rupture with Russia and Denmark, was selected 
by the Admiralty to sound the Belts. Having performed that 
service, very much to their lordships' satisfaction, he was 
removed into the Edgar, as a ship of lighter draught of water, 
and appointed, by Lord Nelson, to lead the van into the road 
before Copenhagen. He accordingly led the fleet into action 
in a most gallant manner. For some time, until the second 
ship of the line came up to support her, the Edgar sustained 
the whole of the tremendous iire, which the enemy at first 
opened.f The conduct of Captain Murray, upon this occasion, 
sealed and cemented the love and friendship which Lord Nelsoa 
entertained for him to the moment of his death. 

Captain Murray, we believe, during the short truce which 
followed the treaty of Amiens, remained unemployed, enjoying 
the sweets of retirement, with his family, at Chichester. 

When, on the resumption of hostilities, in the spring of 1805, 
Lord Nelson was appointed to the command of the fleet then 

* It was on the 7th of December, 1798, that the Colossus was lost. 
For a more circumstantial detail of that event, the reader is referred to 
the NAVAL CHUOMCLE, Vol. L. page 86. 

t " The van," said Lord Xclson, in his official letter, was " led by Cap* 
tain George Murray, of the Edgar, wko sel a noble example of intrepidity." 
Vide NAVAL CHRONICLE, Vol. V. page 555. For additional particulars of 
the proceedings beiore Copenhagen, in the spring of 1801, see also the 
NAVAL CUKONJCLE, Vol. V. pages 335, 31k), 339J ami 351; Vol. VI. pajes 
>17, mid 120; uad Vol. XIV. pa^e 395. 



ftEGKC'tt MURRAY, ESQ. 189 

going to the Mediterranean,* his lordship applied to the 
Admiralty for the brave commander of the Edgar, to be the 
captain of the fleet. Captain Murray, who had just been 
appointed to the Spartiale, at Plymouth, was accordingly sent 
for by the Admiralty; but, when Lord Nelson communicated 
his wish to him, he hesitated. On his lordship asking the rea- 
son, he answered, by observing, that the nature of the service 
was such, as very frequently terminated in disagreement between 
the admiral and the captain ; and he should be extremely 
unwilling to hazard any possible thing that should diminish the 
regard and respect tchich he should ever entertain for his lord- 
ship. Lord Nelson coincided in opinion with Captain Murray j 
but assured him that, on whatever service he might be called, or 
whatever measure he might be directed to carry into execution t 
he never should forget the intimacy which subsisted between 
them; and even, should any thing go contrary to his wishes, he 
would wave the rank of ADMIRAL, and explain, or expostulate 
with him, as his FRIEND, Murray. His lordship also desired, 
that the same frankness of conduct might be shewn towards 
him, as Nelson, and not as the commander in chief. 

Captain Murray at length entered on the truly arduous 
commission, of captain of Lord Nelson's fleet. To those 
who have served under the command of his lordship, who 
know the extreme rigour with which he enforced every regula- 
tion that he thought necessary, and by which alone he brought 
his fleet into such exact order and discipline, must also be known 
the arduous and anxious duty which devolved on the captain of 
his fleet ; and that it required a man, in whose character the 
utmost suavity of manners should be blended with an immovable 
firmness of decision, to carry his regulations into effect. Suck- 
it man had his lordship found in Captain Murray ; for, 

" Though tramM in boisterous elements, his mind 
Was yet by soft humanity rctin'd." 

Indeed, Admiral Murray's disposition is so gentle, and his 

* Vide addenda to the biographical memoir of Lord JNeisoo, Vol. XIV. 
406. 



19O BIOGKAPHICAL MEMOIR OP 

manners are so mild, that but fe\v men are equally well beloved 
in the navy ; while lew possess the facility of commanding with 
such ease, and; at the same time, with such energy and 
effect. Without detracting, in the slightest degree, from the 
credit which is due to the deceased admiral, there is scarcely a 
man \vho served in his lordship 'a fiei'i that knows not how to 
appreciate the merits of Captain Murray ; for, amidst the 
fatigues of first hunting the French fleet in the Mediterranean, 
in the pursuit of them afterwards to the West Indies, and in the 
keeping so many ships together, and in order, it must be obvious 
to every one, that much depended on the captain. 

When in chase of the enemy, with only eleven sail of the line 
to their twenty-two ships, and crowding all the sail that could 
be carried, Captain Murray once observed to Lord Nelson 
(( I suppose, my lord, that, by packing all this canvass on t/ie 
dips, your lordship means to engage the enemy, in case you 
come up K'ith them."" Yes ! by G , Murray, do I," returned 
the admiral drily and shortly. 

On his return to England, Captain Murray found himself 
promoted to a flag ; * but, in consequence of the death of his 
father-in-law, who held an appointment of considerable trust 
under government, to whom he was left executor, he was fortu- 
nately separated from Lord Nelson. Fortunately, we say; 
for otherwise, as captain of the fleet, his station being near the 
admiral, the probability is, that he must have fallen in the 
glorious battle of Trafalgar. 

As a proof, however, of the exalted estimation in which he 
was holden by Lord Nelson, it may be mentioned, that, when 
several captains applied to his lordship, to fill the vacancy which 
Captain Murray had left, his reply was, if ever he had another 
captain of the fleet, it must be Murray! His lordship, it will 
be well remembered, went to sea without filling the vacancy, 
taking with him only his second captain, the gallant Sjr Thomas 
Hardy. 

* He was made rear-admiral of the blue, on the 23d of April, 1804; and 
rsar-ndmiral of the white, the rank which h BOW bears, on the 9th of N- 
yember, 1805. 



EORGE MURRAY, ESQ. 191 

On account of his father-in-law's affairs, Rear- Admiral Murray 
was for some time under the necessity of declining an appoint- 
ment; but, when the expedition under General Crauford had 
been determined on, he was selected for that service by the 
Admiralty, and accordingly received the command. 

To what place that expedition was destined, remains, we be- 
lieve, to the present time, a profound secret; but, in all proba- 
bility, it was intended for some olhcr part of South America 
than Buenos Ayres; as Rear-Admiral Murray had reached the 
Cape of Good Hope, and was afterwards directed, by the present 
administration., to lake the command of the licet at Monte Video. 

When we sat down to compile the present memoir, we 
indulged the expectation, that, before it should be put to press, 
the public would be congratulated on the re-capture of Bucnoa 
Ayres; and that, consequently, our footing would have been 
completely established in Soudi America. We deeply regret, 
that our expectation has been wholly, and definitively frustrated; 
as, on the IGth of the month (September) official despatches 
were received by government, from Rear-Admiral Murray and 
Lieutenant-Generul Whitelocke, announcing the failure of our 
attempt upon Buenos Ayres, and the consequent agreement, on 
the part of the British commanders, to evacuate Monte V 7 ideo, 
and the whole of Spanish South America, in two months, from 
the ?th of July. 

The despatches were brought to England by the Saracen, 
Captain Prcvost. As they are given at length, in a subsequent 
sheet, we shall decline entering into particulars ; observing 
only, that the exertions of Rear-Admiral Murray have been 
equally meritorious, as though they had been crowned with 
success. " I have nothing farther to add," says Lieutenant- 
General Whitelocke, in his letter to government, " except to 
mention, in terms of the highest praise, the conduct of Rear- 
Admiral Murray, n'hose cordial co-operation has never been 
wanting whenever the. army could be benefited by his exer- 
tions."* 

* We have since tuiccrtaiaed, that the name of Admiral Murrajp'i 



NAVAL ANECDOTES, 
COMMERCIAL HINTS, RECOLLECTIONS, 



KAIfTES IN GVUGIV TASTO. 

PRANCE'S WAREHOUSES, AT LIVERPOOL. 

inriHROUGH the medium of a Correspondent, we are 
-J*- enabled to present the following article, as a more full 
and accurate account of the dreadful conflagration which took 
place at Liverpool, in 1802, than that which accompanied our 
view of the old warehouses in that town, in the preceding 

volume : 

From Gore's General Ad-cert iser, September 16, 1802. 
<c On Tuesday last this town was visited by a calamity as 
singularly awful in its appearance as it was disastrous and destruc- 
tive in its effects. About 10 o'clock in the evening a smoke was 
observed to issue from a room in the warehouse belonging te 
Thomas France, Esq. at Goree, whose spacious and lofty front 
has long attracted the admiration of strangers, and which, if 
equalled, was not surpassed in magnitude by any similar structure 
in the kingdom. The alarm of fire was rapidly spread through 
the town, and an immense crowd were soon assembled, where the 
danger had been first discovered. For a time appearances seemed 
to justify a hope that the tremendous mischief which had been 
announced and apprehended might be subdued without much 
effort; but no sooner were the doors and windows of the building 
forced, than the flames, which had been smothered, burst out with 
horrid fury, extending their ravages in every direction, with equal 
rapidity and violence. In a few hours this immense pile, together 
with that large and commodious range of warehouses, which wa 
erected in front, at the distance of 16 yards, as well as that which 
extends from it, in a line, to Water-street, was a heap of ruins, 
and a great proportion of all that rich and various produce, with 
which every apartment of these buildings had been stored and 
crowded, was consumed. The mildness of the evening, and the 
tide, accompanied with light and variable breezes, being fortu- 

grandfalher, mentioned at page 177, was Gideon. A geographical error 
has inadvertently occurred at page 178; for North Carolina, the reader is 
r*qut*td to mark Svutlt. 



NAVAL ANECDOTES,' &C.' 193 

nately at flood, gave an opportunity to remove the snipping beyond 
the reach of the flames, and so prevented the devastation which was 
spreading on the shore, from being aggravated by a scene of con- 
fusion and ruin, which the imagination even shudders to con. 
template. 

The solemn grandeur, the majestic horror of the scene, no 
tongue, no pencil can describe. Through a great part of the 
immense crowd that was assembled, scarcely a whisper disturbed 
the awful stillness that prevailed ; and without an eflfort to resist 
the devouring evil, it was left for a while to act its dreadful part 
alone, every eye being fixed on the tremendous spectacle, and 
every countenance marked with emotions of profound astonish- 
ment, or of silent despair. Of the immense property which has 
perished, no adequate estimate can yet be given, but under the 
disasters of a night, which will long be remembered and deplored, 
one consolation remains, that we have not to lament the loss of a 
single life." 

Errata, in Vol. XVII. 

Page. 

206 For Water-lane, read Water-street. 

207 For city, read toizn ; Liverpool being a borough-town. 
Ib. For thirty warehouses, read sixteen warehouses. 

208 For cellars and garrets, read cellars and capstan rooms. 

PRIZE AGENCY FRAUD. 

ON the 25th of August, a British seaman, named Love, of the 
true jack-tar breed, came forward before the lord mayor, at the 
Mansion House, to ask the advice of the court, as to how he should 
proceed for the recovery of about 64/. prize money due to him, 
which he said had been received by the prize agents, but which ho 
had been unable to obtain. He had been nineteen years in the 
service of the E;ist India Company, and of the royal navy. The 
money he claimed was for prizes taken last war in the East 
Indies. When he came home about three years and a half ago, 
he had applied to a prize agent, Mr. Jackson, who he understood 
was to pay him ; and Air. Jackson told him the money was to be 
paid by a Air. Chace, agent at Madras, and if he di;! not go to 
Madras he would never get a guinea of it. He remonstrated, and 
brought the agent then before the lord mayor, but in vain. 
However, he went out immediately afterwards on a voyage to Ben- 
gal and China, without any expectation of being able to go to 

. <ZTf>ron. ftol.XVIII. c c 



194 K1VAL ANECDOTE*, 

Madras, but in the course of the voyage, while at Bengal, fte> 
with seventeen others, were pressed by a ship of war, which 
immediately went to Madras, where he was allowed to go on 
shore, and claim his prize money of Mr. Chace, who he found was 
become insolvent, but by whom he was told, the person who wa* 
to pay him was returned to England, and that he must apply there 
for payment. On coming home, he applied again to Mr. Jack- 
son, who told him, that by the accounts he had received from 
Madras, the money appeared to have been paid there to a person 
who claimed in Love's name. Love, however, totally denied 
having ever received the money, or ever given any authority to 
any other person : that he was in China at the time it was said to 
have been so paid ; and it was a d d hard case a poor fellow who 
had been nineteen years fighting for his country (and he could 
jhew that his body was covered with honest scars) should be 
choused out of his prize-money by these here lubbers and land 
sharks of prize agents; and if so be as he could not come to 
the rights of it upon this here tack, he should go directly and tell 
the King himself all about it, and let him see how he liked such, 
riggs as those then a going forward under hatches against hia OAvn 
seamen : and he hoped his Majesty himself would bear a hand and 
overhaul these feere d d land pirates. Honest Jack veered out a 
good deal more lingo ; said he was a freeholder of London, 
always bore his father's name, being as how h had no occasion to 
hoist false colours, and as he fought hard for the money, 'twas 
bitter hard if he could not have the satisfaction of spending it haw 
he liked, as he had many a hundred before. 

The prize agent in London, who was present, said, that by the 
rc'turn he had received from the agent at Madras, it appeared that 
the money had been paid to some person who claimed for the 
complainant: he could not blame the man for seeking his right, 
and certainly if the Madras agent paid the money in his own 
wrong, he must be answerable to the claimant; but with such 
instructions as hs had at present, he could uot pay the money 
until the fact was further ascertained. 

The magistrate said he had no authority to interfere; acrl ths 
honest tar, finding he was in the wrong latitude for port ready, 
hauled his wind, crowded sail, and bore away for St. James's, to 
consult his Majesty on the business. 

GALLANT ACTION IN THE MEDITERRANEAN. 

THE boats of his Majesty's ship Melpomene, Peter Parker, Esq. 
captain, were detached, on the evening of the 3d of July, 1806, ta 



COMMERCIAL HINTS, KECOLtECTIONS, &C. 195 

*fuise inshore, on the coast near Leghorn, under the command of 
Lieutenant W. Thompson, who was accompanied in the barge by 
Lieutenant Gascoigne, of the royal marines, and Mr. Witwell 
Butler, master's mate. On the morning of the 4th several vessels 
appeared, and the boats separated in chase. After a long pull the 
barge came up with a large French settee, armed with four six- 
pounders, twelve mounted musketoons, and small arms. They 
were obliged to pull up in^face of the enemy's fire ; and so able 
was the defence, that before they could get alongside, Lieutenant 
Thompson and five seamen were killed, six desperately wounded, 
and several others disabled for the time. The ship and other" 
boats were now out of sight ; but the survivors persevered and 
ho >ked on. Mr. Butler, Lieutenant Gascoigne, Serjeant Thomas 
Milligan, and three seamen, were the only persons enabled to 
board ; at which time the enemy's crew consisted of eighteen men, 
three of whom were killed, and fifteen made prisoners. Captain 
Parker wrote a very handsome official letter to Sir S. Smith, who 
then commanded in Sicily, giving a liberal and correct account of 
the affair, strongly recommending Mr. Butler for promotion, and 
every person concerned, to the honourable notice of their country, 
The above letter was shewn to the officers of the Melpomene, and 
is believed to have been transmitted to England, but by som 
omission it has not been officially published. 

The following more circumstantial account of this gallant 
Action, particularly noticing the bravery of Serjeant Milligan, 
of the marines, has been certified by Capiain Parker, and is 
highly worthy of preservation : 

Serjeant Milligan, being in the bow of the barge, was the first 
man that boarded the settee; and, on his leaping on the deck, si* 
muskets were presented in his face, the fatal effects of vyhich he 
avoided, by throwing himself at once into the midst of the enemy's 
crew. Owing to the number ef killed and wounded in the barge, 
and the settee continuing under sail, only five men were able to 
follow the serjeant, and, after some resistance, the enemy were 
obliged to retreat and disperse, and six of them leaped into their 
own boat, carrying their arms and ammunition with (hem. Ser- 
jeant Milligan pursued ; and fearing that they might do con- 
siderable mischief, if they pulled away from alongside, v. ith their 
muskets with them, and knowing that the barge could not follow, 
he jumped down into the middle of them. He was instantly 
seized and thrown overboard ; but in the struggle, grappled and 
Carried one of the enemy with him, whom he killed in the wa{ 



19(5 NAVAL ANECDOTES, 

with his cntlass. When opposition no longer appeared, every 
exertion was made from the boats of the Melpomene to save Ser- 
jeant Milligan, who was seen swimming astern of the settee, 
apparently very faint, having received several wounds during the 
action. One of the lieutenants of the ship, seeing an oar close 
behind him, called to Milligan to get hold of it, in order to 
receive some assistance, till the boat could get up to him, which 
afterwards picked him up. On his being asked, when safe on 
board, if he had gained the assistance of the oar, he replied, " No, 
sir ; I did not know if the enemy had all surrendered ; and I 
could not bear the idea of turning my back on an enemy's vessel." 
The Patriotic Fund rewarded this brave fellow with forty 
pounds. 

LETTER OF THE LATE CAPTAIN WRIGHT. 

THE subjoined extract from a letter, purporting to be written 
by the late Captain Wright, bears internal marks of authenticity ; 
and will be found to furnish a more detailed account, than any 
which had before appeared, of the manner in which Sir Sidney 
Smith and Captain Wright became prisoners : 

" Paris, December 6, 1795. 

<c Seven months of captivity has indeed broken oft" almost all 
means of intercourse between us, but it has not blunted the 
remembrance of my friends at home ; I still retain a grateful sense 
of the sincere interest which I know you all feel in whatever per- 
sonally concerns me. For nearly three months previous to my 
capture, I had few opportunities of writing to my friends. Many 
interesting events, therefore, which have occurred since we parted, 
must remain undescribed till we meet, or at least till I shall be 
under less inauspicious influence. It may be useful, however, to 
give you some idea of our expedition and misadventure ; it will 
correct some false impressions which have gone abroad, and which, 
in fact, have been circulated by the enemy. 

*' Sir Sidney and myself are treated in a manner which has no 
parallel in military history. The enemy endeavours to justify this 
treatment by affixing to our expedition a motive and character 
incompatible with the laws of war. 

" The following is the manner in which we fell into the hands 
of these barbarians : 

" Having anchored, on the morning of the 17th of April, in the 
outer road of Havre de Grace, with the Diamond alone, we disco- 
reredj at anchor in the inner road, an armed lugger. A project 



COMMERCIAL HINTS, RECOLLECTIONS, &C. 19. 

was Immediately conceived of boarding her, in the night, by means 
of our boats. In justice to the merit, and indeed necessity, of 
this project, in a national point of view, it is necessary to-inform 
you, that this was the only remaining ressel which continued to 
annoy the English trade within the limits of our squadron. She 
had been recently equipped at Havre ; carried 10 three-pound* is, 
and 45 men ; was commanded by a bold, enterprising man, with 
a private commission ; and sailed so well, in light winds, as to 
have more than once eluded the pursuit of our frigate, -when 
returning from the English coast. Her first depredations on our 
trade were of a magnitude to warrant the risk of a small sacrifice 
in her capture; and Sir Sidney had established it as a point of 
honour in his squadron, that an enemy's vessel within the limits of 
his command should not even pass from port to port. 

" The force employed in our enterprize consisted of the launch, 
armed with an 18-pounder carronade and muskets, four other 
boats with muskets, including a two armed wherry, in which Sir 
Sidney commanded in person, and carrying in all 52 persons, viz. 
nine officers, six of whom were from 12 to 10 years of age, three 
servants, and 40 seamen. We were all volunteers, were disposed 
to surmount all obstacles that should oppose our purpose; not a 
breath of air, not a ripple on the water, the oars were muffled, 
and every thing promised the happiest success. We quitted the 
ship about ton o'clock, preceded by Sir Sidney Smith in his wherry. 
Arrived within sight of the Vengeur, we lay upon our oars to re- 
connoitre her position, and to receive definitive orders. This 
done, we took a broad sheer between her and the shore, in order 
to assume the appearance of fishing boats coming out of the har- 
bour, and thereby protract the moment of alarm; in this we suc- 
ceeded beyond expectation, and afterwards rowed directly towards 
her, reserving our fire till she should commence the action. This 
happened after hailing us within about half-pistol shot: the boats 
returned it in the instant, and within less than ten minutes we had. 
got possession of the vessel. 

u It was now that we first discovered our difficulties. The 
enemy had very wisely cut their cable during the action: the 
vessel had therefore been drifting towards the shore all this time. 
On perceiving it, we sought, in vain for a second anchor heavy 
enough to hold her against the strength of a very rapid tide, that 
rushed into the Seine. All the boats were sent a-head to tow, 
and every sail was set; but it was all in vain. After all these 
fruitless efforts, we tried the effect of a small sledge, wi thoat hope 
of its holding. The vessel dragged it a long way, and, at length 
brought up, 



108 VAVAfc ANECDOTES, 

tc Here, therefore, we lay, anxiously expecting day-light to dls* 
cover the extent of the evil we hail to encounter, or for a propi- 
tious breeze to assist our escape. Day-light at length appeared, 
and terminated our suspense. Our position was in the last degree 
critical: we were half a league higher up the river than Havre, 
the town and harbour of which was now iu motion, in hostile pre- 
paration. Nothing now remained for us, but to make every 
possible preparation on our part for a desperate and unequal con- 
flict. The vessel, however, was destitute of every material article 
of defence, such as grape-shot and match. There was not a single 
round of the former, and the latter was so bad, that it would never 
fire upon the first application. It was resolved, however, to fight 
as long as the lugger would swim, in the expectation that, by pro- 
tracting our surrender, a prosperous wind might deliver us, even 
in the last extremity. All Havre was now in motion to attack us : 
some shot had reached us whilst we were in the act of discharging 
our prisoners, and sending them on their parole to Honfleur; for, 
with his usual humanity, Sir Sidney Smith proposed to send them 
away clear from the dangers of a battle in which they could not 
co-operate. They received his kindness with gratitude. 

4 ' The attack now commenced. We got under weigh to attack 
a large lugger which was advancing, whilst the boats were detached 
to rake her with grape-shot and musketry. The result was, that 
she sheered off. We had not, however, escaped clear: her grape 
and musketry had considerably disabled our rigging, and wounded 
some of our best men : your young friend Charles B. was amongst 
the number. This action was scarcely over when we were sur- 
rounded on all sides by a variety of small craft, crowded with 
troops ; and another action immediately commenced, more des* 
perate and more unequal than the former. Sir Sidney ordered all 
the muskets to be collected and loaded, and made such a distribu- 
tion of them, that each man was enabled to fire several rounds 
without the necessity of re-loading ; the midshipmen re-loaded, 
them as fast as they were discharged. In this manner an incessant 
fire was kept up for some time. No breeze, however, appeared, 
and resistance was evidently in vain, as the country was assembling, 
In a word, we were compelled to surrendar." 

INGENIOUS PHILOSOPHICAL EXPERIMENT OF ADMIRAL 

PATTON. 

THE admiral took up a small flask of salt water in the Atlantif 
Ocean, near Cape St. Vincent, which weighed 22 oz. 5drs. Tfa* 



COMMERCIAL HINTS, UECOLLECTIOX3, &C. 199 

same quantity, in bulk, of salt water taken up by him in the 
Mediterranean near Minorca, was found to be 13 grains heavier. 
Two decanters were afterwards filled, one with fresh, the other 
with salt water, their specific gravities differing in the above pro- 
portion, and the fresh water tinged with red colouring matter. 
The decanters being placed horizontally, and their necks closely- 
luted, a gradual interchange of their contents was observed to 
take place, the fresh and coloured water making its way through 
the upper, and the salt water in a contrary direction through the 
lower, part of the necks ; being a just representation of the upper 
and under currents, which are supposed to flow in contrary direc- 
tions through the strait of Gibraltar. 

ROYAL NAVAL ASYLUM. 

THE Royal Naval Asylum has been transplanted from Padding- 
ten to Pelham House, in Greenwich Park, which has been for 
some time undergoing the necessary repairs and extensions, to ren- 
der it at once commodious for the purpose of its intention, and 
ornamental as a public building. On the east and west, two 
capacious wings are added, connected with the centre building by 
handsome colonnades. The lower part of each wing is to be 
appropriated to the school rooms for the children s male and 
female respectively; the upper parts as dormitories for them, and 
the servants of the institution. It is proposed immediately to 
extend the whole number of pupils to 1000, from every part of 
the united kingdom. The boys are taught reading, writing, and 
figures; and, where their capacities display fitness, are to be 
instructed in navigation ; and daring the hours of relaxation, the 
elder boys are taught rope and sail making ; and they are to be 
instructed in the rudiments of naval discipline, by regular veteraa 
boatswains. The girls are taught to read aiul write, and are 
instructed in needle work, and household industry. The building 
fills up the vista b.tween both wings of Green \vich College, to 
which it seems to form an appropriate centre; and it is intended 
that the whole shall be immediately completed, for the reception 
of pupils, officers, &c. 

CONTRASTED CONDUCT OF THE TRENCH AND SPAXI* 
ARDS, AFTER THE BATTLE OF TRAFALGAR. 

IT was interesting to observe the different effect produced OB 
the Spaniards and French by a common calamity. The Spaniard, 
more than usually grave and scclate ; plunged iuto a profound 



200 NAVAL ANECDOTES, 

melancholy, seemed to struggle -with himself whether he should 
seek within his soul fresh resources against unwilling enemies, or 
turn his rage against his perfidious allies. The French, on the 
contrary, were now beginning to mingle threats and indecent 
oaths with those occasional fits of melancholy, which repeated and 
repeated proofs of defeat still continued to press upon them, as it 
were, in spite of their endeavours to the contrary. Not one of 
them but will tell you, that if every ship had fought like his, the 
English would have been utterly defeated. Contiguous to my 
small apartment at the posada was a hall, where a party of five- 
and-twenty or thirty French soldiers Avere assembled every day at 
an early hour, to dinner. The commencement of thuir meeting 
\vasgenerallysilent; but as the repast went on, and the wine 
passed round, they grew loud in discourse and boastings. One 
had slain five Englishmen with his own hand ; another seven, and 
some could not even tell how many they had rid the world of. 
One more modest than the rest had only killed three ; but how 
did this happen ? An English vessel was preparing to board the 
ship in which he was. " A PabordagcJ' was the universal cry 
of the French. Meanwhile an unfortunate Englishman appeared 
ready to leap on board, when the ships were almost locked 
together ; this hero brought him down like a crow. A second 
took his place, and shared the same fate. Strange as it may 
appear to wondering posterity, a third succeeded, and was sent to 
follow his companions into the profound abyss. " After this," 
cried he, with a loud oath, a no more of them shewed themselves 
there." " Non, non^' exclaimed his comrades : " aprcs ceht Us 
ns s'y sont plus montrcs , " and immediately ten of them began to 
talk at once. 

After paying a silent and involuntary tribute of respect to thft 
ralorous Frenchman, who had only killed three Englishmen, 
because only three were opposed to him, I almost began to doubt 
whether my eyes had not deceived me, in the terrible symptoms of 
defeat which I imagined to have observed on the part of the allies. 
But the conversation of the naval officers at the public table, where 
I dined, served to counterbalance these murderous narrations, and 
to raise my opinion of the French character, degraded by such 
idle and misplaced rhodomontadcs. They canvassed with coolness 
the manoeuvres of the two fleets, and the cause of their defeat. 
One ship had not done her duty, another was overpowered by 
numbers, and some had deserted them altogether. These and 
many other causes were assigned ; "but, after all," said they, 
" their fire was terrible." (Mais apres lout, leurfeu ctoif terrible.) 



COMMERCIAL HINTS, RECOL1ECTIOKS, &C. 201 

In two things, and two only, did the French and Spaniards agree, 
in mutually blaming each other, and in reckoning events from or 
before the battle. Such a thing happened so many days before tlia 
combat, or so many days after it : this was the universal mode of 
expression. The battle of Trafalgar seemed to form a new epoch, 
from whiph to compute events, although not yet marked in the 
national calendar, like the coronation of an emperor, or the bh-t.i 
of a prince. SAMPLE'S Journey to Naples^ fyc. 

BREWSTER'S ASTROMETER. 

MR. BREWSTER, of Edinburgh, has invented a new astrometer, 
for finding the rising and setting of the stars and planets, and their 
position in the heavens, which is said to be more simple in its 
construction, and more extensive in its application, than any before 
invented. The use of this instrument is thus described : to find 
the name of any particular star that is observed hi the heavens, 
place the astrometer due north and south, and when the star is 
near the horizon, shift the moveable index till the two sights point 
to the star. The side of the index will then point out, on the 
exterior circle, the star's amplitude. With this amplitude enter 
the third scale from the centre, and find the declination of the star 
in the second circle. Shift the moveable horary circle, till the 
time at which the observation is made be opposite the star's 
declination, au't the index will point to the time at which it passes 
the meridian. The difference between the time of the star's 
southing, and twelve o'clock at noon, converted into degrees of 
the equator, and added to the right ascension, if the star comes to 
the meridian after the sun, but subtracted from it if the star souths 
before the sun, will give the right ascension of the star. With the 
right ascensions and declinations thus found, enter a table of the 
right ascensions and declinations of the principal fixed stars, and 
you will discover the name of the star which corresponds with 
these numbers. The astrometer may be employed in the solution 
of various other problems. 

RUSSIAN ORDER OF ST. ALEXANDER NEWSKOI. 

As this order has been conferred upon several distinguished 
officers in the service of his Britannic Majesty, the following 
j>hort account thereof may be acceptable : 

The Order of the Holy Alexander Xewikoi was instituted by 



202 XAYAL ANECDOTES, 

Peter the Great, in the year 1722, but he died before any knights 
were invested with it. The first installation was by Catherine I. 
in June, 1725, at the nuptials of the Duke of Holsteiu with the 
Princess Anne. The riband is dark red, and the cross of red 
enamel with golden eagles ; in the centre oval is the figure of 
Alexander on horseback, in chased work. The star is of silver, 
with the initials S. A. (Sanctus Alexander) ; the motto, Princi* 
pibus patrice. In Russia, the order is given to no one below the 
rank of a lieutenant-general. The anniversary is on the 30th of 
August, old style, and is celebrated with great rejoicings in the 
most considerable cities and towns in Russia. 

NAVAL OFFICES. 

Navy Office, August 10, 1807. 

A LIST of all offices created or revived since he 20th of May, 
1804, 'held either immediately or derivatively from the crown; 
specifying the nature of the duties in each such office, the salary 
or emolument thereunto annexed, the names of the persons 
appointed to each respectively, and the dates of such appoint- 
ments, so far as relates to this department : 

William Brown, Esq. commissioner of the navy, to reside at 
Malta, Jan. 22, 1806, 1,200/. 

James Stirling, clerk to ditto, May 19, 1806, 240/. 

Charles Cunningham, Esq. commissioner of the navy for the 
superintendence of Deptford and Woohvich dock-yards, June 20, 
1806, 10001. 

James Kennedy, first clerk to ditto at Deptford, during the war, 
March 12, 1807,' 300/. 

Thomas Asquith, second clerk to ditto, at Deptford, during the 
war, March 12, 1807, ISO/. 

James Reed, first clerk to ditto, at Woolwich, during the war, 
March 12, 1807, 300/. 

Stainer Canham, master shipwright, at Lcith, during the war, 
Feb. 5, 1806, 240/. 

George Paterson, master attendant, at Leiih, during the war, 
Feb. 5, 1806, 2101. 

At Falmouth. 

Ambrose Keddcll, naval officer, Nov. 30, 1805, 400/. 
James Petlitt, clerk to ditto, ditto, 150/. 

George Boddy, master shipwright, Nov. 16, 1805, 360 
William Payne, master attendant, Jan. 31, 1806, 300/. 



OMMERCIAL HINTS, RECOLLECTIONS, &C. 203 

At Bermuda. 

John Dunfier, naval officer, March 1, 1805, 3001. 
William Buuce, master shipwright, Nov. 28, 1806, 300/. 

At Barbadoes. 
Daniel Tidball, naval officer, Jan. 30, 1807, 500/. 



DESCRIPTION OF THE SOUND AND ADJACENT COUNTRY. 

[Translated from a German pamphlet, published in Berlin in 1801.] 

THE Sound is to the north, what the Straits of Gibraltar are to 
the south of Kurope, and Elsiueur and Helsingburgh may be called 
the northern pillars of Hercules. It forms the communication, 
between the North Sea and the Baltic. 

The Sound is two miles and a half broad at the narrowest part, 
where the sand banks on the Danish, and the Scheeren rocks on. 
the Swedish coast, confine the channel so much, that the men of 
war, of great draft of water, can only pass one after the other. 
The Danes have, from this circumstance, been enabled to establish 
a toll, which brings in a considerable sum, all ships that pass 
Elsineur being obliged to pay this duty. 

P'urther to the eastward, particularly near Copenhagen, the 
Sound widens ; but still there is scarcely room for vessels to 
manoeuvre or fight, and the flotilla defending it might receive great 
support from the batteries ashore. 

Zealand, the largest of the Danish islands, is about 160 miles 
long, and 120 broad. The chief produce is barley, oats, and 
wheat. The pasture lands are very good. There are extensive 
woods of oak and beech, and the lakes abound with fish. The 
best harbour is that of Copenhagen, the metropolis and royal 
residence, built on the opposite side of the strait, between Zealand 
and the island of Amak, and celebrated for its excellent port, and 
its convenient situation for trade. The city has a noble appear- 
ance from the sea, and is about two miles in length, and about one 
and a half in breadth, and six miles in circumference. Some 
writers estimate the number of inhabitants at 85,000, others 
100,000. 

In many of the streets the canals are deep enough to admit large 
ships to come close to the warehouses, a circumstance of the 
greatest convenience to the merchants. There is an university of 
some importance (founded in 1478, by Christian I. under the 
sanction of Pope Sextus IV.), an academy for artillery and naval 



204 NAVAL AN'ECDOTESj &C. 

Cadets, a society of natural history, an academy for painting, 
royal societies of sciences, belles letters, and surgery, a veterinary 
school, a royal library, containing about 100,000 volumes, besides 
a large, one belonging to the university, about 50 hospitals and 
poor houses, a very spacious exchange, and a fine arsenal. 
Among other excellent manufactories, one of beautiful porcelaine, 
established and carried on by F. H. Muller, an apothecary, 
deserves particular notice. The round tower of the church of the 
Holy Trinity is reckoned a master-piece of architecture ; it was 
built after a design of the celebrated astronomer, Christian 
Longomontanus. It is 150 feet high, and 60 feet in diameter, and 
the entrance is a spiral arch, so strong and spacious, as to admit a 
Coach to ascend to the top, an experiment which the Czar Peter 
the Great is said to have made in 1716. Copenhagen enjoys the 
privileges of a free port, and carries on a considerable trade. In 
3768, upwards of 3,800 ships entered inwards, and about 3,700 
cleared outwards. That Copenhagen is a place of great strength, 
both by nature and art, is evident from the three long and bloody 
sieges it sustained under Frederick I. Christian III. and Frederick 
III. though the fortifications were then by no means in the state 
they now are. As the town of Christian-haven, built on the isle 
of Amak, is generally comprehended with Copenhagen, this island 
may be noticed here. It is seventeen miles in length, by seven 
broad, and has a communication with the city by means of two 
bridges. The soil is uncommonly rich, and the island is con- 
sidcred as the garden and dairy of Copenhagen, to which the 
Amakers bring for sale all kinds of vegetables, milkj butter, and 
cheese, in great quantities. 

Of the Danish towns within the Sound, the next in point of 
importance is Elsineur, built on the declivity of a mountain, 
directly opposite to Helsingburgh, on the Swedish coast. It con. 
tains from five to six thousand inhabitants, who derive great 
benefit from the number of people passing through the town from 
Sweden to different parts of Denmark, and still more in conse- 
quence of the toll that is levied from all vessels passing the Sound, 
on which account, each of the nations trading to the Baltic usually 
hare a consul established here. Christian II. had an intention of 
ceding the town to the Dutch, but the inhabitants refused to com. 
ply with the order. 

To the south of Elsineur is the important fortress of Cronen- 
burgh, begun by Frederick II. in 1577, and finished in 1585. 
The fortifications arc in the best order, and the guns command the 
Sound, which is here not more than two miles and a half oveij fot 



CORRESPONDENCE. 905 

men of war dare not keep near the Swedish shore, on account of 
the shoals. 

The most important islands in the Sound are: 1st, Amak, 
which has been already described. 2d. Saltholm, a small island 
belonging to the Danes, where there are excellent quarries of lime- 
stone, free-stone, and marble. This island is uninhabited, being 
overflowed in winter. 3d. iluen, or Ween, a fertile island, for. 
mcrly an appendage of Zealand, but annexed to the Swedish crown 
at the peace of Rotzchild. it was bestowed by Frederick II. on 
Tycho de Brahe, the celebrated astronomer^ for the tcnu of 
his life. 



\ 
CORRESPONDENCE. 

A Su&iidfary National Defence, most humbly and earnestly 
recommended for instant adoption^ tit the present Crisis. 
Addressed to the Right Honourable Lord MULGRAVE, Jir^t 
Lord of the Admiralty ; to all Lord-Lieutenants of Counties ; 
and ail other his Majesty's faithful and liege subjects in. 
the United Kingdom. By a LOYAL FOUKSTER. 



Jlfj/ Lords and Gentlemen, 

I keg leave, with all due humility, to submit the annexed Subsidiary Plan 
Iff Defence written some years ago, at a period of not so much danger as the 
present. 

I shull not arrogantly determine as to the benefits, utility, or feasibility of 
its adoption ; but only have to add, that I wrote it zeitk good intent as I 
now have the honour to submit it. 

I am, 
j\ly lords and ge.ntlcmm, 

With 'he highest respect, 
Your trn/ obedient and humble servant, 

(as m<j countries well-wisher) 
Stamford, July 24, 1807. WILLIAM BENSON. 

MAY IT PLEASE TOUR LORDSHIPS, &C. 

ILE our warmest praises and most bonnden gratitude are 
so justly due to thousands of our countrymen for the 
patriotic exertions they are making, in a variety of ways, to assist 
the state, in the threatening aspect of the enemy ; there is one, I 
presume, not yet touched upon, by which, perhaps, the most 
\inforlant and considerable aid might be afforded, by many noble, 



206 CORRESPONDENCE. 

spirited, and liberal minds: I beg leave, therefore, without further 
preface or apology, most humbly to submit it to your lordship, 
and to all the nobility and gentry, the inhabitants of the county of 
over which your lordship presides, as it may 
have the good fortune to obtain your united consideration. 

It is, that subscription books be opened at Lloyd's, and at all 
other the banking houses in the united kingdom, to receive the 
amount of all voluntary offers of timber trees, and all such 
materials as are calculated to construct and fit up, zoith all possible 
expedition, gun-boats, rafts, cfndsuch other craft, as may be useful 
in resisting or giving a check to the enemy, in their attempts at a 
landing, in situations where vessels of greater magnitude, in pur- 
suit of the enemy, would not venture to follow them. 

And here the writer feels persuaded that there are thousands 
who will instantly stand forward to contribute to this mode of 
national defence. Not selfishly regarding the value of their 
forests (the honest pride, no doubt, of park and verdant lawn), 
while they, only at a distance, frown majestic on the daring foe ; 
while some even of their sturdy branches, with defiant arm would 
now salute the wave, and willing buoy upon their sinewy nerve 
the hardy sons of valour, to conflict and to victory. 

The principal noblemen, gentlemen, and inhabitants in each 
county, who may be able and disposed to promote and give effect 
to the measure, will immediately form and establish committees for 
the purpose, to give every possible aid for its accomplishment; as 
doubtless will all canal companies, who can convey the timber 
from the interior to the respective yards to be wrought up. 

At the moderate computation of twelve boats, to be provided 
by each county, in one month's time (admitting timber sufficient 
to be now already cut down), there might be built in the above 
period, six hundred and seventy-two boats, without including the 
counties in Scotland, or in Ireland. 

It is presumed, my lord, that had our assailing squadrons upon 
the enemy's coasts, been accompanied by such a subordinate 
though useful appendage (a non-descript, perhaps, in our, though 
of material service in all naval tactics, as ferrets are, in the animal 
creation), attended also with fire-ships, in all probability, the 
enemy's boats, which draw so little water, and which are never- 
theless capable of mounting three guns, could in no wise have 
escaped our gallant tars. 

Therefore, my lord, provided that each county in the United 
Kingdom, shall furnish merely six such-like boats, as a quota for 
each month, for lite ensuing aix months^ th,ese shores, iny lord.. 



CORRESPONDENCE. 207 

Trould, in all weathers, in every assailable quarter^ present to the 
invader such a formidable disposable floating battery, that he 
must ever rue the evil, fatal hour, in which he conceived the idea 
of approaching old Albion's cliffs. 

And it is further most humbly submitted, that all males, from the 
age of to years, resident within five or ten miles of the sea 
coast, shall, by act of parliament, be balloted for, to serve on 
board such craft, as sea fencibles, for the space ef four months at 
a time in each year, in their turn ; and be forthwith embodied 
for that purpose, with suitable pay, clothing, and allowances. 

The Board of Admiralty to direct the whole, who will, as soon 
as they are complete, appoint to them their respective stations and 
commanders, who may be selected from officers on half-pay of the 
naval list. 

And thus many hundreds, perhaps, of valiant souls, who now 
sigh to think that they cannot be more actively employed, may 
have, ONCE AGAIN, the cheering and grateful opportunity, ere yet 
" their sand is rim out," to be useful to that country they so 
sincerely love, and which they have ever gloried to protect; and 
whose ardent declaration (methinks I hear) " that they will die 
content," if they shall be permitted to " add still one more laurel 
to their country's fame." 

With infinite respect, 
I have the honour to be, my lord, 
Your lordship's most faithful and humble servant, 

RET. WILLIAM BENSON, A.M. 

Chanter of Einly, Limerick, Ireland. 
Stamford, JWj/24, 1807. 

^>,x*,^ 

THE GIANT'S CAUSEWAY. 

MR. EDITOR, 

A S you have given a view of the Giant's Causeway, in a pre- 
-*-^- ceding volume of your work,* I take the liberty of sub- 
mitting to your readers, as a farther illustration of that natural 
curiosity, the following extract from Sir R. C. HOAIIE'S 
Tour in Ireland, in 1806. 

Yours, Sec. 

L. T. O.. 

* Vol. XVII. page 128. 



508 CORRESPONDENCE. 

" Sunday, August 17. Our intended plans, and high expeo 
Rations were considerably deranged, by the very unfavourable 
appearance of the morning. Our curiosity to see this far-famed 
wonder of the north was great and urgent ; and the very idea of 
moping within our dull quarters at Coleraine, was too much for 
us to support : we proceeded therefore on our journey to the 
Causeway, which is distant from Colcraice eight long miles. No 
one object on this tract intervenes, either to amuse the. eye, or 
divert the attention : they must feed by anticipation on the natural 
curiosities they have in view. Passing by the shell of a large 
church in ruins, we came to the litt!e village of Bush Mills, 
situated on. the river Bush, which falls over a weir near the 
bridge ; we stopped at a cottage, not far distant from the 
Causeway, where we found a room for ourselves, and stabling for 
our horses. 

" About twelve o'clock the clouds dispersed, and the heavens 
seemed disposed to favour our expedition. Of things so much 
talked of, we are too apt to form exaggerated ideas ; for omnc 
ignntnm pro magnified est^ and I know of none, whose praises 
have been so much vaunted as the Lake of Killarncy and tho 
Giant's Causeway; the southern and northern wonders of Ireland. 
When such gigantic epithets are applied to objects, we of course 
expect to see nature decked in her grandest and most horrid 
attire ; and the idea which my imagination had formed concerning 
the Causeway, was that of a high and extensive range of basaltic 
columns, stretching forth bokl.'y into the sea like a stately pier ; 
but from its flatness, the Causeway is totally overlooked, until 
pointed out by our guide ; its defail, however, examined on the 
spot, is extremely curious. The surrounding mountains, though 
rather on a large scale ? are not sufficiently varied to give them a 
beautiful appearance, or columnar enough to give them an 
imposing one : in short, the whole of this scenery will prove more 
satisfactory to the natural philosopher and mineralogist, than to 
the artist. 

u The Causeway itself is generally described as a mole or quay, 
projecting from the base of a steep promontory, some hundred 
feet into the sea, and is formed of perpendicular pillars of ba- 
sal tes, which stand in contact with each other, exhibiting a sort of 
polygon pavement, somewhat resembling the appearance of a solid 
honeycomb. The pillars are irregular prisms, of various denomi- 
nations, from three to eight sides; but the hexagonal columns are 
as numerous as all the others together. 

" Oft a minute inspection, each pillar is found to be separable 



s 

CORRESPONDENCE. 209 

Info several joints, "whose articulation is neat and compact beyond 
expression, the convex termination of one joint always meeting a 
concave socket in the next; besides which, the angles of one fre- 
quently shoot over those of the other, so that they are completely 
locked together, and can rarely be separated without a fracture of 
these parts. 

" The sides of carh column are unequal amongst themselves, 
but the contiguous sides of adjoining columns are always of equal 
dimensions, so as to touch in all their parts. 

u Though the angles be of various magnitudes, yet the sura of 
the contiguous angles of adjoining pillars always make up four 
right ones; so that there arc no void spaces among the basaltcs, 
the surface of the Causeway exhibiting to view a regular and com- 
pact pavement of polygon stones. 

"The outside covering is soft, a,nd of a brown colour, being 
the earthy parts of the stone, nearly deprived of its metallic prin- 
ciple by the action of the air and of the marine acid which it 
receives from the sea. 

" Having spent a few hours in examining the Causeway, we 
visited a cavern in a little bay to the westward, and not far from 
the cottage where we had left our chaise. Here the artist-will find 
a grand subject for his pencil, which I was prevented from taking, 
by a violent and dangerous fall in getting into the cavern. This 
subterraneous grotto, into which the sea roars with great violence, 
is certainly worth notice ; its entrance has been shut up (and I 
have reason to think unlawfully) in order to claim from strangers 
an admission-fee." 

MR. EDITOR, 

(OHOULD any of the hints in the subjoined paper, ('which 
\~^ has never been nuule public) be thought deserving of 

notice, they are much at your service. Yours, 

J. C. 

Extract from Commodore BAUNETT'*- Letters in the Depfford, rsfio 
sailed from Sf. Helens^ with the Medwaifr Preston, and Dol- 
phin, (he 1st of A/v/, and arrived at St. Jago the 26/A of 
1744, and sailed from thence the 'id of June. 



1741, Aug. 3. 100 leagues from the Cape of Good Hops.~-We 
have had a fever in this ship, chiefly among the mariaes, ever 
since we got into the rains, though we were so lucky as to get 

, l>ron, Sol, XVIII. s B 



2tO 

through tli*n without scarce any calms, but, thank God ! the Dis- 
temper has only carried off six. and none arc now in any danger, 
though we hare still near forty down; we had great reason to fear 
that the scurvy would follow ; there are but few that have it, and 
they to no great degree, which we attribute chiefly to the giving 
the recovering men the tincture or elixir of vitriol twice a day, 
mixed with some of our prize drams and water, and allowing them 
a double proportion of mustard, both which are certainly admirable 
good things ; the boiled wheat has also been of great service, 
infinitely preferable to burgoo ; and as I judged the pint a day 
more ttian enough, and thought the making the pursers rich not so 
essential to the service as the making the men fat, I took upon m 
to order pease to be boiled on Mondays for dinner, and the 
^uart of wheat allowed for Wednesdays, to make three dressings, 
*o the men have it for breakfast on Mondays, as well as Wednesdays 
and Fridays, and that issued, each man has a full quart each day, 
which they eat all up with their sugar. We were in danger of a 
mutiny at the first serving of the water and brandy mixt, but after 
reading the articles of war, the order from the Lords of the. 
Admiralty, and then calling the men by the mess-book, they took 
it quietly, and are all now well reconciled to it ; I think it very 
wholesome, and, as they hare sugar to mix with it, rery palatable : 
now that the fire is gone off, it must be called a good spirit, 
and if it was always of a proper age before it is put on board, and 
no ship had more than a months' beer, 1 really belief e the men 
would be more healthy than they generally are. The Medway 
has not any sick ; the Preston very few ; the Dolphin 1 lias been, and 
is still very sickly, and no wonder, she was manned by the scrubs 
and jail birds of the Sovereign, and the distemper came into this 
ship by some raw recruits among the marines, but we have buried 
only six men since we left England, and hi all the ether ships 
not one. 

1744, Aug. 16. Midzzay between the Cape and Madagascar. 
I am more absolutely convinced of the necessity of going there : the 
westerly winds left us before we got 200 leagues from the Cape, 
in the latitude of it ; we had then but seven weeks water, at two 
quarts a man a day, and 1,700 leagues to run before we could 
have any supply, which would have been an hazardous attempt, and 
an accident to a mast -vould have brought us to despair; but the 
state of the men is too sufficient to justify our going to Madagas. 
car ; no less than 150 in this ship have had the fever; we have lost 
butninc, but most of tbose that recovered arc falling rnto the scurvy, 
some hare died of it, and se*c.al are. now very bad, and if I had 



CORRESPONDENCE. 211 

not pinched my own table for this fortnight to help them out, very 
many more must have been in a bad state ; the Dolphin is still in 
a worse condition, having forty mo.n so bad with the scurvy, the 
surgeon says that they cannot hold out ten days. The Med way's 
men all keep well, scarce a sick man, perhaps because they always 
lie dry in their beds, a comfort peculiar to that ship, and far from 
being the case of the others. 

1744, Sept. 16. Madagascar. Sailed from Madagascar yester- 
day, where Lord Northe.sk joined me with his ship's company in 
a very bad state, after 1 had beea in a week, which obliged me to 
stay eighteen days, instead of tea. as I proposed. His lordship 
buried fourteen men after he lost company, and brought in near 
100 very bad with fluxes and scurvies, of both which they 
recovered on shore in a most miraculous mann-ei ; there were 200 
on shore from all the ships, most of them so ill, that there was 
scarce any hopes of their recovery, but we only buried fi^e of 
them, -all the rest came off well, or in a f.~ir way of being soon on 
their legs. The going to Madagascar gave me great concern, and 
was not absolutely with my opinion ; but as I had taken that of 
the captains at a council of war, I was obliged to follow it, and am 
fully convinced that at least half the men in the squadron would 
have been destroyed, had we attempted to have gone forward, 
and instead of losing only five in two hundred, we should not ha\e 
saved five out of that number. I was obliged to erect an hospital, 
and as the preservation of the men was the sole point in view, as 
that on which our all depended, no care nor expense (hat could 
contribute to it was wanting ; the weakest men had fowls or veal 
always for broth ; they had milk, salad, lemons, and all the 
fruits the country afforded ; their appetites, distempers, and incli- 
nations were consulted, and as they grew able to eat. they had 
their fill of beef or mutton, as they liked best ; and thus wore they 
happily, and indeed I may say, urprisingly, recovered beyond all 
expectation, and the good beef and fish served on board, has, J 
hope, purged off the scurvy that was coming on us like a to, rent, 
of which four men died the day we anchored, befon* they could be 
got out of the ships, though they were not thought so ii{ as many 
that recovered ; we not only got meat for our present expencc, 
but salted a month's pork and beef for the squadron, which I hope 
will prove well ; and could we have got more salt I should have 
ventured farther, though we were rather too late; but in the 
months of May, June, and July, I think meat may be salted there 
as well as in England. We could get but little rice or calavanccs ; 
and there is no pork on the island but wild hogs, and those no' 



512 CORRESPONDENCE. 

common, for I saw none. Nature has been borr.fiful to the 
island, and to that alone they owe ail they have, for they are 
quite strangers to all arts or improvement, cultivate very little 
ground, live in miserable huts, and rather than labour, almost 
starve, in a land abounding in milk and honey. 

1744, Oct. 10. We passed the island of St. Paul's yesterday, 
with a stout wiad, and very cold weather. The Dolphin is sickly 
again : we are well, and so is the Medxvay and Preston. 

Nov. 8. S frails of Sunda. I had an odd sori of a fever for 
eight days, violent for a few hours, then went off in a violent 
pweat, which was hardly off bcfpre the fever returned, with most 
violent pain in my head, so that the surgeon knew not what course 
to take, talked often of bleeding and blistering, in an hour or 
two, but then the symptoms became favourable, and nofhing 
seemed necessary for some hours, then bad again ; and having 
taken neither food nor rest, and been at a vast expense of spirits, 
by monstrous sweats, I was brought very low, but the elixir of 
vitriol which I took four times a day all the while, at last got tho 
better of the disorder, and to that fine medicine alone I owe my 
recovery, as well as many poor men in the squadron, and par- 
ticularly in this ship, who were much in my case, and treated in 
the same manner; and I had rather leave the whole medicine chest 
behind, than the elixir of vitriol. I thank God, I am now very 
well, though not very fat ; I have got my spirits again, and eat and 
sleep well, and, what is matter of great joy to me, we have hardly 
one man in this ship or the Preston that can be called sick, nor 
one who has the least symptom of the scurvy. The good beef at 
Madagascar, and the cattle for a fortnight which we brought on 
our decks, were pf infinite service, and without that refreshment we 
must have been as miserable as we arc now in a good state. I 
anchored under Prince's Island on the 6th, where we got wood, 
water, and some refreshments, with plenty of fish and tine fowl ; 
and am now going to Batavia, to get arrack and the provisions wo 
are short of: there (he men will again have three weeks fresh meat 
to keep them in health and spirits. 

I have had agreat deal of care and anxiety on my head, and the not 
being able to come forward without touching at Madagascar, gave 
we great uneasiness, but I am fully convinced it \vas impossible, 
and our not having water sufficient was a happiness, for the ships 
would have been useless for want of men ; we should have lo^t 
half, and the other half would have been useless for some months ; 
we arc now in happy circumstances, the men hi better health, and, 
the ships in as good condition as when we left Spitheud, 



PLATE CCXL. 213 

1745, Jan. 1 5. Straits of lianca. I thank God, I am in perfect 
health, very few sick in the ships, nor any complaints to make. 
The Dutch have ships and stores in abundance, but are thin of 
men, and besides seamen, commonly bury a hundred soldiers every 
month at Batavia, and scarce a ship arrives there from Holland 
without having buried a third of their men. Our good state of 
health they look on as a miracle; God grant it may continue! I 
will do all I can towards it, and am quite convinced, that the 
keeping the men out of the sun is an essential point ; those that 
have been exposed to it in the boats ha-, e generally been sick, and 
some very good ones lost. The Dutch work them hard, and feed 
them ill: I will feed them well, and work them gently. I must, in. 
justice to the gentlemen of the victualling office, say, our provisions 
of all kinds have proved exceeding good : we have had no scurvy, 
o compliiintsj nor the least shadow of a reason for them. 



PLATE CCXL. 

E annexed plate, from a design by Mr. Pocock, presents 
-J*- a view of Sullivan's Island, with (he spires of the churches 
in Charlcstown, South Carolina, bearing about west. A merchant 
ship is seen hauling up lor the bar, and a schooner pilot-boat 
coming out to meet her. 

In this view, the northernmost spire of Charlestown is seen just 
clear of a tree, upon the southernmost end of Sullivan's Island; 
which is the mark to keep clear of a sand called the Rattle-snake, 
that stretches out to the south-cast, to a considerable distance. 
Ships, in working up to the southward, must not shut it in over 
the island, nor approach the land nearer than 5-| or 5 fathoms. 

Charlestown, in South Carolina, is situated in longitude 80 2' W. 
of Greenwich, and in latitude 32 50' N. It stands upon a neck 
of land, at the conflux of the rivers Ashley and Cooper, both of 
which are large and navigable : the Ashley river, for ships of 
tolerable burthen, twenty miles above the town, and for boats and 
canoes near forty. The navigation for ships in Cooper's river 
does not extend so far, but boats may advance farther. The 
union of these rivers below the town forms a convenient :;nd spa- 
cious harbour, at a distance of about seven miles from in.', st^. 
This port is constantly filled with small vessels from Boston, J\VA- 
port, New York, Philadelphia, and all ihe little intermediate har- 
bours ; bringing flour, salt meat, vegetables, hay, &c. Planks 
^d timber also form a cqroiderablepartol' the importations j and, 



514 PLATE ccxr,. 



though all the articles here mentioned are brought from a distance 
o f nine or twelve hundred milea, they are cheaper, and of a better 
quality, than those of the surrounding country. 

The site of the town is flat and low. The space of ground 
which it occupies is about a mile. It L built with great regularity; 
but about seven-tenths of the houses are of wood ; the remainder 
of brick. Charlestotvn was fortified before the American war. 
It has an exchange, a town-house, an armoury, and several places 
of worship, for the different religious sectaries of which its inha- 
bitants are composed. The town was incorporated in the year 
1783, and divided into thirteen wards, with as many wardens, ene 
of whom officiates as intendant. By these wardens and the in ten- 
dant the town is governed. 

In the year 1787, the number of houses in Charlestown was 
estimated at 1.600, containing 9,600 white inhabitants, and 5,40O 
slaves. In 1791, the number of inhabitants was 16,359, of whom 
7,684 were slaves ; and, in 1803, when the last census was taken, 
the population, including strangers, amounted to 10,690 whites, 
and 9,050 slaves. 

From the middle of the principal street of Charlestown, both 
the rivers on which it stands might be perceived, were not the view 
obstructed by a public building on the banks of the Cooper. 
That part of the town which is situated on the Ashley river is tha 
most populous and commercial. The quays, which are con, 
structed of the trunks of the cabbage palm-tree, fixed together and 
arranged in squares one above the other, project to a considerable 
distance into the river, to facilitate the lading of merchant ships, 
Experience has proved, that the timber of the cabbage palm-tree, 
though of a very spongy nature, remains under water a great num- 
ber of years without going to decay ; for which reason it it 
preferred, for such purposes, to every species of tree in the 
country. 

The water of Charlcstown, which is supplied to the inhabitants 
by pumps, at certain distances, is extremely brackish, and 
unpleasant; but the adjacent country is agreeable and fruitful. 
In winter, the markets are supplied with sea-fish, alive, which are 
brought from the northern parts of the United States, in vessels so 
constructed, that the sea water is continually renewed in them. 
The ships which are employed in this commerce return laden with 
rice and cottons, the greater part of which is re-exported to 
Europe, the freight being always cheaper in the northern than in 
the southern states. The wool and cotton which remain in the 
north are more than sufficient for the supply of the manufactories, 



PLATE CCXL. 21 S, 

Which arc but few in number; and the surplus is distributed in thes 
Country parts, where the women convert it into coarse articles for 
family use. At Charlestown, wood costs from four-and- thirty 
to two-and-forty shillings per cord ; notwithstanding vast forests, 
f unknown extent, commence at six miles, and in some parts 
at a less distance, from the town ; the produce of which, 
might be easily conveyed by the two rivers. The dearness, it 
appears, arises from the scarcify of hands to cut it ; and, from, 
.motives of economy, many of the inhabitants burn, coals brought 
from England ! 

The streets of Charlestown are wide, but not paved ; and, from 
the nature of (he soil, which is a loose sand, the inhabitants arc 
much annoyed by dust, the number of carriages being propor- 
tionably much greater than in any other town in America. There 
are brick foot-paths before the houses ; from which, when the 
passenger steps, his feet sink into the sand. 

The chief accommodations for strangers, in Charkstown, are 
the boarding-houses ; where, however, they charge as high as 
twenty dollars per week ; an expense exorbitantly great, compared 
with the prices of the articles furnished ; beef, for instance, seldom 
costing more than at the rate of six pence per pound. 

Sullivan's Island is situated about seven miles below Charles- 
town : its dry and barren soil is almost void of vegetation; but, 
as it is exposed to the sea breezes, its air is fresh and agreeable. 
Since the yellow fever has been so prevalent in America, many of 
the inhabitants of Charlestown, Avhcnever it makes its appearance 
there, take shelter upon Sullivan's Isl.tnd ; where they mostly 
reside from the beginning of July till the commencement of frost, 
which generally happens about the middle of November. July, 
August, September, arul October, are considered as the most dan- 
gerous months. It has been remarked, that strangers newly 
arrived from Europe, or from the more northern parts of America, 
who immediately land upon Sullivan's Island, are not in general 
subject to be attacked by the yellow fever.* 



* For an account of Sir Peter Parker's disastrous attack upon Sullivan's 
Island, in the year 177G, see the biographical memoir of that officer, NAVA& 
Ci:noMci,r., Vol. XII. pnjre 173, et stq. See also the biographical memoir 
of Rear- Admiral Murray, in the present volume, page 178. Charlestown 
\vas besieged by a British anny, from the latter end of March, to the 13tj 
pf May, 1780, when it surrendered; with ; COO troops as prisoners. 



210 



CORRECT RELATION OF SHIPWRECKS. 

[Continued from page 59.] 

/2o. XIX. 

Again the dismal prospect opens round, 

The wreck> the shore, the dying, and the drown 'd. 

FALCONE*. 

i^s^*^ 

MR. EDITOR, August '27, 1807. 

lIE following being a correct copy of the St. Helen:* 
Gazette, containing the account of the loss of the Ganges, 
East Indiaman, I shall feel obliged if you \\ill insert it in yom' 
NAVAL CHfiONlCLB. Your obliged, &c. 

A CONSTANT READEK. 



(.Copy of the St. Helena Gazette, Saturday^ IGlliJune^ 1807.) 
LOSS OF THE HON. COMPANY'S SHIP GANGES. 

To the Worshipful ROBERT PATTON, Governor, <$-c. <$ c. $c. 

SIR, 

I PERFORM a painful duty in acquainting you with the total lostf 
of the Hon. Company's ship Ganges, lately under my command, 
on Friday, the 29th ult. off the Cape of Good Hope, in latitude 
38 22' S. and longitude 19 50' E. of Greenwich ; the particulars 
of which are faithfully and correctly stated in an extract from her 
log-book, which I have the honour to enclose herewith. 

The ship had been in a leaky state for some time previous to 
this melancholy'event ; indeed so much so, as to render it indis- 
pensably necessary that she should proceed under easy sail, and 
that the most prudent and cautious measures should be adopted by 
my officers and self in the conduct of her. 

On the 21st ult. it was my misfortune to separate in a gale of 
wind from his Majesty's ship Concord, and the Hon. Company's 
ships, viz. Cengal, Lady Jane Duudas, Asia, Walthamstow, and 
Alexander ; and next morning the Hon. Company's ship St. Vincent 
only being in sight, I placed myself under the orders of Captain 
Jones, who, with the most watchful and unceasing care, continued 
to keep as near the Ganges as .circumstances would admit, from 
that time till the day o.n which she foundered. 

You will participate in the satisfaction I feel in being ab'e to 
you. that not a single life has been lost i this ill-fated 



CORRECT RELATION OF SHIPWRECKS. 217 

Ship, though- not less than 209 persons were cm board but a few 
hours before she sunk; and that from the state of the weather it 
\vill be easy for you to imagine with what peculiar circumstances 
of difficulty and danger her boats wore hoisted out, and so mira- 
culouK as well as so general a preservation effected, 

To Captain Jones, of the St. Vincent, who, under Providence, 
has been the happy instrument of our deliverance, his own feelings 
must have proved at the time, and will ever prove through life to 
him, sources of higher satisfaction than any praise of mine can 
bestow, but I should ill discharge these duties which my present 
Mfnafion calls upon me to fulfil, if I did not express to you in this 
public manner, the strong and grateful sense which is entertained 
by my passengers, officers, and self, of his humane and generous 
conduct, both previous to, and on the occasion of the loss of the 
Ganges, as also of his liberal hospitable attentions to us on board 
the St. Vincent, subsequent to that misfortune. 

I have the honour to enclose a correct list of all who were on. 
board the Ganges when it took place. The meritorious services 
of my passengers, nobly and handsomely offered in a very trying 
and perilous situation, and entered into as they were immediately 
on being accepted, in a manner that was equally pleasing to me, 
and honourable to themselves, I most gratefully acknowledge, and 
never shall forget. Of my officers, I cannot perhaps speak in. 
terms more adequate to their deserts, or more satisfactory to them- 
selves, than by saying they discharged their several duties in the 
most exemplary manner; and with respect to the ship's company, 
among whom may be classed a number of men of his Majesty's 
77th regiment, working their passage home in feer, I feel most 
happy in testifying, that they united all the good qualities of 
British seamen and British soldiers, when placed together in scenes 
of danger and distress, till they could no longer be of service to 
the cause in which they were engaged. 

I shall do myself (he honour of Availing upon you as soon as I 
come on shore, and mean time beg leave to refer you to my second 
officer, who is the bearer of this letter, for any farther information 
which you may require on this distressing subject. 

I have the houour to be, Sir, 
Your most obedient humble servant, 

(Signed) T. JIARINGTON. 

Hon. Cvrnpamfs xh : p Earl Si. Vincent, 
16th Jane, 1807. 

n. O0I.XVIII. r r 



COURECT UtLJtTION OF SHIP \VftEc JUT. 

Extract from the log-booh of the ship 

Friday, Mai/ 2D, 1807V 

(( Light airs and cloudy in P. M. A. M. a light breeze and fair, 
the swell much gone down, but the ship still' rolling dreadfully,- 
and rendering it dangerous far the Bo'als to take persons an board,, 
whether astern or alongside. At J p'ast noon the St. Vincent being 
still nearly four miles from us, there being seven feet water in the 
well, the stern post fit-fag now four inches off the dead wood, and 
the- ship utigovcrnafele by (he helm, got the launch at all risks 
alongside, having in vain attempted to put the ladies on board of 
her out of the stern gallery, though the railing was cut away for 
the purpose; At past noon she left us with all tne passengers, 
except at Mr. Rolliston, of the fiombay civil establishment, M'ho> 
Hisistcd in a manner the most friendly to me, and 1 the most 
Bonourable to himself, in remair.vng on ftoard unfit my officers and 
self quitted the ship. At ofrc P.M. the yawl left us with the sick 
people, and some others of the ship's company and soldiers of his 
Majesty's 77th regiment still working at the ymmys wfth unabated 
vigour and good will. At three P.M'. 8- feet water in the well, 
and the ship settling fasf. At \ past four, 9 feet water in the 
well, and seeing: the' launch on her return, called the people up 
from the pumps. Down both cutters, and sent them off as full a 
prudence would permit, with orders not to- return. At five the 
launch, yawl,- and one of the St. Vincent's Boats came alongside!, 
and by | past five, had alt left flic ship again full of people, the 
third and fifth officers in charge of tlie launch and yawl. Imme- 
diately after the boat had quitted us, mustered the people, and" 
there being 49 men still onboard, (Mr. Holliston, the chief, fourth 
and. sixth officers, and myself included) again set the pumps to 
work, as the night was closing in fast, and the St. Vincent still at 
some distance from us. At six P.M. in company with the chief 
officer, gunner, and carpenter, visited' the gun-room for the last 
lime, found the head of the stern- p^t ha>d forsaken the transom 
full six inches, the gnnboard seam of the counter two inches op^n, 
for six or seven feet down at least, the' wood ends five inches off 
the stern-pi)st, and all the counter timber gone art the heels. At 
| past eight, P.M. the St. Vincent's boat and the yawl once mors 
came alongside, and then (and not till then) were the pump? 
finally quitted by my orders. Filled the (wo boats, and despatched 
them, to return no more; five minutes afterwards the launch came 
up to us, and at past eight, accompanied by Mr. Rolliston, thci 
f, fourth and sixth officersj and all thai remained of_tlic 



C01UVECT HELATIOSF OF SUJPAVUECKS. SI'S 

Company, I quitted the unfortunafe Ganges, -with three cheers 
from us all, and twenty minutes after buanled the : t. Vincent in 
safety, where we .were received by Captain Jones with all that 
feeling and humanity which has distinguished his conduct sine* 
our separation from the lleet, .And here, before the journal of this 
eventful voyage is finally closed, J concern: it to be my duty to 
state, that <wi lea' ing tue ship, she hud ten feet water in tne weil, 
and that she had settled half way riip her bends, that she was 
wholly ungovernable by the helm, arid that the poop, quartet 
deck, and upper woi 1;3 generally were in motion, and that as no 
Jiuman means were left untried, so were no human powers equal 
to save her from destruction. 

At day-light -the St. Vincent, from w.hjyt causes m^st appear 
vin her 'ag-book, having made but little progress in the flight, saw 
the . : hip about five miles off, with her masts, yards, and saiis in the 
.same situation as the preceding evening. At seven A.M. Captain. 
.Jones, in compliance, with my request, bore up towards her, and 
at uinc, accompanied by Mr, Koliiston. the chief, .and fourth 
officer, and a full complement of men for the boat, J pulled 
towards her in the launch, with tlu- hope of saving some part 
(however small) of the property on board. 

As we approached the .ship, observed the water running out of 
the scuttles on the gnn-decjk, #JvJ that the forecastle, was at times 
completely buried in the waves. iMidAxr such ciraiMsf.iiicesp the 
ship being evidently in a sinking state, we Conceived jt most pru. 
; dent to relinquish bur object, and therefore immediately returned 
$o the St. Vincent, at that time not more than a quarter of a mile 
distant. About four minutes before noon got alongside of her 
again, and fortunate it was that we did so, for scarcely had the 
launch been secured in that situation, before the Ganges with 
three close reefed topsails set upon her, fore and main-yard square, 
cross-jack-yard braced up, aiul mizen-stay-sai! sheet aft, fore-sait 
in the brails, and helm lashed alee, in a most extraordinary manner, 
paid off before the wind, and in the lapse of oae miuuie sunk, 
entirely going -down head foremost, with all her mas:s standing, 
except the main-top-raast, which on the main-yard touching the 
water, broke oil' at the cap and fell forwards, and Ieavin 6 on the 
minds of upwards of four hundred persons, who were witness*-* to 
this most awful scene, an impression which the j'ecltng han't may 
perhaps conceive, but which never can, I think, by the ablest pen, 
be with justice described. 

Lat. 38 22' S. where the journal of this ill-fated ship closes fof 
fyr. (Signed) T. JIAHlflGTQtf, 



220 



The heart s remote recesses to explore, 

And touch its springs, when Prose avail'd no more. FA LCD NEK, 



THE MARINER. 

(iNCLTJDJXG POETICAL SKETCHES OF VARIOUS PARTS OF THE 
WOULD.) 

]Sy an Officer in the Navy. 

(Now first published.) 
[Continued from page 143.] 



" PER VAUIOS CASBS, PER TOT DFSCRIMINA HEMUM, 
'IENDIMUS." VIRG. 



AND now once more we spread the bellying sail, 
Obsequious to the light perennial gale ; 
Through equatorial seas we wing our way, 
Where fiercely beams the potent lamp of day ! 
We cross the line distressing calms ensue, 
With nought but seas and burning skies in view ! 
Ten days beneath a vertic sun we lie, 
The next, at e^e, strange meteors we descry 
Portentous ! gleaming through the eastern sky. 
Black from the waves "a frowning cloud arose, 
And o'er the scene a sable mantle throws : , 

Th' experienc'd chief the threat'ning omen knew, 
And straight aloft despatched a chosen crew. 
" In royals and top-gallant-sails! stand by 
Your toptail sheets! the halliards quick Ivtjly?" 
Scarce had he spoke when loud the whirlwind roars, 
The lightning flashes, and the torrent pours! 
Hurl'd o'er the side the crashing topmasts fall, 
And loud for help, twelve gallant sailors call ; 
AH pow'r to help the angry fates deny, 
And far astern we see our comrades lie I 
A while th' unequal conflict they maintain, 
Then sink for ever in the roaring main ! 

Soon to a gentle breeze the squall subside-;, 
And slowly o'er the waves the vessel glides ; 
The fractur'd masts and rigging we repair, 
Replace each yard and sail with anxious care ; 



NAVAL HISTORY OF THE PRESENT TEAR. 1807. 

221 

But warn'd by dire example, now no more 
Th* auxiliar sails on lofty pinions soar; 
With toit'ring masts array'd in humble plumes, 
The siiatter'ti bark her former course resumes. 

Thrice was the silver empress of the night 
Array'd in splendour by the source of light; 
And thrice immers'd in earth's protracted shade, 
No ray of light her darken'd orb dispiay'd ; 
Ere yet a friendly port appcar'd in view, 
To cheer our harass'd and desponding crew! 
For while with fruitless sorrow we deplore, 
Our comrades wand'ring on the Stygian shore, 
Unceasing cares our leaky bark demands, 
And pale diseases waste our drooping bands ! 
With toil opprcss'd their strength and spirits fail, 
And o'er the crew despair and death prevail ! 
[To be continued.] * 



$TAVAL HISTORY OF THE PRESENT YEAR, 1807. 

(August Septan bcr.) 
RETROSPECTIVE AND MISCELLANEOUS. 

A N expedition more adequate toils object has seldom been equipped, 
4- than that which has just effected the reduction of Copenhagen, 
and the capture of the Danish fleet. By this grand coup de main of the 
British government a stroke by which Buonaparte has been completely 
outwitted we have wrested from the grasp of the enemy eighteen 
Danish ships of the line, mounting from 61 to 96 guns each ; three ships 
of the line, upon the stocks; fifteen fine frigates ; six brigs; twenty-five 
gun-boats ; and an immense quantity of naval stores and ammunition.* 
We confess ourselves to be amongst those who regard the necessity of 
the case as a sufficient apology for our conduct. Britain lias acted on. 
that first principle of our nature self-preservalion. The question was. 
simply this : Whether Buonaparte should be permitted to seize upon the 
Danish fleet, and to employ it in hostile purposes against England (as 
we have been assured, from unquestionable authority, was his intention) ? 
or whether, by securing that fleet ourselves, we should deprive him of 
the means of annoying us, and insure our own safety? His Majesty's 
ministers wisely preferred the latter. Yet we intended no injury to the 
Danes. Disclaiming all idea of capture, we solicited only a deposit. 
The proposal was even merciful to the Danes ; as, had they acceded to 
it, their fleet and naval stores would have eluded the rapacious grasp of 
Buonaparte, and have been safely restored to them at the conclusion of 

* For the official account of this important capture see page '2i'U. 



KAVAL HISTORY OT THE PUE5ENT YEAR, 1807, 

a general peace. Whether, under the circumstances by which they hare 
po\r fallen into our possession, this will be the case, must, we conceive, 
tlepcnd upon future contingencies. 

Government, we are assured, had received the most positive intelli- 
gence, that Buonaparte h$d forreed a plan for occupying Zealand, and 
that, having possessed himself of the Danish navy, it \vas his intention 
immediately tp invade Ireland. In this intention he is happily frus- 
trated. We fear, too, that, viewing our maritime ascendancy with a 
jealous eye, the Danes Avould rather have facilitated than thwarted his 
"views. We have a right to infer this, from their farmer conduct at the 
period of the Northern Confederacy ; and from the uncommon abun- 
jhnce of stores which were found in their arsenals stores which co::kl 
pot have been amassed but from hostile aims. There was something 
/determined, also, in their opposition. They extinguished the lights of 
Anholt, Skagen, F&Akeberg, and Laugelaud ; and it has been said, that 
the Crown P/rince gave .orders for the burning of the fleet, rather than 
that it should be suffered to fall into the hands of the English. It has 
been reporter! also and we believe it was accredited at the Admiralty 
that, when we took possession of the Danish ships, holes were discovered 
to have been cut in all their bottoms ; the object of which must have 
ibeen, that they should sink on their passage to this country. Another 
statement, however, insist*, that the holes, instead of being artfully 
concealed, were plainly perceptible ; aud that the intention of the 
Danes was, instead of burning their ships, to sink them in the harbour. 
Time will discover which of thcie twp accounts is the mo/e correct. 

Deeplv do we regret the effusion of innocent blood. The Danes, it 
is said, have sustained a loss of from five to six thousand in killed and 
wonnded ; the steeple of the great church, in Copenhagen, fell in with a 
tremendous crash; eighteen hundred houses were destroyed; and the 
conflagration of the town was terrific almost beyond description. In 
the absence of all accounts which can be depended on, as to the injury 
incurred by the Danes, we present the following from a foreign paper : 
" Besides the principal church, several streets in the northern quarter 
of the town are mostly in ashes ; there is scarcely a house that is not 
damaged. According to report, the bombs, grenades, and rockets 
thrown into the town, exclusive of the cannon shot, exceeded 2,000 in 
number. Fifteen hundred burghers and inhabitants have lost their 
lives ; and four hundred wounded persons, of both sexes, have been 
carried to Frederick's Hospital.. Notwithstanding this dreadful devas- 
tation, the courage and valour of the garrison, supported by their 
burghers, can scarcely be described. The King's life guard, mostly 
composed of students, under Count Hauch, distinguished themselves to 
sack a degree, that the English called them ' The Corps of Officers.' 
/'Their less consists of sixty killed and wounded. The artillery, and the 
officers of every description, have done all that could be expected of 
brave men. The commandant, Major-Gencral Peyman, was wounded 
by a musket-ball, in the attack upon the Classen Garden. Several 
officers are dead of their wounds." Our loss has beeu but slight ; thyugh 
fia David Baird had a very narrow escape. 



HISTORY OF THE PRESENT YEAH, 1807. 

frothing, however, can prove the moderation of Ibe English character 
more decidedly than the conduct which has been pursued by our com- 
faanders at Copenhagen. From the first moment of our landing, the 
most efficient measures were adopted for preventing the oppression or 
injury of individuals; and, no sooner had our object, in acquiring 
possession of the fleet and arsenals, been accomplished, than affairewere 
Buffered, as much as- possible, to revert to their former channels. Were 
not comparisons odious, we would exultingly exclaim : Look at the 
conduct of the British, in the conquest of Copenhagen, and at that of 
the French, in the subjugated territories of the continent ! 

Vice-Admiral Stanhope "and Sir Home Popham,* we understand, 
are the superintending officers to whom the equipment of the Danish ' 
fleet for sea has been entrusted. By their exertions, it was expected, 
trhen the last despatches left Copenhagen, that the ships and store* 
would be ready to proceed for England about the 22d or 23d of 
September. 

Immediately aftfr the intelligence of the capture had arrived, direc- 
tions were sent to Chatham and Sheerness, for receiving the Danish fleet 
at those places ; the Trinity Houses, at London, Hull, and Leith were 
ordered to furnish a certain number of masters and pilots, weft acqaainted 
tvith the navigation of the North Seas, to pilot them to England ; and 
a proclamation was issued by government, offering an allowance of 
S7. 10s. and able seaman's pay, to the crews of the Greenlandmen lately 
arrived, and to other sailors employed in the British fisheries, &c. to 
induce them to proceed to Copenhagen, and to assist in navigating the 
ships to this country. From the advantages holden out to them - 
such as having a protection from the impress-, and the assurance of being 
sent back, on their return, free of expence, to the respective port* 
where they might have entered upwards of 2,000 have already volun- 
teered in the river, and at the eastern ports ; and it is conjectured, 
that many more will be collected for this purpose. 

From the circumstance of Admiral Gambier not having been able t<> 
spare a sufficient number of men, from the fleet, to navigate the Danish 
ships across the water, it has been inferred, that the expedition has yc^ 
an ulterior object. Probably the Russian fleet, at Cronstadt. 

Our countrymen will, of course, be pleased to learn, that the com- 
manding officer* at Copenhagen are to be invested with honorary 
rewards. Admiral Gambier is to be raised to the dignity of a Baron 
Vice-Admiral Stanhope and ir Home Pepham are to be created 
Baronets ; and Lord Cathcart, the military comrrander in chief, is to bs 
advanced from the rank of a Scotch Baron to that of an English 
Viscount. Captain Collier, of his Majesty's ship Surveillante, who 
brought over Admiral Gau'.')ier's despatches, announcing the surrender 
of Copenhagen, has received the honour of knighthood j *and Lieutenant 
Cafhcart, the son of Lord Calhcart, who brought home the military 

* For the tiioiirapiucai memoirs of Ad'uirul Stanhope and Sir iiouic Pup- 
Lam, see pages 89 and 265 of the 15th and Icitb volumes of (lie M 
CUUCI.ICLE, with their portraits prefixed.. 



2*24 NAVAL HISl'OHY bP TIIK PRESENT YEAR, 1807. 

despatches relative to the same event, has been promoted to the com- 
mand of a company. 

Under the present aspect of affairs, the capture of Heligoland will 
prove of great advantage to this country. As its captor, Admiral 
Russell, observes, " wilh a small expence this island may be made a 
little Gibraltar, and a safe haven for small craft, even in the winter ; it 
is a key to the rivers Ems, Weser* Jade, Elbe, and Eyder, the only 
asylum at present for our cruisers in those seas." * 

Serious apprehensions are entertained of a war with Russia. Since 
the Emperor Alexander put his hand to the disgraceful peace of Tilsit, 
he has appeared to he in a mood to concede every thing to France. 
Already has he surrendered the passes of Cattaro, and the republic of the 
Seven Islands, to Buonaparte ; and, should that marauder take possession 
of Trieste and Finnic* he will have the complete command of the Adriatic. 
. According to recent advices from St. Petersburg!!, batteries for red- 
hot shot were preparing at Revel and at CronstadL A letter from 
Stockholm also mentions, that the Russian ambassador had delivered a 
note to the Swedish government* declaring, that if assistance were ren- 
dered to the British fleet, or if any part of it were admitted into the 
ports of Sweden, it would be considered as a declaration of war, and a 
Russian army would he marched into Finland. This statement is corro- 
borated by the fact, that the King of Sweden, after having been com- 
pelled to evacuate Stralsund, and to retire to Rugen, has left the 
command of his troops iii that island to Baron Toll, proceeded to 
Carlscrona, and- there ordered lite Kholc Swedish fleet to be equipped for 
service; a measure which, we Conceive, he would not have thought it 
necessary to adopt, but for the threats of Russia. In contemplating 
these circumstances, it is impossible not to suppose, that a naval confe- 
deracy had been planned, and was making rapid advances to maturity. 
The vigour and promptitude of our government have at least checked 
its progress. 

An' event which may perhaps heighten the naval confidence of Russia 
has recently occurred. Three successive attempts of the Turkish 
admiral upon the island of Tenedos were frustrated ; and, in a general 
engagement, with the Russian fleet, on the 1st of July, he sustained a 
complete and signal defeat. The slaughter was immense. The famous 
Bekir Pacha, six captains, and twelve Tschiaoux, were killed; the grand 
admiral himself narrowly escaping, in his dismasted three-decker, to the 
canal of Constantinople. At the latter end of June, a Russian squadron 
also appeared before Sinope and Trebisond, in the Black Sea. 

Lord Collingwood, we understand, arrived off Tenedos, w r ith seven 
sail of the line, about the latter end of August; a circumstance which 
excited much alarm in Constantinople. Sir Arthur Paget, who is with 
bis lordship, is reported to have demanded, that Egypt should be put 
under the protection of Britain, till the conclusion of a genera! pence. 

* Vide Admiral Unssel's Gazette Letter, announcing the capture of 
Heligoland. For a minute circumstantial account of this ishuu!, viilc NAVAL 
CV " **. Vol. IV. page 377.. 



NATAL HISTORY OF THE PRESENT YEAn, 1S07. -225 

Buonaparte maintains all his accustomed inveteracy against this 
country an inveteracy which is not likely to be mollified by our laic 
proceedings at Copenhagen. From Leghorn, we learn, that the regu- 
lations for preventing any communication with England are to bo 
carried into execution with increased rigour and activity in all the terri- 
tories of the allies of France. On the 29th of August, the French 
General Miolis entered the town of Leghorn at the head of 4, 000 men. 
These troops immediately took possession of the harbour and the foiis, 
and a proclamation was issued, ordering the discovery of all English goods 
within the period of twenty-four hoivs. Meanwhile an embargo was 
laid on all the shipping in the port. Similar regulations are likewise 
enforced with peculiar rigour in Holland. A ship laden with coffee and 
sugar, which was supposed to have rome from this country, was seized 
on the 18th of September, at Catwyck, and the captain thrown into pri- 
son. It is said, that no less than forty ships, with their cargoes, all 
ensured at Lloyd's, have in this manner been confiscated. A considerable 
number of French troops, both infantry and cavalry, lines the coast of 
Holland, for the purpose of cutting oft" all intercourse with this country. 
The Dutch merchants are in a. slate of ihe greatest alarm. 

As a part of his plan of operations against England, Buonaparte is said 
to have made a demand upon Portugal, for ten sail of the line, wiih a 
proportionate number of smaller ships ; in consequence of which the Por- 
tuguese government has given orders for the equipment of the following; 
vessels-. Ships of the line Alfonzo d'Alhuquei\jue, Meduza, Conde Don 
Henrique. Cherreus-~S. Godo Magno Principe, (going to Bania) Prin- 
ceza Real. Frigates Minerva Prince/a, Carlolta. Brigs Gavio (un- 
der orders) Condeca de Refeada, ditto. 

Another expedition has been fitted out by the British government, at 
Cork, and has probably sailed. It has about 8,000 troops onboard, un- 
der the command of General Beresford. It has beeu conjectured, that 
the object of this armament is, to obtain possession of the Portuguese 
hipping, until the period of peace. Nothing, ho\vever, is known upon 
the subject. 

It is expected that government will shortly declare all the French West 
India Islands in a stale of blockade. * 

It is believed that the negotiations between the British and American 
ministers are draw ing towards a close ; the result of which it is supposed 
will be of an amicable nature. Mr. Monroe, the American ambassador, 
aspiring to the presidentship of the United States, has taken his passage 
for New York, leaving Mr. Pinckncy in England to manage the diplo- 
matic relations between the respective governments. 

The most distressing intelligence which has for a long time reached 
England, is that of our failure in l!,e attempt upon Buenos Ay res, and 
our consequent evacuation of Monte Video, and the whole of Spanish 
South America. Nothing is known respecting the business, beyond 
what the gazette furnishes ; but it is generally understood, that the 
military commanders in that unfortunate and disgraceful affair will bf 
brought to a court martial. 

JKafc. <&ron. Sol.XVIII. G a 



KAT.it HlStORf OF fnr. PRESENT TEAR, 1807. 

The zeal and activity of the present Admiralty and Navy Boards ftr 
tfuly iireat. The influence of their spirited condilct is evident wherever it 
can operate, particularly in all the merchants and the king's dock-yards in the 
river. Ten sail of the line are ordered to be built in the former, in addi- 
tion to several now on the stocks, while, from the latter, within these few 
werfks, the following have been launched, equipped, mid are now lying at 
North Fleet ready for sea, viz. the Eli/abeth, of 74 guns, Hon. Captain 
Curzon; the York, of 74, Captain Barton ; the Marlborough, of 74, Captain 
G. Moore; and the Cumberland of 74, Captain - . The Bombay, of 
74 guns, from Deptford ; the Invincible of 74, and Undaunted, of 40 guns, 
from Woolwich, will be launched on the loth and 16th of October. Two 
frigates of 40 guns each, that have undergone a thorough repair, are also 
to be undocked, and immediately equipped. The utmost care and dili- 
gence appear to be exerted in the king's yards at Woolwich and Deptford, 
to prevent the admission of improper persons : boards are stuck up at va- 
rious parts of these yards, signed by Commissioner Cunningham, intimating 
that no persons but those upon business are allowed to land or enter there- 
in ; measures, we presume, adopted in consequence of the late fire at 
Chatham. 

The following ships, of 74 guns each, are some of those which are to be 
Tnilt as soon as possible in the merchants' dock-yards, in the rivers Thames 
and Medway, vii. Indus, Edinburgh, Mulgrave, Stirling Castle, Ajax, 
Egmont, Rodney, and Asia. 



on 

Copied verbatim from the LOXDON GAZETTE. 

ADMIRALTY OFFICE, AUGUST 29, 1807. 

topy of a letter to the Secretary of the Admiralty, dated the list Aug. ISOf. 

SIR, 

~7T ENCLOSE herewith, for their lordships' information, a copy of a letter 
-H- which I have just received from Captain Malcolm, of the Narcissus, 
giving an account of the capture by that ship of the Cantela schooner, be- 
longing to the Spanish navy, bound from Rivadeo to South America with 
despatches, which, it appears, were thrown overboard during the chase. 

The prize has pusscd through the squadron for England ; and the letted 
from Captain Malcolm was conveyed to me by the Rose sloop, which I 
sent to examine her. I have the honour to be, &c. 

GARDNER. 



His Majesty's Ship Narcissus, 

>IT LORD, VJih August, 1807. 

I have the. honour to inform your lordship, that yesterday, after ten 
hours' chase, in hit. 45 30' N. long. 10 20' W. I captured the Spanish man 
of war schooner Cantela, pierced for twelve guns, but only carry ing six, and 
twenty-nine men, commanded by Don Joseph 'de Toledo, a lieutenant in 
the Spanish navy. She was charged with despatches for.South America, 
vhich, with her guns and a boat, she threw overboard during the chase. 
She sailed from Itivadeo on the 16'th inst. and was bound to the nearest 
port she could get to. She is a fine copper-bottomed vessel, perfectly new, 
being her first voyage, and sails well; is well found, and appears calculated 
for his Majesty's service. I have the honour to be, &c. 

CUAXILES MALCOLM, 
y the Hight H^n.^dmiral Lord Gardner^ fyc. 



KAYAL HISTORY OF THE PRESENT YEAR, 1807. 927 

&' J Py fa Letter to the Secretary of the Admiralty, dated the 28th instant. 

SIR, 

I have the honour to transmit, for their lordships' information, a copy of 
a letter which I have received From Commodore Owen, giving ;ui account 
of the capture of a Freneh coasting sloop, under circumstances which, I have 
no doubt, their lordships will consider highly creditable to tbe ollicers and 
men who were employed in the Clyde's boats. 

I hiue the honour to be, &c. 

B. S. ROWLEY. 

STR, Clyde, off Fecamp, August 25, 1807, 

T this morning observed a coasting sloop passing along the enemy's shore 
from the westward with a very light breeze, and ordered Lieutenant Strong 
with the boats of this sloop to intercept her between Ypont and Fecamp. 

She ran on shore near the former place, the battery of which opened a 
fire on the boats in approaching; she was, besides, defended by two parties 
ot men with musketry, one stationed on the beach, the other on the dills, 
as well as by a field piece and mortar. 

The fire of musketry was silenced, and the men dispersed, by a few steady 
vollies from our boats; and though the-c were struck in several places, the 
sloop was to-.ved off without a man on our side being hurt, notwithstanding 
the tide forced them to cross with her the h're of the batteries of Fecamp at 
point-blank distance. 

She is named les Trois Scours, of Caen, laden with plaster of Paris, 
and bound, I believe, to Boulogne ; but no papers were found on board 
her. 

I cannot praise too highly the conduct of Lieutenant Strong in this little 
affair; and I learn from him with the greatest satisfaction, that every com- 
mendation i deserved by the other officers and men employed. 

I have the honour to be, &c. 

Vice-Admiral Ron-lei/, $c. E. W. C. It. OWEN. 

AdniiraV.y Office, August 29, 1807. 

The Honourable Rear-Admiral Sir Alexander Cochrane, commander in 
chief at the Leeward Islands, has transmitted to this office two letters which 
he had received from Lieutenant Stewart, acting commander of his 
Majesty's sloop Port d'Espagne, and Lieutenant Evelyn, commanding the 
Eclair schooner. 

The former giving an account of the capture of a Spanish privateer, the 
Mcrccde, carrying two guns and two swivels, with thirty men, in the Gult' 
of Paria, on the 6'th of June last, by Lieutenant Hail, of the above sloop, 
with twenty-five men, in a schooner disguised as a neutral. Lieutenant 
Hall, in a very cool and brave manner, laid the privateer on board after 
exchanging musketry, and receiving the fire from her guns; and his conduct, 
as also that of Mr. Sutherland, midshipman, and the seamen, and marines 
employed on the occasion, is highly recommended to notice by Lieutenant 
Stewart. Two men were'wounUcd on the side of the captors. The priva- 
teer had three killed, one drowned, and three wounded. 

The latter, stating the capture, on the 9th of the same month, ofT Point 
Cedar, of a Spanish armed row-boat, manned with ten men, by the cutter of 
the Eclair, commanded by Mr, Davidson, midshipman, with six men ; 
the crew of the row-boat making their escape on shore after an hour'* 
heavy firing. 

The Rear-Admiral also states, that another row-boat privateer had been 
captured in the Gulf of Paria bv the Attentive gun-vessel. 

SEPTEMBER 1, 1807. 

JLrtract of a Letter to the Secretary </ tlie Admiralty, dated Aug. 30, 1807. 

SIR, 

Enclosed, is a, letter which I have just received from Captain Bradley, * 



228 NAVAL HISTORY OF THE PRESENT YEAR, 1807. 

giving an account of the capture made yesterday, and alluded to in my letter 
to you of that date. 

MY LORD, Planfagenct, August 29, 1807. 

In obedience to your lordship's signal, at fifteen minutes P.M. I chased, 
nnd have the pleasure to inform you, that at half-past two P.M. captured 
rincomparable French privateer, mounting two carriage guns, and armed 
with musketry, twenty-seven men, commanded by Gilot Geffroy; sailed 
from Su Maloes yesterday morning ; had not captured any tiling. 

I have the honour to be, ike. 
AdndralLord Gardner, <$ c. WILLIAM BRADLEY. 

DOWNIXG-STREET, SEPTEMBER 4. 

Prince <rf Wales, in the Sound, off Wibeck, / 

MY LORD, August 16, Io07. 

I have the honour to inform your lordship, that Lieutenant-General Lord 
Cathcart joined me, off FJsineur, on the J2th instant. Every disposition 
being made for the disembarkation of the army, this service was intended 
to be carried into execution on the morning of the 1-lth, but the wind not 
allowing the transports to move towards Copenhagen, it was not till last 
evening that I arrived off Wibeck, a village situated about midway between 
Elsineur and Copenhagen, and at this place the army was disembarked this 
morning without the smallest opposition. 

I have.the honour to transmit herewith a copy of the proclamation which 
Lieutenant-General Lord Cathcart and myself have determined to issue on 
this occasion. I have the honour to be, ccc. 

Viscount CastkrcagJi, <-c. J. GAMBIER. 

By the commanders in chief of his Majesty's forces by sea and by land. 

Whereas the present treaties of peace, and the changes of government 
and of territory acceded to, and by so many foreign powers, have so far 
increased the influence of France on the continent of Europe, as to render 
it impossible for Denmark, though it desires to be neutral, to preserve its 
neutrality, and absolutely necessary for those who continue to resist the 
French aggression, to take measures to prevent the anus of a neutral power 
from being turned against them. 

In this view the King cannot regard the present position of Denmark with 
indifference, and his Majesty has sent negociators with ample powers to his 
Danish Majesty* to request in tiic most amicable manner such explanations 
as tLo times require, and a concurrence in such measures as can alone give 
security against the further mischiefs which the French meditate through 
the acquisition of the Danish navy. 

The King our royal and most gracious master has therefore judged it 
expedient to desire the temporary deposit of tiie Danish ships of the line iu 
one of his Majesty's ports. 

This deposit seems to be so just, and so indispensably necessary under 
the relative circumstances of the neutral and belligerent powers, that his 
Majesty has further deemed it a duty to himself and to his people, to 
support lii demand by a powerful fleet, and by an army amply supplied; 
with every preparation necessary for the most determined and active 
e-nterprize. 

We come, therefore, to your shores, inhabitants of Zealand, not as 
enemies, but in self-defence, to prevent those who have so Jon;; disturbed 
tl-e peace of Europe from compelling the force of your navy to be turned 

anist us. 

\\ i; ask deposit, we have not looked to capture ; so far from it, the most 
pledge 1ms been, offered to your government, and is hereby roucncd, 



NATAL HISTORY GP THE PRESENT YEAR, 1807. 229 

in tlie name, and at the express command, of the King our master that if 
our demand is amicably acceded to, every ship belonging to Denmark shall, 
at the conclusion of a general peace, be restored to lier iu the same condi- 
tion and state of equipment as when received under the protection or' the 
British flag. 

It is iii the power of your government by a word to sheath our swords, 
most reluctantly drawn ap.in.it .you ; but if, on the other hand, the 
machinations of France muter you deaf to the voice of reason, and to the 
call of friendship, the innocent blood that will be spilt, and the horrors of a 
besieged and bombarded capital, must fall on your own heads, and on those 
of your cruel advisers. 

His Majesty's seamen and soldiers when on shore will treat Zealand, as 
long as your c mduct to them p6rmits it, on the footing of a province of the 
most friendly power in alliance with great Britain, whose territory has the 
misfortune to he the theatre of war. 

The persons of all those who remain at home, and who do not take a 
hostile pnrt, will be held sacred. 

Propu-ty will be respected and preserved, and the most severe discipline 
will l>e enforced. 

Every iii-ticic of supply furnished or brought to market will b.e paid for 
at a fair and settled price ; but as immediate and constant supplies, 
especially of provisions, furage, fuel, and transports, are necessary to all 
annu s. n is well known that requisitions are unavoidable, and must be 
enforced. 

Much convenience must arise to the inhabitants, and much confusion and 
loss to them will be prevented, if persons in authority are found in the 
several districts to whom requisitions may be addressed, and through whom 
claims fr pavmeiit may be settled and liquidated. 

If such per.>ons are appointed, and discharge their duty without meddling 
in matters which do not concern them, they shall be respected, and all 
requisitions shall be addres-ed to them through the proper .channels and 
departments of the navy and army; but as forbearance on the part or' the 
inhabitants is essential to the principal of these arrangements, it is necessary 
that all iii:i:;ner of civil persons should remain at their respective habita- 
tions ; and any peasants or other persons found in arms, singly or in small 
troops, or .Y'KJ in ty be suilty of any act of violence, must expect to be 
treated with rigour. 

The government of his Danish Majesty having hitherto refused to treat 
this miui.er in an amicable way, part of the army has been disembarked, 
and the whole force lias assumed a warlike attitude; but it is as yet not too 
lute for the voice of reason and mode ration to be heard. 

Given in the Sound, under our hands and seals this 16th day of 
August, 11,07. (Signed) J \ MRS GAMBIER. 

CATHCART. 



Extract of a Lcfler from Lieutenant-General Lord Cat/icart to Lord 
Ca.-;t/f'rtttL'/!, li'f.'.l ILcad Quarters at Hellcrup, before Copenhagen, 
Aiii-itsl '2'>, 1807. 
I have enclosed a journal of the operations of the army from the 14th, 

in me m-,.iihig, 'together with a return of the casualties which have 

occurred, f.xci -,>f those of the cavalry, which are not considerable, but have 

not been transmitted. 

Head Quartern, Hel'trup, before Copenhagen, 



Journal q/' I he Army under the command of Lien-cmint-General Lord Ca^h- 

caflyjrom the nw.-iiiiig of the 14iA August, loU?. 
August Lith. The fleet between EUaeur and llelsiugberg calms aud 



tSO KAVAL HISTORY OP THE PRESENT YEAR, 1807. 

contrary winds transports assembled by brigades, each under the charge of 
one of his Majesty's ships. 

15th. The fleet worked up to Vedbeck, the reserve anchored nearest tho 
shore, covered by the Surveiilante, and by several gun-brigs and bonabs. 
Major-General Spencer's brigade urider convoy of Admiral Essington, 
with a division of the fleet, anchored higher up the Sound to make a 
diversion. 

Coast reconr.ouered, and disposition made for landing. 

1 6th. The reserve landed at five in the morning, with the ordnance of a 
light brigade, and occupied the heights. The remainder of the infantry 
followed, with the ordnance of another linht brigade. A squadron of the 
1st light dragoons, horses for the two brigades of artillery, and for the staff", 
ivere also disembarked. A flag of truce was received from Major-General 
Peyman, commander in chief in Copenhagen, requesting passports for their 
Highnesses the two Princesses of Denmark, nieces to his Danish Majesty, 
to go from Copenhagen to Colding, which were granted. 

In the evening, the army marched by their left in three columns by Nerun 
toLyngbyl; the centre by Hermitage and Fortuna to Jagersborg, the left 
by the coast to C'aarlottenberg, and lay upon their arms. 

ntft. At day-break the army marched by their right in three columns to 
invest the <own. Tfie left column established a post at Bagerne's Mill, and 
extended from Freborg to Eindrup. That from Jagersborg by Gladacks 
and Vanloes to Fredericksberg, extending to the sea on the right, and 
towards Falconergard on their left. The reserve from Lyngbyl marched by 
Bangede and Eindrup, and occupied the space between the two other 
divisions. Two brigades of the King's German Legion remaining at 
Charlottenfurd to cover the disembarkation of the cavalry and park of 
artillery. 

Major-General Spencer's brigade landed at Skoreshard, and marched into 
their post on t':e left of the line. All the divisions giving piquets to the 
. rear to prevent surprise from the country. Head quarters established at 
Hellerup. Transports assembled at Skoreshard, where the cavalry com- 
menced disembarking. Princesses of Denmark came out of the city on their 
route to Colding, and were received with the honours due to their rank by 
the brigade of guards, near the palace of Fredericksberg. 

The piquets of the left towards the town were attacked about noon : at 
the same time the enemy's gun-boats rowed out of the harbour, and 
cannonaded the left of the line with grape and round shot. The piquets 
drove in and pursued the enemy, and resumed their posts, part of the line, 
having advanced to sustain them. His Majesty's gun-brigs and bombs 
having been towed as near the harbour as they could, opened a fire at a 
considerable distance upon the enemy's gun boats, which, after a long 
cannonade, retired into the harbour. 

18M. At day-break the gun-boats renewed the attack upon the gun- 
brigs, trusting to the superior weight of their guns. The latter having, 
during the night, exchanged their carronadcs for eighteen-pounders, thai 
gun-boats retired, but advanced again with increased numbers. A brigade 
of nine-pounders, from the park, having been brought to the Mill, took 
them in flank, upon which they tunned their fire to the lines, and, after 
cannonading for some time, were driven in, together with their field-pieces, 
tihich advanced upon the road. 

Engineer tools, &c. &c. having been disembarked, a work was begun at 
the Mill, and considerable progress was made. The same day the cavalry 
aoved to their quarters at Charlottenberg, Jagersborg, and Vanloes, with 
piquets in the country, and a chain of posts, supported bv the 1st battalion 
of the King's German Legion from Lorgenfree and Koilekolle, under the 
direction of Brigadier-General V. D. Deckc n. 

19M. The works carried on by parties of six hundred men, relicvt.4 



&AYAL HISTORY OF THE PRESENT YEAU, 1807. 231 

every four hours. The gun-boats attacked at day-break, but were drivea 
off by the field pieces which were no\v protected. Some of the pipes were 
discovered which convey fresh water to the town from Emdrup. The 
frigates and gun-brits having a favourable breece, took their station 
near the entrance of the harbour, within reach of throwing shells into the 
Conn. 

Four twenty-four pounders were brought into the battery at the Mill. 
Great progress was made in the works at that place, and in a howitzer 
fcattery in the rear of it, v>iih traverses and cover for the men. 

Brigadier-General Deckcn surprised and took the post of Fredericks- 
tvork, commanded by a major, aide-de-camp to the Crown Prince, who 
capitulated with eight hundred and fifty meu and officers, with a foundry 
and depot of cannon and powder. 

The King's household, with part of his Danish Majesty's wardrobe, plate, 
wine, and books, were suffered to come out of the town to follow his 
Majesty, (who has withdrawn to Colding), passports having been 
requested. 

Some gentlemen residing in the district of Copenhagen, and in the 
bailiwicks towards Elsineur, having offered their services to accept the office 
of magistrates and superintendants of police in their respective districts, 
under the commander of the forces, an order was made for thut purpose, 
and sent to be printed and published, and a commission was given, ia 
reference to a proclamation printed and published in German and Danish 
on the day of disembarkation. 

20;//. Farther progress made in the works. More ordnance landed and 
mounted. A patrole on the left having reported that a jbody of cavalry, 
with a corps of infantry in their rear, had been seen in front of Koeskilde, 
Colonel floeden sent a squadron ta reconnoitre them, which found them 
assembled near that place, and immediately charged and put them to flight, 
leaving sixteen or eighteen men killed, and taking three prisoners and 
twenty-nine horses. 

The dragoons pursued the enemy to the gates of Roeskilde, where thej 
were received by a heavy fire of infantry, and returned to their quarters. 

The admiral came to head quarters in the morning and returned to lua 
ship. 

21s. Lord Rosslyn*s corps disembarked in the north part of Keoge bay, 
with two batteries of artillery, sending round the remaining transports to 
Skoreshard. A strong patrole of cavalry and infantry was sent to cover 
liis landing. 

'Progress made in cutting off the water. Further arrangements made with 
gentlemen of the country. Passport granted to Prince Frederick Ferdi" 
iiand of Denmark and his preceptor 

Kotice given that no more passports can be granted: at the same time 
-a recommendation urged to the commanding general, to consider the dread- 
ful consequences of making a capital city of such extent stand a siege and 
bombardment like an ordinary fortress. Great advance made in perfecting 
the works already in progress which cuver our left. 

A trench pushed forwards, and a new battery erected three hundred yards 
in advance. Brigadier-General Macfurlane's brigade landed at Skoreshard 
Great progress made in landing the battering-train and stores for rhe 
siege Fascines made for a new battery on the right. These works being 
completed will take the enemy's line of advanced posts in reverse, and will 
^over and secure the advance of the army to a new position. 

(Signed) C ATTIC ART. 

GensralReturn of Casualties from the landing of the Troops, in the Inland 

of Zealand, oa the 16th to the Zlst August, 1807. 
Royal Artillery .1 oPoeer, I #iqk aud file, 2 horse.;, killed; <t horsey 



232 NATAL HISTORY O* THE PRESENl YEAR, 

1st batt. 92d. 1 rank and file, killed. 

2d batt. 95th. 1 rank and file, wounded. 

1st batt. 82d. 1 officer, killed; L officer, wounded. 

1st batt. 43d. 1 rank and file, wounded. 

Total. 2 officers, 2 rank and file, 2 horses, killed; 1 officer, 1 ranis 
and file, 4 horses, wounded. 

Names of Officers killed. 
Lieutenant Lyons, of die royal artillery ; Ensign Dixon, of the 1st batt. 82d 

Name of Officer wounded, 
-Captain Hastings, of the 1st batt. 82d. 

Prince of Wales, off Copenhagen, 

MY LORD, August 20, 1807. 

I have the honour to transmit to your lordship a copy of the translation 
of an edict, published by the general in chief of the Danish army, which lias 
been transmitted to me by Charles Fenwick, Esq. his Majesty's consul 
geijo ral at Elsineur. I have the honour to be, &c. 

Viscount Castkreagh, 4-0. #c. $-c. J. GAMBIER. 

TRANSLATION. 

Hostilities having commenced on the part of the English, I hereby 
declare, in virtue of the highest authority, that all English property be laid 
under sequestration, which each and every one is accordingly enjoined to 
report the English property of what kind or nature soever to the police, 
who will make the further necessary arrangements. Any one who con- 
ceals, or does not fulfil this order, will be considered as a traitor to the 
country. 

Soptnhagtn, August 16, 1807. (Signed) PEYMAX. 

. Prince of Wales, of Copenhagen, 
MY LORD, August 21, 1807. 

Being of opinion that the service on which his Majesty's forces at tlie 
island of Zealand are employed renders it highly expedient that all neutral 
trade therewith should be for the present suspended, I have judged it my 
duty to issue an order (of Which I have the honour to transmit your lord- 
ship a copy) declaring the said islands, and others contiguous thereto, 
together with the passage of the Great Belt, to be in a state of clo.se 
blockade, and directing that all neutral vessels persisting to enter into the 
said islands and passage, after receiving due notice thereof, shall be de 
tained and sent to me at this anchorage, intending that such vessels shall 
not be allowed to pursue their respective voyages until the circumstances of 
the islands shall permit them to do so, consistently with the object of tha 
present service. I have the honour to be, &c. 

Viscount Castlereaght <J-c. $c. &fc.' J. GAMBIER. 

By James Gambler, Esq. Admiral of the Blue, and Commander in 
Chief of a fleet of his Majesty's ships and vessels employed on a par- 
ticular service. 

Whereas I have judged it expedient, in conducting the operations of his 
Majesty's fleet under my command against Copenhagen, to surround the 
island of Zealand, and the other islands contiguous thereto, with his 
Majesty's ships, in order to prevent reinforcements or supplies of any kind 
whatsoever from being thrown into the said islands, I do hereby declare 
them, as well as the passage of the Great Belt, (extending from a bank or 
shoal named Ilastcen's Ground, to the south-east end of the island of 
Femeren) to be in a state of close blockade, and do also hereby direct the 
flag officers, captains, and commanders of the said ships, to give notice 



MAVAt HISTORY OF THE PfcESLNT YEAR, 1807. 

tjicreof to any neutral vessels they may find going into any of the ports of 
the said islands, or into the passage afotsaid, and to require them to desist 
therefrom; and in case any neutral vessel;, after receiving such notice 
shall attempt to enter into any port or place of the said islands, or into the 
passage aforesaid, the said flag officers, captains, and commanders are 
hereby authorized and required to detain such vessels, and leaving their 
respective masters and a proportion of their crews on board to assist in 
in\ iL'atin- them, put a careful petty officer, with as many seamen as may be 
necessary, into them respectively, and send them to me at tiiis anchorage. 

Given under my hand on board the Prince of Wales, off Copenhagen, 
August 21, 1807. J k GAMBLER, 

By command of the Admiral, 

Jos. TUOCXSELT.. 

SEPTEMBER 5, 1807. 

Cnpy of a Letter to the Secretary of tke Admiralty, dated Prince of Wales, in 

the Sound, August Id, 1807. 
SIR, 

I beg you will inform the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty, that I 
yesterday morning quitted the anchorage off Elsineur, and in the evening 
arrived with the fleet and transports off Wibeck, a village about midway 
between that place and Copenhagen, where the army was this morning 
disembarked, without opposition. I have the honour to be, &c. 

JAMES GAAIi>IER. 

fopy of a Letter to the Secret art/ of the Admfaalty, dated off Copenhagen, 

August 19, 1807. 
SIR, 

The hostile preparations of the Danish government being far advanced, 
I thought it proper to order the Defence and Comus to put to sea in pursuit 
of the Danish frigate, which, as I informed you in my letter of the 14ih 
instant, had quitted Elsineur roads in the night between the 12Ji and ISlii. 

I have now to request you will lay before the Lords Commissioners of 
the Admiralty a copy of a letter which I have received from Captain Kkins, 
f the Defence, and one from Captain Heywood to him, stating his having 
come up with and obtained possession of the said frigate. 

When the inequality of force between the two ships is considered, with 
the trifling injury sustained by the Comus, it will appear unnecessary for me 
to make any comment on the bravery and skill which must have been dis 
played by Captain Heywood, his officers and ship's company. 

1 have the honour to he, &c. 

j. GAMBIER. 

Frederickscoarn.~- Twenty-six twelve-poanders on the main-deck; four 
six-pounders, and six twelve-pounder carronades, on the quarter-deck and 
forecastle; and 226 men. 

Comus. Twenty-two nine-pounders on the main- deck; eight twenty-four 
pounder carronades, and two nine-pounder carronades, on the quarter-deck 
and forecastle; and 145 men. 

Defence, &a& Light-House, S.\ E. 10 o;- 12 milts, 
SIR, Saturday, 0te P.M. August 15, 1807. 

As the superior sailing of the Comus, in very linht winds, has given Cap- 
tain Heywood, his officers, and ship's company, an opportunity to distinguish 
themselves particularly by a very gallant action with an enemv greatly 
exceeding their force, I can therefore only regret the late arrival of the 
Defence, for the means that, might otherwise have been afforded me of pre- 
venting the bloodshed which has resulted from it, though happily on th 

. Bol.XVIII. u 



234 NAVAt HISTORY OF THE PRESENT YEAR, 1807. 

part of the enemy or.ly. The crew of the Danish frigate considerably out- 
numbering the Comu&'s, I have thought it my duty to receive 100 of them 
into this ship. Enclosed I transmit you Captain lieywood's letter. 

I have the honour to be, &c. 
To Admiral Gambler, &-c. CHARLES EKIXS. 

His Majesty'* Skip Cum us, off" Marstiand, 
SIR, August 15, 1307. 

I arrived within hail of the Danish frigate you gave me directions to 
chase aud detain, at twelve o'clock last night, and repeatedly desired that 
ghe would submit to detention by this ship, but she refusing, and making all 
sail from us, I found it necessary to lr-i\e recourse to urh.sj after having 
received a shot fit ,,n her stern ckaac gun, we closed vviili her, aud a smart 
action commenced, which continued about forty-five minutes, when tiie two 
ships falling on boaid each other, the boarders, headed by Lieutenant 
G. E. Watts, assisted by Lieutenant Hood Knight, very gallantly boarded 
on her bow, and finally took posies-ion of her. 

AH under my command conducted themselves in the bravest manner 
throughout the contest; and I feel happy to icport only one person 
wounded. The loss of our opponent, (which proved to be his Danish 
Majesty's frigate Frederickscoarn, carrying thirty-six guns, twelve pounders, 
on her main-deck, and 2.'6 men,) was much more considerable, being 
twelve killed and twenty wounded, several mortally. 

I have the honour to be, &c. 
Captain Charles Eklns, Defence. E. HEYWOOD. 

SEPTEMBER 8. 

Rear- Admiral Sir Edward, Pellew, commander in chief of his Majesty's 
ships aud vessels in the East Indies, has transmitted to this oltice a letter 
which he had received from Lieutenant William Warden, acting commander 
of his Majesty's sloop Rattlesnake, dated at Kedgeree, the 24t!i January r 
1807, giving an account of the capture and subsequent destruction of a 
French brig privateer, les Deux Sceurs, of 16 guns, and 130 men, while on 
shore, inside Cheduba, whither ihe had proceeded from the Isle of 
France. 

The rear-admiral expresses the highest approbation of Lieutennnt 
Warden's persevering and judicious conduct in overcoming the local dim* 
culties attending the destruction of the above vessel. 

SEPTEMBER 11. 

Extract from the Journal of Admiral Gambler, Commander in Chief of ft is 
Majesty's ships and vessels in the Baltic, received at the Admiralty this 
morning. 

August 23. The battery on the left wing of the army (which is calculated 
to defend its advance from the annoyance of gun-boats) being completed 
and mounted with thirteen twenty-four pounders, the construction of mor- 
tar batteries, under cover of the above, are in progress. The enemy ob- 
serving these movements, appeared yesterday to be collecting their praams 
and gun-boats near the harbour's mouth, in preparation for a poxverful at- 
tack on our works. Our advanced squadron continuing in their position 
for defending the oprrations on shoiv, were, about tea A.M. attacked Ly 
three praams (carrying each twenty guns) and a considerable number of 
gun-boat* (aid to be more t''an thirty^, in addition to- the fire from tha 
Crowu battery, fl'> linn batteries, n cl block -.hip*., which was continued for 
more than four houi>. The (ire was returned with crcat s; :irit fr;>in the 
squadron, and some attempts were made to throw Mr. Congrevi'-'s rockets, 
but the distance was too> great to produce much effect from them. About 
two P. M. the guu-brigs which were farthest advanced, not being able to 



KAYAt HISTORY OF THE PRESENT YEAR, 1S07. 235 

any impression against so vast a force, were ordered to retire, and the 
firing ceased. I am happy to find die squadron received no material injury. 
We have, however, to regret the loss of Lieutenant John Woodford, of the 
Cruii-er, with three men killed in the several vessels, and thirteen wounded. 
On the part of the enemy, it is believed that one gun-boat has been disabled 
or sunk, and one of the praams was observed tu be towed out of the action 
disabled. The new battery at the Mill opened, and taking a part in the^ 
engagement, did considerable execution. The ships and vessels undermen- 
tioned were engaged in this affair, and I have acquitted myself of a most 
pleasing duty in .conveying to the commanders, otiicers, and crews of the 
sloops, bombs, gun-brigs, and boats, the warm sense of praise and approba- 
tion with which their bravery and energy during so long aiid so heavy a, 
contest have inspired mfe. 

Names oftlie vessels forming ihe advanced squadron, with an account of the 

killed andzcounded. 

Thunder bomb, Indignant gun-brig, 

Zebra ditto, Urgent ditto, 

Fury ditto, Pincher ditto 

j&tna ditto, Tigress ditto, 

Vesuvius ditto, Desperate ditto, 

Cruiser sloop, Safeguard ditto; with three 

Kite ditto, armed transports, and 

Mutine ditto, Ten launches, fitted as mor- 

Hebe armed ship, tar boats. 
Fearless gun-brig. 

Fearless 2 Seamen killed; Lieutenant William, (slightly,) 1 seaman, 
and -1 marines wounded. Indignant 1 Seaman, killed, 1 seaman wound- 
ed. Urgent 1 Seaman and 1 m:vii.-(- wounded. Cruiser Lieutenant 
Woodford killed. -r- Vallum's launch 3 Seamen wounded. jlfricainc's 
boat 1 Seaman wounded. Total 4 killed and 13 wounded. 

August 24. Having occasion to confer with Lieutenant General Lord ; 
Cathcart, commanding the army, respecting the co-operation of the fleet, I 
went on shore to head-quarters for that purpose. I learnt thai the right 
wing of the army is advancing near to the town on the south west, and are 
preparing mortar batteries to commence the bombardment of it. The 
enemy being obliged to withdraw their out-posts in that quarter, have set 
fire to the suburbs to prevent them from affording cover to our troops. 
The vessels which were in action yesterday are getting their damages re- 
paired. No attack has been made this day by the enemy's flotilla against 
our advanced squadron. 

25. Yesterday and this day the damage which several of the gun-brigs 
received in the action on the 23d have been repaired, and the vessels are 
again ready for service. 

N. B. The above journal was brought to England by the Earnest gun- 
brig returning, according to lier orders, to Yarmouth, after delivering the de- 
spatches with which she sailed for the admiral. 

SEPTEMBER 12. 

Extract of a Letter from Vice-Admiral liussel to the Secretary of tht 

Admiralty, dated Majestic, off" Heligoland, the Qth Sept. 1807. 
I beg you will be pleased to acquaint my Lords Commissioners of the 
Admiralty, that, I arrived at. this island, and anchored close to trie town, on 
the 4th instant, at half past two P. M. but did not, as 1 expected, find the 
Explosion, the Wanderer, or the Exertion, with which their lordships had 
intended to reinforce me. 

nig found that Lord Falkland had, with his usual zeal and prompt- 
ness, buuanoucd the garrison on the 30th uHiuio ; and that his proposals 



536 NAT AT. HISTORY OF THE PRESENT YEAR, 1807. 

were rejected by the governor, I was making my arrangements to storm 
him with the marines and seamen of the squadron if he did not instantly 
surrender, for at this time the value of the island to us is immense. 

At six P. M. however, he sent out a flag of truce, desiring that an officer 
might be sent in the morning to treat on articles of capitulation; and I ac- 
cordingly at daylight yesterday morning, despatched Lord Viscount Falk- 
land and Lieutenant D'Auvergne, (first of this ship,) on that service. 

At two P. M. the deputation returned with the articles of capitulation, 
which I immediately ratified. 

With a small expence this island may be made a little Gibraltar, and a 
safe haven for small craft even in the winter ; it is a key to the Rivers Ems, 
Weser, Jade, Elbe, and Eyder, the only asylum at present for our cruisers 
in the e seas. 

I have appointed Lieutenant D'Anvergne as acting governor until their 
lordships' pleasure is known ; and I beg leave to add, that, from his per- 
fect knowledge of both services, his zeal and loyalty, and a tiigh sense of 
honour, I know no seaman more competent to the trust. 

(Signed) T. MACXAMARA RUSSEL. 

Extract of another Letter from tJic. Vice-Admiral, dated on the same day. 
This morning the Explosion, Wanderer, and Exertion hove in sight round 
the north end of the island. 



LONDON GAZETTE EXTRAORDIXARY, 

SUNDAY, SEPTEMBER. 13, 1807. 

Copy of a Despatch received by Lord Castlereagh, from Lieutenant-General 

Whitelocke. 
SIR, Bi/enos Ayres, July 10, 1807. 

I have the honour to acquaint you, for the information of his Majesty, 
that upon being joined at Monte Video on the 15th of June, by the corps 
under Brigadier-General Craufurd, not one moment was lost by Rear-Ad- 
rniral Murray and myself in making every necessary arrangement for the 
attack of Buenos Ayres. After many delays occasioned by foul winds, a 
landing was effected, without opposition, on the 20th of the same month, 
at the Ensinada de Barragon, a small bay about thirty miles to the east- 
ward of the town. The corps employed on this expedition were three 
brigades of light artillery, under Captain Frazer; the 5th, SStli, and 87th 
regiments of foot, under Brig idler-General Sir Samuel Achmuty ; the 17th 
light dragoons, 36th and 88th regiments, under Brigadier-General the Hon. 
William Lumley; eight companies of the 95th regiment, and nine lijit 
infantry companies, under Brigadier- General Craufurd ; four troops of the 
6th dragoon guards, the 9th Egbt dragoons, 40th and 45th regimems of 
^foot, under Colonel the Hon. T. Mahon ; all the dragoons being dismounted, 
evept four trQ.>ps of the 17th, under Lieutenaiit-ColuHcl Lloyd. 

After some fatiguing marches through a country much intersected by 
sw imps and deep muddy rivulets, the army reached Reduction, a tillage 
about nine miles distant from the bridge over the RioChuelo; on the opposite 
bank of which the enemy had constructed batteries, and established a for- 
midable line of defenne. I resolved, therefore to turn this position, by 
marching in two columns froin my left, and crossing the river higher up, 
where it was represented fordable, to unite my force in the suburbs oi' 
Buenos Ayres. I sent d rections at the same time to Colonel Mahon, who 
was bringing up the greater part of the artillery under the protection of the 
17th light dragoons and 40th regiment, to wait for further orders at Re* 
Auction. 

Major-Geueral L.evcsoii Cower having the command of the right colununj 



NAVAL HISTORY OF THE PRESENT YEAR, 1809". 23J 

rossed the river at a pass called the Passo Chico, and falling in with 3 
corps of the enemy, gallantly attacked and defeated it, for the particulars ot* 
which action, I beg to re:er you to the annexed report. Owing to the 
ignorance of my guide, it was not until the next day that I joined with the 
main body of the army, when I formed my line by placing Bri^adier-Gene- 
ral Sir Samuel Achrputy's brigade upon the left, extending it towards the 
Convent of the Recoleta, from which it was distant two miles. The 36th 
and 88th regiments being on its right; Brigadier-General Craufurd's brigade 
occupying the central ami principal avenues of the town, being distant 
about three miles from the Great Square and fort ; and the 6th dragoon 
guards, 9th light dragoons, and 45th regiment, being upon his right, and 
extending towards the Residencia. The town was thus nearly invested, 
and this disposition of the army, and the circumstances of the town and 
suburbs being divided into squares of 110 yards each side, together with 
the knowledge that the enemy meant to occupy the fiat roofs of the houses, 
gave ri.-e to the following plan of attack. 

Brigadier-General Sir Samuel .\chmuty was directed to detach the 38th 
regiment to possess itself of the Plaza de Toros, and the adjacent strong 
ground, and there take post: the C7th, 5th, 36th, and 83th regiments were 
each divided into wings; and each wing ordered to penetrate into the street 
directly in its front. The light battalion divided into wings, and each followed 
by a wing of the 95th regiment, and a three-pounder, was ordered to pro- 
ceed down the two streets on the right of the central one, find the 45th 
regiment down the two adjoining; and after clearing the streets of the 
enemy, this latter regiment was to take post at the Residencia. Two six- 
pounders were ordered along the central street, covered by the earabiniers, 
and three troops of the 9th light dragoons, the remainder of which was 
posted as a reserve in the centre. Each division was ordered to proceed 
along the street directly in its front, till it arrived at the last square of 
houses next the River Plata, of which it was to possess itself, forming on, 
the flnt roofs, and there wait for further orders. The 95th regiment was 
to occupy two of the most commanding situations, from which it could 
annoy the enemy. Two corporals with tools were ordered to march at the 
head of each column, for the purpose of breaking open the doors; the 
whole were unloaded, and no tiring was to be permitted until the column 
had readied their final points and formed; a canonade in the central streets 
was the signal for the whole to come forward. 

In conformity to this arrangement, at half past six o'clock of the morning 
of the 5th instant, the 38th regiment moving towards its left, and the 87th 
straight to its front, approached the strong post of Retiro and Plaza de 
Toros, and after a most vigorous and spirited attack, in which these regi- 
ments suffered much from grape shot and musketry, their gallant com- 
mander, Brigadier-General Sir Samuel Achmuty, possessed himself of the 
post, taking thirty-two pieces of cannon, an immense quantity ot ammu- 
nition, and six hundred prisoners. The 5th regiment meeting with but 
little opposition, proceeded to the river, and took possession of the Church 
and Convent of St. Catalina. The 36th and 88th regiments, under Bnga- 
dier-Getieral Lumley, moving in die appointed order, were soon opposed 
by a heavy and continued fire of musketry from the tops and windows of the 
houses; the doors of which were barricadoed in so strong a manner, as to 
render them almost impossible to force. The streets were intersected by 
deep ditches, in the inside of which were planted cannon, pouring showcri 
of grape on the advancing column?. In defiance, however, of this' 
opposition, the 36th regiment, headed by the gallant general, reached its 
final destination ; but the 88th being nearer to the fort and principal de- 
fences of the enemy, was so weakened by his fire as to be overpowered and 
l^ken. The liunk of the 26th being thus exposed, this regiment, together 



238 NAVAt HISTORY OT THE PBrSENT YEAR, 1807. 

with the 5th, retired upon Sir Samuel Achmuty's post at the Piaza 4e 
Toros ; not, however, before Lieutenant Colonel Burne, aad the grenadier 
company of the 36th regiment, liad an opportunity of distinguishing them- 
selves, by charging about eight hundred of the enemy, and taking anil 
spiking two guns. The two six-pounders moving up the central streets 
meeting with a very superior fire, the four troops of the carabiniers, led 
on by Lieutenant-Colonel Kingstone, advanced to take possession of the 
battery opposed to them, but this gallant officer being unfortunately 
wounded, as well as Captain Burrel, next in command, and the fire both 
from the battery and houses proving very destructive, they retreated to a 
short distance, but continued to occupy a position in front of the enemy's 
principal defences, and considerably in advance of that which they had 
taken in the morning. 

The left division of Brigadier-General Craufurd's brigade, under Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel Pack passed on nearly to the river, and turning to the left, 
approached the Great Square with the intention of possessing itself of the 
Jesuits' College, a situation which commanded the enemy's principal line of 
defence. But from the very destructive nature of his fire, this was found 
impracticable, and alter sustaining a heavj loss, one part of the division 
throwing itself into a house which was afterwards not fouud tenable, was 
shortly obliged to surrender, whilst the remaining part, after enduring a 
dreadful fire with the greatest intrepidity, Lieutenant-Colonel Pack, its 
commander, being wounded, retired upon the right division, commanded 
by Brigadier-General Crftufurd himself. This division having passed quite 
through to the River Plata, turned also to the left to approach the Great 
Square and fort from the north-east bastion, of which it was distant about 
four hundred yards, when Brigadier-General Craufurd, leaving the fate of 
his left division, thought it most advisable to take possession of the Con- 
vent of St. Domingo, near which he then was, intending to proceed onwards 
to the Franciscan Church, which lay still nearer the fort, if the attack or 
success of any other of our columns should free him in some measure from 
the host of enemies which surrounded him. The 45th regiment being fur- 
tlier from the enemy's centre, had gained the Residencia without much 
opposition, and Lieutenant Colonel Guard having it in possession of his 
battalion companies, moved down with the grenadier company towards the 
centre of the town, and joined Brigadier-General Craufurd. 

The enemy, who now surrounded the Convent on all sides, attempting to 
take a three-pounder which lay in the street, the lieutenant-colonel with his 
company, and a few light infantry under Major Trotter, charged them with 
great spirit. In an instant the greater part of his company and Major 
Trotter (an officer of great merit) were killed, but the gun was saved. 
The brigadier-general was now obliged to confine himself to the defence 
of the Coriverit, from which the riflemen kept up a well directed fire upon 
such of the enemy as approached the post; but the quantity of round shot, 
grape, and musketry, to which they were exposed, at last obliged them to 
quit the top of the building, and the enemy, to the number of six thousand, 
bringing up cannon to force the wooden gates which fronted the fort, the 
brigadier-general having no communication with any other columns, and 
judging from the cessation of firing that those next him had not been 
successful, surrendered at tour o'clock in the afternoon. 

The result of this day's action had left me in possession of the Plaza da 
Toros, a strong post on the enemy's right, and the Residencia, another 
strong post on his left, whilst I occupied an advanced position opposite his 
centre; but these advantages had oust about two thousand five hundred men 
in killed, wounded, and prisoners. The nature of the fire to which the 
troops were exposed, was violent in the extreme. Grape shot at the 
corners of all the streets, musketry, hand-grenades, bricks, and stones, from 
the fops of all the bouses, evtry house holder with his negroes defended his 



NAVAL HISTORY OF THE PRESENT YEAR, 1807. 239 

dwelling, each of which was in itself a fortress, and it is not, perhaps, too 
uiucli to say, that the whole male population of Buenos Ayres was employed 
in its defence. 

This was the situation of the army on the morning of the 6th instant, 
when General Li:uers a'ddressed a letter to me, offering to give up all his 
prisoners taken in the late affair, together with the 7 1st regiment, and others, 
taken with Brigadier-General Beresford, if I desisted from any further at- 
tack on the town, and withd.ew his Majesty's forces from the River Plata; 
intimating at the same time, from the exasperated state of the populace, 
he could, not answer for the safety of the prisoners, if I persisted in offensive 
measure^. Influenced by this consideration, (which I knew from better 
authority to be founded in fact), and reflating of how lit.tle advantage 
would be the pos-vs-ion of a country, :he inhabitants of which were so ab- 
solutely hostile, I resolved to forego the advantages which the bravery of 
the troops had obtained, and acceded to the annexed treaty, which I trust 
will meet the approbation of h:s .Majesty. 

I have nothing further to a Id, except to mention, in terms of the highest 
praise, the conduct af Rear-Admiral Murray, whose cordial co-operation 
has never been wanting whenever the army could be benefited by his ex- 
ertions. Capta 11 Rowley, of the royal navy, commanding the seamen on 
shore, Captain Bayntum, of his Majesty's ship Africa, who superintended 
the disembarkation, and Captain Thompson, of the Fly, who had the direc- 
tion of the gun-boats, and had previously rendered me much service by re- 
connoitering the river, are all entitled to my best thanks. 

As his character already stands so hinh, it is almost unnecessary to state 
that from my second in command, Major-General I^eveson Gower, I have 
experienced every zealous and useful assistance; my thanks are likewise due 
to Brigadier-General Sir Samuel Achmuty and '.inniey, and to Colonel Mahon, 
and Brigadier-General Craufurd, commanding brigades. I cannot suffi- 
ciently bring to notice the uncommon exf.rtions of Captain Fraser, com- 
manding the royal artillery, the fertility of whose mind, zeal, and animation 
in all cases left difficulties behind. Captain Squires, of the royal engineers, 
is also entitled to my best thanks; nor should I omit the gallant conduct of 
Major Nicholls, of the 45th regiment, who on the mor.iing of the 6th in- 
stant, being pressed by the enemy near the Residencia, charged them with, 
great spirit, and took two howit/ers and many prisoners. Lieutenant-Co- 
lonel Bradford, Deputy-Adjutant General, has likewise a. great claim to my 
approbation as a gallant and promising officer. 

The officers of my personal staff, Lieutenant-Colonel Torrens, military-, 
secretary, Captains Brawn, Foster, Douglas, and Whittingham, Aides-des- 
Camp, must also be mentioned by me in terms of just regard ; the know- 
ledge which the latter possesses of the Spanish language, has been emi- 
nently useful to me. This despatch will be delivered to you by Lieutenant- 
Colonel Bourke, Deputy Quarter-Master-General, who has afforded me 
that assistance which might be looked for from an oihccr of his military 
talents and attachment to the service; to whom I beg to refer you for any 
further particulars respecting the military operations in this part of the 
world. I have the honour to be, &c. 

J. WHITELOCK.E, Lieut. Geu, 

The Right Hon. William Windham. 

Return uf the killed, wounded, and missing of the troops under the command 
of Lieufemm'i-Generul Whitelocke, ictuctn the '2St ft of June, tlie day of 
the ianding at Ensinada, to the 4th of July, 1807, inciuaive. 
Light battalion 1 Lieutenant wounded. 
87th Regiment 5 rank and tile killed. 
SBr'i Regiment U rank and file killed; I lieutenant, 8 rank and file 

wounded. 



HISTORY oi 1 TH PRESENT YEAR, 1807. 

95th Regiment 1 Serjeant, 1 rank and fila killed; 1 captain, 1 lieutenant^ 
1 ensign, 2 Serjeants, 10 rank and file wounded. 

Total 1 Serjeant, 14 rank and file killed; 1 captain, 3 lieutenants, 1 en> 
sign, 2 Serjeants, 18 rank and file, wounded. 

Officers of the Light Eatlation severely wounded. 
87th Regiment Lieutenant Crowe. 
88th Reg.--Lieutenant Thompson. 
55th Reg. Captain Elder and Lieutenants Noble and Coane. 

(Signed) THOS. BRADFORD, Dep. Adj. Gen, 

llettirn of' the killed, wounded, and missing, on the atlack of the city cf 

Buenos Ayres, 5th of July, 1807. 

Royal navy : 1 lieutenant wounded ; 2 seamen missing. Royal horse 
artillery : 3 rank and tile killed ; 1 Serjeant, 1 drummer, 6 rank and file, 
wounded; 3 rank and file missing Royal foot artillery: 1 lieutenant, 2 rank 
and file, wounded. Gun drivers: 3 rank and file killed. 6th Dragoon guards : 

1 captain, -1 serjeant, 13 rank and file killed; 1 lieutenant-colonel, 1 ser- 
jeant, 19 rank and file, wounded; 1 quarter-master, 2 rank and file mis- 
sing. -9th Light dragoons : 1 staff, 3 rank and file killed ; 1 lieutenant, 2 ser- 
jeants, 1 drummer, 13 rawk and file, wounded; 1 rank and file missing. '- 
Light battalion : 1 major, 1 lieutenant, 3 Serjeants, 24 rank and file, killed; 

2 lieutenant-colonels, 2 captains, 5 lieutenants, 4 Serjeants, 1 drummer, 
57 rank Snd file^ wounded; 62 rank and file missing. 5th Regiment: 1 Ser- 
jeant, 1 druuuner, 12 rank and file, killed; 1 major, 1 serjeant, 2 drummers^ 
43 rank and file, wounded; 2 Serjeants, 1 drummer, 21 rank and file mis- 
sing. 3o'th Regiment : 2 captains, 25 rank and file, killed ; 3 captains, 
4 lieutenants, 3 Serjeants, 2 drummers, 39 rank and file, wounded ; 2 staff, 
11 rank and file missing. 38th Regiment: 1 lieutenant, 8 rank and file r 
killed ; 1 ensign, 1 volunteer, 2 Serjeants, 1 drummer, 38 rank and file, 
wounded; 1 rank and file missing. 40th Regiment: 2 rank and file, killed, 
1 rank and file wounded. 45th Regiment : 14 rank and file killed ; 1 cap- 
tain, 1 lieutenant, 4 Serjeants, 41 rank and file, wounded; 1 rank and file 
missing. 47th Regiment: 1 rank and file killed; 1 lieutenant, 2 rank and 
file, wounded; 1 rank and file missing. 87th Regiment: 2 captains, 1 lieu- 
tenant, 1 staff, 2 Serjeants, 1 drummer, 51 rank and file, killed ; 1 major, 
4 captains, 5 lieutenants, 1 staff, 8 Serjeants, 1 drummer, JOS rank and file, 
wounded; 14 rank and file missing.- 89di Regiment: 1 lieutenant, 1 en- 
sign, 1 staff, 8 Serjeants, 70 rank and rile, killed; 1 major, 4 captains, 6 lieu- 
tenants, 1 staff, 7 Serjeants, 98 rank and file wounded ; 2 drummers, 38 rank 
and file, missing. 95th Regiment: 1 captain, 2 Serjeants, 2 drummers, Sf> 
rank and file, killed; 2 majors, 1 captain, 5 lieutenants, 8 Serjeants, 2 drum- 
mers, 73 rank and file, wounded; 2 Serjeants, 2 drummers, 3f rank and file, 
missing. -Total : 1 major, 6 captains, 4 lieutenants, 1 ensign, 3 staffs, 17 Ser- 
jeants, 4 drummers, 265 rank and file, killed ; 3 lieutenant-colonels, 5 ma- 
jors, 15 captains, 30 lieutenants, 1 ensign, 2 staff, one volunteer, 41 ser- 
jeants, 11 drummers, 540 rank and file, wounded; 2 staff', 1 quarter-master, 
4 Serjeants, 45 drummers, 196 rank and file, missing. 

Names of officers killed. Light battalion: Major Trotter, of the 37th; 
Lieutenant Hamilton, of ditto. 6th Dragoon guards, Captain Burrell. 
9th Light Dragoons, Veterinary Surgeon Landers. 36th Reg. Captain* 
Williamson and Johnson. 38th Reg. Lieutenant Fallen. 87th Reg. Capt. 
Considine and Johnson ; Lieutenant Barry ; Quarter-master Buchanan, 
88th Reg. Lieutenant Hall ; Ensign M'Gregor; Assistant Surgeon Fer- 
guson. 95th Reg. Captain Jenkinson. 

Names (if officers wounded. Lieutenant Squarrey, of the R. N. slightly. 
Lieutenant Maconochie, of the R. A. slightly. Lieutenant Colonel King* 
stgu, of die 6th dragoon, guards, severely. Lieutenant Cowdall, of the 9tb 



NAVAL lllSTORY OF THE PRESENT TEAS, 1807. 241 

liaht dragoons, slightly. Light battalion : Lieutenant Colonel Pack, 71st 
K6f slightly. Lieutenant Colonel Codugan, 18th Reg. slightly. Lieutenant 
Smith, 45th Reg. severely. Captain Greenwell, 45th Reg. severely. Lieu* 
tenant Cox, 8?th Reg. slightly. Lieutenant jNickle, 88th Res. 1 ;, ditto. 
Lieutenant Bury, ditto, slightly. Captain Brookman, 71st Reg. dangerously. 
Lieutenant Adamson, ditto, severely. 5th Reg. Hon. -Major King, slightly. 
36th Reg. Captains Swain, severely ; Vernon, slightly ; Winglield, severely. 
Lieutenants Cotton, si'v^rcly: Challoner, slightly; White and Whittel, se- 
verely. 38th Reg. Ensign Wiltshire and Volunteer H. de WH il, severely. 
45th Reg. Captain Payne and Lieutenant Moore, severely. 4?th Reg. Lieut. 
Rutiedye, severely. 8?th Reg. Major Miller, severely; Captain Rose, dan- 
gerously; Bluke and Des Barras slightly; Gordon, severely. Lieutenants 
Love, Hill, and Bt.dd, slightly; O'Brien, severely ; and Fit/gerald. .Assist- 
ant Surgeon Bnxton, dangerously. 88th Reg. Major Ironmonger, slightly; 
Captains M'Pherson, Chisholm, Dunn, and Thoiupsons slightly ; Lieutenants 
Adair, Graydon, Whittle, and Butler, severely ; Mnckie and Gregg, and 
Adjutant Robertson, slightly. 9,">th Reg. Majors M'Leod and Travers, 
slightly; Captain O'fiare, severely; Lieutenants Cardoux, M'Lead, Scottj 
and Turner, severely ; and M'Culluck, slightly. 

Names of tfficers missing. 36th Reg. Surgeon Boyce, Assistant Surgeon 
Read. 

RECAPITULATION. 

Killed one major, 6 captains, 4 lieutenants, 1 ensign, 8 staff, 18 Ser- 
jeants, 4 drummers, 279 rank and tile 316. 

Wouiultd three lieutenant-colonels, 5 majors, 16 captains, 33 lieute- 
nants, 2 ensigns, 2 staff, 1 volunteer, 43 Serjeants, 11 drummers, 558 rank 
and file 674. 

Missing' two staff, 1 quarter-master, 4 Serjeants, 5 drummers, 196 rank 
and file 208. 

Total. 316 killed, 674 wounded, 208 missing 1 198. 

The light company of the 71st regiment, attached to the light battalion, 
suffered severely, but no correct return of their loss has been received. 
The prisoners have been all exchanged. 

A DEFINITIVE TREATY between the General in Chief of fiii Britannic 
Majesly and of his Catholic Majesty, as per the following articles. 

I. There shall be from this time a cessation of hostilities on both sides of 
the river Plata. 

II. The troops of his Britannic Majesty shall retain for the period of two 
months, the fortress and place of Monte Video, and as a neutral country 
there shall be considered a line drawn from San Curios on the west, to 
Pando on the east, and there shall not be on any part of that Iin6 hostilities 
committed on any side, the neutrality being understood only that the indivi- 
duals of both nations may live freely under their respective laws, the Spanish 
subjects being judged by theirs, as the English by those of their ns'tion.. 

III. There shall be on both sides a mutual restitution of prisoners, includ- 
ing not only those which have been taken since the arrival of the troops 
under Ueutenant-General VVhitelocke) but also all those his Britannic 1 
Majesty's subjects captured in South America since the commencement of 
the war. 

IV. That for the promptest despatch of the vessels and troops of his 
Britannic Majesty, there shall be no impediment thrown in the way of the 
Supplies of provisions which may be requested for Monte Video. 

V. A period of ten days from this time is given for the re-embarkation of 
his Britannic Majesty's troops to pass to th uoith side of the J>vfi' L> 



245 KATAL HISTORY OF THE PRESENT YEAR, 1807. 

Plata, With the arms which may actually be in their power, stores am! 
Equipage, at the most convenient points which may be selected, and during 
this time provisions may he said to them. 

VI. That at the time of the delivery of the place and fortress of Monte 
Video, which shall take pine's at the end of the- tA'o-iiu>;iths fited in the 
second article, the delivery will be made in the terms ii was found, and with 
the artillery it haH when it was taken. 

Vlf. Three officers of rank shall be delivered for and antil the fulfilment 
of the above articles by both parties, being well understood that his Bri- 
tttimic Majesty's oliicers who have been on their parole, cannot serve against 
Souuh America nntil their arrival in Europe. 

Done at the Fort of Buenos Ayrcs, the 7th day of July, 1807, 
two of oue tenor. 

JOHN WHITELOCKE, Lieut. Gen. Con>. 
GEORGE MUilllAY, Rear Aclm. Com k 
SANTIAGO LINIE11S. 
CESAR BALH1AM. 
BERNARDO VELASCOS. 



SIP, Ci:na? of Miserafa. J.v/i/5, 180t. 

1 have the honour to report to yon, for the information of i.icu tenant-Ge- 
neral Whitelocke, that the advanced corps under my command, consisting 
(\f tliree companies of the 95th light battalion, 36th and 88th regiment, with 
two three and two six-pounders, advanced from the position I had taken up 
in front of the village of the Reduction, and after making n considerable de- 
tour from the badness of the roads, I crossed the Ohuelo at the Chico Pass, 
from thence I continued my route, through very strongly enclosed and diiVi- 
cult ground, till the head of the column arrived at the junction of two roads, 
about five hundred yards from the canal bfMiseralft. At the same moment 
that, we discovered the enemy, they commenced a heavy though after l.h 
first round not well directed fire of shutand shells, my artillery having; been 
left in tlic rear, under the protection of three companies of Brigadier-Gt- 
neral Lnmley's brigade, owing to the inability of the horses to bring it up at 
the same rate at which the infantry marched, f directed an immediate at- 
tack to be made on their left flank n-ith the bayonet, which was executed 
by Brigadier-General Craufurd in the most perfect manner with his bri- 
gade, and he was so well seconded by (he gallantry of Lieutenant-Colonel 
Pack, and Major Travers, the officers and men of the 95th, and light batta- 
lion, that IIT five minute* the enemy's force, (.hough strongly posted behind 
hedges and embankments, gave way, leaving about sixty killed and seventy 
prisoners, with al! their artillery, consisting of nine guns, one howitzer, three 
tumbrils with limbers complete. 

I beg to state that the conduct of every officer and soldier engaged was 
admirable; and that I am also under uroat obligations to Brigadier-Generals 
Luraley for his exertions to take a share in the action, but which alone the 
very exhausted state of his regiments, from the severity of the march, pre- 
vented. Immediately after I had formed, I found that he had taken a good 
position oil the right of the light brigade to support it in case of re-attack. 

I am hnppy to add our loss has been but trifling, not exceeding fourteen 
rank and tile killed, five officers and twenty-five rank and file wounded. 
The exact returns I have not been able to obtain. I have the honour ty 
fcc, &c. (Sigued) J. LEVJSON GOWlitt, ilaj. Gen. 

Licutenant-Colonc I Torn us, Military Stcrctury. 

Abstract of Ordnoncf and Stores, captured from the Enemy in 1he Suburbs 

ana Citii nf' finctiw *iyres, on Ike '-id and 5th of Jiity, 1807. 
43 gnrri^on urtd field-pieces of different calibres, and niauitted ou travel* 



KAVAL KISTOUY or THE PRESENT YEAR, 1807. 213 

About 25,000 round shot for field pieces of various calibres: and about 
1000 shells for mortars of various mittires; niul an arsenal, containing every 
description of ammunition and military stores : of which u return will be 
given s soon us possible. 

(Signed) AUG. S. FR AZER, 
Capt. Horse Artillery, Commanding, 
To his Excellency Licit t, -Gen. Whiielocke. 

Admiralty Offi:c, September 12th, 1807. 
Despatches, of which the following are copies and extracts, have this day 

been received at this Othce troni Hoar-Admiral Murray, addressed to 

William Marsdcn, Esq. 

siu, NrrcMc, off Bumtgon, June'Mth, 1007. 

I did myself the honour of informing yoiij by the last opportunity which 
sailed from Monte \ ideo, of my .proceeding from St. Hi icua until my arrival 
off Monte Video with the squadron and transports under my orders, a du- 
plicate of which letter I now transmit. 

Rear-Admiral Stirling; bad tna ;e every necessary arrangement for the in- 
tended expedition before mv arrival ; it being necessary on account of the 
shoa s i'i the river, that the line, of battle 'ships should remain at anclior o;V 
Monte Video, as well as for the protection of that place, I directed Admiral 
Stirling to remain with them. On the 17th instant, the second division of 
troop-, consis:in.r of all those who had come out with General Craufurd, 
being ready to proceed to Colonia, where General Whittlocke wished the 
whole to be assembled, Captain Prevost. in his Majesty's ship Saracen, 
taking w\t\\ him the Encounter gun-brig and 1'az schooner, sailed with the 
transports. 

On the 18th, two hundred and thirteen marines of the squadron were 
landed at Montevideo, by request of the general, to strengthen the gar- 
rison; I likewise ordered fowr hundred and forty seamen to be ready to laud, 
under the command of Captains Rowley, Prevost, and Joyce, with a pro- 
portion of officers, to-a^ist in working the artillery, to no up in the frigates, 
and Captain ijayntnn to proceed up the North Channel to Colonia, in the 
Haughty gun-br!^, with six gun boats (Spanish prizes captured at Munte 
Video;) the Medusa, Nereide, and Thisbe, to receive the seanica intended 
to laud, and three boats from each of the line of battle ships. 

On the 21st the wind moderating, I shitted my flrtg to the Xcreidc, and 
General \Vhitclocke did me the honour of accompanying me ; and ha\ing 
directed Captain Hyuvcrie, in the Medusa, and Captain Shepherd, in tl.e 
Thisbe, to proceed with the Holla and Oiympia, and the last division of the 
troops, at noon, weighed, and stood to the southward, wheuj we anchored 
in three fathom water. 

On the 24th we anchored between Ensimuia dc Barragon and the northern 
shore, the winds and weather having prevented our getting to the westward 
of the Oitea Bank, before. The general and mvsclf finding time would be 
lost by iioi.i^; with this division to Colonia, y.ent tor the troups to join at this 
anchorage; (Jen. (lower went for them, vi;h orders from (Jen. \\ hm-hcke 
to evacuate Colomx, if he thought it necessary ; Colonia was accordingly 
evacuated. 

On the 27th the troorjs from Colonia joined, with the F!v, Piie i^aur, 
Haughty, and the gnn-boats. I ordered ihe Pa/, up the ri\er, with dirtc'uu;' 
to the Staunch and Protector gun-brigs to join me. 

The transports having the: troops and artillery on board, bemsr in thrrr; 
divisions, 1 directed Captain Thompson, in the Mv, who hat) made himself 
acquainted with the river, and particularly the place intended Tor l.mdiiiti, 
winch was near liarragou, to lead tlic* first division, having witu him thy 
a;huoner uiid tour gnu--hoats; C.ajifaiii Palmer iu the t'hciuaat, \ 



944 KAVAt HISTORY OF THE PHESENT TEAR, 1807. 

lead the second division, with the Harghty and two pun-boats ; Captain 
Prevost, in the Saracen, to bring up the rear of the third division ; and Cap- 
tains Bayntun and Corbet to superintend the landing of the troops. 

At daylight on the 28th. the wind being favourable, I made the signal to 
the Fly to weigh with the first division, and immediately after a general signal 
to weigh, having ordered the Holla to be placed on the west end of the 
bank, as a guide to the ships to join. I shifted my flag to the Flying Fish, 
nd General Whitelocke went in with me. As soon as the first division of 
transports anchored, I made ihe signal to get into the boats, and immediately 
afterwards to put off. 

Soon after nine, A. M. the first boats, with Brigadier-Genera! Craufurd's 
division, landed about a mile to westward of the fort, from which the enemy 
had some time before withdrawn their guns. A creek being found soou 
after the first boats landed, the whole were got on shore without opposition^ 
or any accident, except that several of the transports were aground, but 
got off without damage. 

The conduct of the officers and men on tlus occasion induced me to give 
out the accompanying general order. Two hundred senmen, under the 
orders of Captains Rowley and Joyce, were thought sufficient to land for 
the present; and I feel much indebted to those officers who had made 
themselves acquainted with the river, and piloted the squadron and 
transports. 

Lieutenant Bartholomew, of the Diadem, who was strongly recommended, 
by Admiral Stirling, for his knowledge of the river, embarked with me ; and 
I feel it my duty to state to their lordships, that he was of infinite service; 
as wereLieutenantTalbot, of the Encounter; Lieutenant Acott, of the Rolla^ 
and Lieutenant Herrick, of the Raisonable, who undertook the pilotage. 

On the evening of the 28th, the Paz and Staunch joined ; the Staunch 
had taken a sloop, and destroyed two others of a convoy going to the South 
shore for troops. I have directed Captain Thompson, in the Fly, to pro- 
ceed towards Buenos Ayres, with the Staunch, Paz, and Dolores, to en 
de.ivour to keep up a communication with the armv. I have the honour 
to be, &c. (Signed) " GEO. MURRAY. 

Extract of a Letter from Rear-Admiral Murray, dated Nereide, off" Buenos 

Ay res, JuJy 8. 
SIR, 

By my letter of the 30th ult. their lordships will be informed, that the 
army under the command of Lieutenant-Guneral Whitelocke was landed 
without opposition or accident on the 28th near Burragon, about 20 miles 
to the eastward of BUMIOS Ayres. 

Orj'the 30th, the Nereide, small craft, find transports, weighed, and an- 
chored again to the west ward of Qtielmes; the next morning 1 went in shore 
in the Flying Fish, to endeavour to communicate with the army, having 
directed some transports with provisions to go close in, in case the army 
should want supplies. 

Captain Corbet, in his boat, discovnred some of our troops, and sent 
Lieutenant Blight, of the Nereide, on shore ; he with difficulty got to them, 
being obliged [to pass through a deep bog. On the ?ri Lieutenant liljuht. 
returned and informed me he had seen General Whitelocke the evening 
before ; that the army had suffered moot severely on tiu-ir march, having 
-very deep marshes to pass, and having been obliged to tc uve their provi- 
sions behind them; were much in want of bread mid spirits, which mn 
immedurtfly landed from the Encounter and transports. As [ understood 
.that General Gower had advanced towards Buenos Ayres, I directed Captain 
Thompson, in the Fly, with the gun-brigs, to get as near in as he could. 
The same day I received a letter from Colonel B.iurkc. Qunrtcr Master 
general, to say hp w;js directed by Gtiitra! \Yliitciocke Ly inlWia rue Ui:t 



NAVAL HISTORY OF THE PRESENT YEAIl, 1807. 215 

lie had marched em, and meant to go to the westward of Buenos Ayrrs, 
request ng I would send the ships having heavy art.llery there, and like\\i;-e 
provisions. I immediately sent the gun-boats to join the Fly and gun- brigs, 
and directed Capia:n Thompson to get as close in to the westward a* ha 
could. The transports with the guns, and those with provisions, as well as 
an hospital ship, I likewise sent there, and am happy to say they wtie iiij 
in shore on the 4th, ready to meet the army. 

On the 5:.t, a firing was observed in the town; I desired Capt. Thompson 
to make use of the gun-brigs and boats, when lie could, without annoying 
our own people, who appeared to be both to the eastward and westward of 
the town. A communication was opened with the army i:i the morning; 
they had stormed and taken possession of four guns, near the citadel. 
Bread, spirits, and ammunition, were supplied from the ships. 

On the Cth, I directed the F.ncounter to endeavour to communicate with 
the army on the east side of the town, and supply them with v> hat they 
Plight require. An hospital ship was likewise sent that way. 

The Nereide was moored up as high as she could go, being in less them 
three fathoms, hut still nine miles from the town. At one P. M. I received 
a letter from Cajnain Thompson, saying our alYnirs at the west end of tire 
town were in a most distressing state, Brigadier-General Craufurd and the 
whole of his brigade taken prisoners, and that a truce had been demanded 
and granted; at the same time requesting more transports might be muted 
up, in case U should be necessary to re-embark the troops. 

I immediately went np to the Staunch gun-brig, which was about a mile 
fi'uti the shore, and abreast of the post occupied by Sir S. Achnuiiy, and 
ordered the Medusa, 'I hisbc, and Saracen, which were left oiF Barragon, to 
come up a* high as they could with safety. 

Captain Thompson, v ho was with the general, came off tome imme- 
diately, but was obliged to have a guard to protect him to the bench, al- 
though close to the cun-bng ; but it was dark. At eight P. M. I received a 
note from General Whitelocke informing i..o lie had arrived there to see 
what more could be done hy the eallantry and exertion of the army under 
his command, whose.smTcrings in every way had seldom, under any circum- 
stances, been exceeded. Of one tiling he was certain, that South America 
could never be English. 

The 11, .X'terary ol every class of inhabitants was beyond belief. He 
wished to see me, as lie ha;! sent General Gower to General Liuiers, in 
consequence of a letter jie had received from the latter. 

I cannot help ti.kimj; this opportunity of saying how very active Captain 
Thompson of the Fly Iras been, who placed the gun-boats, which were 
commanded by Lieutenant F razor of the Medusa, and Lieutenant Heron of 
the Saracen. 

Early in the monrlrg of the 7th, the Staunch telegraphed to say I wa* 
v anted on snore immediately! a flag of tiuce was Mill flying at our head 
.quarters. On in v going on shore, the general shewed me the proposal* 
made by the Spanish general, 1 inicrs, (a copy of which I enclose,) and 
observed, that he was ot opinion, as well as were the other generals, 
that ir could answer no good purpose to persist, and I h$t ope great object 
-v. is attained, that oi' netting :.ii \ he prisoners back that Kid been taken in 
South America this war ; that t'ne destroying the tov.ii could not benefit us; 
and that l%e saw no prospect whatever of establishing ourselves in this 
.country, as there was riot a friend to the English in it ; that the number of 
our pii.-onc.rs the enemy had were in the power cf an enraged mob; and 
that pir-iMing on oi:r part would make their sitnaJion I ruTy distressing; 
the nun. l>er ot our killed and wounded, ahh.uigh not exactly ascertained, 
was said to he very c 1 . cat. Under these circumstances, and being persuaded 
{,hat tl.e people oi tins country did not wish to be under the 13fiti;h gjvu".:- 



2-16 NATAL BISTORT OJ THE PRESENT TEAR, 1807. 

ment, I signed the preliminaries, trusting that what I have done will meet; 
their lordships' approbation. 

I have directed Captain Prevost, of the Saracen, to be ready, to proceed 
to England, as soon as General Whitelocke's despatches are ready, nnd to 
receive Sir Samuel Achmuty for a passage, with Colonel Bjurke, who 
carries the general's despatches. 

I have not yet had any returns from Captains Rowley or .Toyce, %vho are 
Still with the seamen that landed ; but Lieutenant Squarrey, of the Poly- 
phemus, who was with his men in the advance brigade, I took oft" yester- 
day wouuded, but not badly; he informs me that only one of his men is 
missing. GEORGE MURRAY. 

SIR, Head Quarters, P,'aza df Toros, Juty 7, 1807. 

We have the honour to acquaint you, that actuated alone by the motives 
stated to you by Mujor-Geueral Leveson Gower, we consent to the term* 
proposed. 

Omcers shall be named to meet others appointed by you, to make imme- 
diate arrangements for the reception of prisoners, the\embarkation of the 
British army, and other subjects. 

We have the honour to he, ceo. 

(Signed) J. WHITF.LOCKE. 
His Excellency General Liniers. G. MURRAY. 

PIIELIMINTARY PROPOSITIONS agreed on between the General of the 

English Arwy end I hat of I he Spanish Army in the. Riccr P/ala. 
I. There shall be from this time a cessation of hostilities on both sides 
the River Plata. 

II The troops of his Britannic Majesty shall retain for the period of 
two months from this date, the fortress of Monte Video; and as a neutral 
country, a line drawn from St. Carlos on the west, to Tando on the cast; 
and there shall not be on any part of that line hostilities committed on 
either side; and in that space all English delinquents shall be judged by 
tht English military law, and all Spanish delinquents by the Spanish law. 

III. Thrrc shall be on both side* a mutual restitution of prisoners, in- 
cluding not only those which have been taken since the arrival of the troops 
under Lieutenant-Gencral \\hitelocke, but also all those his Britannic 
Majesty's sivbjecrs captured in South America since the war, 

IV. Ihere shall not be any impediments thrown in the way of the sup- 
plies of provisions which may be required for Monte Vitlco. 

V. A period of ten days shall be given for the re-embarkation of his Bri- 
tannic Majesty's troops to pass to the north side of the River Plato, with 
all their arms, cannon, stores, and equipage, at the most convenient points 
which may be selected, and during that time provisions may be sold to 
them. 

VI. During the period of four months no impediment shall be thrown ia 
the wTvy of the commerce of the British merchants. 

Answt-rod Inadmissible, because contrary to the Spaui.-h laws. 

I. Additional When Monte Video is restored, it is to be uninjured, 
with the Spanish artillery originally belonging to it. 

IF. Additional That tl.ere shall be mutually three officers of rank ex- 
changed, until the fulfilment of this treaty, it being understood that thoi? 
British officers who have been in this country on their parole, are not again 
to serve i South America, until they have been landed iu Europe. 

Kereide, off' Barragon, June 29, 1807. 
GENERAL ORDER, 
The commander in chief is baupy in the opportunity affordvJ lji<n tf 



S-VTAL HtSTOHY OP THE PRESENT YEAR, 1807. 24? 

|tt])re-;si:)g his thanks to the officers and seamen under his command, as 
veil as to the musters and seamen of the transports, fur their great exer- 
tions in landing the armv under the command of his Excellency Lieutenant 
General Whitclocke, on the shore of Barra^on yeslerday. 

He highly approves of the very judicious manner in which Captains 
Prevost, Thompson, and Palmer, placed their respective ships, a-< well as the 
gun-brigs and other armed vessels under their orders, for covering the 
landing. Much praise is due to the lieutenants and commanders of those 
vessels, for getting so near the shore. 

He feels himself particularly obliged to Captains Baynttin and Corbet, 
who had orders to superintend the landing, for their zeal and activity in 
getting the troops on shore, and for the regularity with which it was con- 
ducted. He is likewise thankful to Captain Irwiii, agent of transports, 
and the lieutenants under his direction, for the assistance they afforded ou 
this occasion. 

And although no opposition was made to the landing, he is convinced 
that it would have heen conducted in the same regular manner had the 
enemy been the^re to oppose them. 

The commander in chief lias likewise great pleasure in assuring the 
officers and seamen, that his Excellency Lieutenant General Whitelocke 
xprcsised to him^in the highest terms, his satisfaction on this occasion. 

(Signed) GEORGE MURRAY. 

SIR, Nereide, off Buenos Ayres, July 10. 

Since my letter of the 8th inst. T have seen Captains Rowley and Joyce, 
*ho were landed with the seamen, and am happy to iind two only are 
missing. 

I mentioned Lieutenant Squarrey, of the Polyphemus, being wounded. 
The persevering conduct of Captains Rowley and Joyce, and the officers 
and seamen under their command, merits the highest encomiums. They 
had to drag the cannon for miles through the swamp?, and the men were 
always harnessed to them. The General has, no doubt, expressed in his 
despatches his thanks to them. 

CaptainPrevost, who will have the honour of carrying the despatches, will 
give their lordships any farther information: (I left the Saracen with, 
some gun-boats at Barragon after landing, lest it might have been n<<ces- 
-sary from had roads for the army to fall back) ; I beg leave to recommend 
him to their lordships' protection as an active and very zealous officer. f 
liave the honour to be, &c. 

GEORGE MURRAY. 

THE LONDON GAZETTE EXTRAORDINARY. 

DOWN IXC-STREET, SEPTEMBER 16, 1807. 

Despatches, of which the following are copies, have been received by 
Viscount Ciistlereagh, one of his Majesty's principal secretaries of state, 
from Admiral Gambic-r and Licutcnant-General the Right Honourable 
Lord Cathcart, K.T. the cominanders of his Majesty's naval and military 
forces in the Baltic Sea: 

Prince of Wales , Copenhagen Road, 
jrtv LORD, Seftcwk* 7, 1807. 

Mv letter of the 5th instant will inform your lordship of the progress of 
the operations of his Majesty's forces against Copenhagen to that period. 
I have- now the honour and satisfaction to add, that previous to the hour 
intended fur opening our batteries on tint liiiiht, an oiiicer with a flag of 
truce came out Jrom the town, with propy>ais lor au armistice to settle 



248 XAVAL HISTORY OF THE FRESENT YEAR, 1807. 

terras of capitulation. This was accordingly done, after a correspondence * 
between the Danish general and Lord Cathcart and myself, of which I 
transmit a copy ; and your lordship will be informed of the stipulation* 
agreed upon bv the enclosed copy of the articles.t 

Our army Iris accordingly been put in possession of the citadel and the 
arsenal, and the most vigorous exertions are commenced for equipping and 
sending to England the Danish navy. 

I have the honour to be, &c. 
To {he Viscount CasHcreagh, $c. Sfc. $c. J GAMBIER. 

wr LOKD, Citadel of Copenhagen, September 8, 1807. 

It lias fallen to my lot to have the great satisfaction of forwarding to 
your lordship the- ratified capitulation of the town and citadel of Copeu- 
bageo, including the surrender of die Danish flett and arsenal in this port, 
which are placed at his Majesty's disposal. 

The object of securing this fleet having been attained, even,' other pro- 
vision of a tendency to wound the feelings or irritate the nation lias been 
Avoided ; and although the bombardment and cannonade have made con- 
siderable havoc and destruction in the town, not one shot was tired into it 
till aiter it was summoned, with the offer of the most advantageous terms, 
nor a single shot after the first indication of a disposition to capitulate; on 
the contrary, the firing which lasted three nights from his Majesty's 
batteries was considerably abated on the 2d, and was only renewed on the 
3d to its full vigour, on supposing from the quantity of shells thrown from 
the place that there was a determination to hold out. 

On the evening of the 5th September, a letter was sent by the Danish 
general, to propose an armistice of twenty-four hours, for preparing an 
agreement on which articles of capitulation might be founded. The 
armistice was declined, as tending to unnecessary delay, and the works were 
continued; but the tiring was countermanded, and Lieutenant-Colonel 
Murray was sent to explain that no proposals of capitulation could be 
listened to, unless accompanied by the surrender of the fleet. 

This basis having been admitted by a subsequent letter, on the 6th, 
lUajor-Geneial Sir A, Welle'sley, whom I had sent for, for this purpose, 
from his command in the country, where he had distinguished himself in a 
tnanner so honourable to himself and so advantageous to the public, was 
appointed, with Sir Home Popham and Lieutenant Colonel Murray to pre- 
pare and sign articles of capitulation; and those officers having insisted on 
proceeding immediately to business, the capitulation was drawn up in the 
night between the 6th and 7th. 

The ratification was exchanged in the coure of the morning, and at four 
in the afternoon of the same day, Lieutenant-Gencrui Burrard proceeded to 
take possession. 

The British grenadiers present, with detachments from all the other 
corps of cavalry and infantry, under the command of Colonel Cameron, of 
the ?9th regiment, with two brigades of artillery, marched into the citadel, 
while Major-General Spencer having embarked his brigade at the Kalk 
Brandieic, landed in the dock-yard, and took possession of each of the line 
of battle fchip, and of all the arsenal; the Danish guards withdrawing when 
those of his Majesty \\ere ready to replace them, and proper officers attend- 
ing to deliver stores as far as inventories could be made up. 

The town being in a state of the greatest ferment and disorder, I most 
willingly acceded to the request that our troops should not be quartered in 
it, and that neither officers nor soldiers should enter it for some days; and, 

.. . , . > i. , 

* Given in Lord Cathcavt's despatch, 

t ibid. 



XATAX. HISTORY OF THE PRESENT YEAR, 1807. 249 

the cemmaod of possession from the citadel whenever it might be 
necessary to use it, I bad no objection to leaving" the other gates in the 
irfiiids of the troops of his Danish Majesty, together with the police of the 
place. 

We have consented to the re-establishment of tlie post ; but all arrivals 
and departures are to be at suid from the citadel. 

This work re iugood condition, very strong, a:id wc-li stored with ordnance 
and ammunition. 

The amount of the garrison of the town is not easily ascertained. The 
troops were not numerous; but the number of batteries which fired 
at the same time, tgethrr with the floating defences, prove that there 
must have been a very great number of militia and burghers, with other 
irregular forces; and their ordnance was well served. 

Considering; the advanced position in which his Majesty's troops have 
been placed for the last fortnight, our loss (highly as 1 prize the value of 
every oiftcer or soldier who has fallen or beeii wounded) has beeu com- 
paratively small. 

The zeal, spirit, and perseverance of every rank iu the army have been. 
truly cltftracteristic of the liritish nation ; and die King's German Legion 
are entitled to a full share in this commendation. 

All the generals, and indeed each officer, has rendered himself conspicuous 
in proportion to his command and the opportunities which have occurred, 
and opportunities have occurred ba all. 

The staff have dune themselves the greatest credit, and been of all die 
service that could be desired in dieir several departments. 

Colonel D'Arcey, the chief engineer, ami every engineer under him, have 
given the most unequivocal proofs of science and indefatigable industry; 
the works under their direction have gone on with fresu parties without 
ceasing. 

General Bloomfkld, and the officers and corps of royal artillery, have 
done great honour to themselves, and to that branch of his Majesty's ser- 
vice, of which their fire upon the gun-boats, and the rapidity and success 
of the mortar practice, afford sufficient proofs; nor is the distribution of 
t&ttering ordnance and of so much ammunition at so many points iu this 
extensive line, in so short a period, a ^mall proof of the method and re- 
*ources of that corps. 

Lieutenant-Colonel Smith, wirh the 82d regiment under his command, 
held the- post at the windmill on the left, which :br iLo Li!\atcr part of the 
time was the most esposed to the gnu-boats and sorties of the enemy; and 
the unremitting attentions of that officer claim paitu-ular notice. 

By tlic naval blockade the force opposed to us has been limited to the 
resources of this and of the -adjacent islands, separated only bv narrow 
terries; and almost every wish of assi.-'tance has been anticipated, and 
every requisition of boats, guns and stores has been most amply and 
effectually provided for wiih the greatest despatch and the most perfect 
cordiality: and every possible attention has been paid, i.nd every accom- 
modation given, bv every officer in that service, iruiu Admiral Gumbier 
downwards. 

A battalion of seamen and marines, with three divisions of carpenters, 
v-ere landed on the oth, under Captain Watson, of his Majesty's ship 
Inflexible; and had ti e effort been made, which would have bfcen resorted 
to in a few days, if' the place had nut capitulated, their services in die 
passage of the ditch would have U?eti distinguished. 

I send this <.k*\ atclt by Lieutenant C iithcart, who has became for some 
tiiwe my first aide-de-camp, who has st< u t very thing that Iras occurred here 
and at StraLuud, and will be able to give any further details that may be 
required. I have the honour to be, &c. 

(Signed) CATHCART. 

, (U I,XVIIL * a 



260 NAVAL HISTORY OF THE PRESENT YEAR, 1807. 

List of Killed, Wounded, and Musing. 

Killed 4 officers. 1 se rjeant, 1 drummer, 36 rank and file, and 8 horses. 
Wounded 6 officers, 1 serjemit, 138 rank and file, and 25 horses. 
Missing 1 serjeant, 4 drummers, and 19 rank and tile. 

Names (f, Officer* killed. 

Lieutenant Lyons, of the royal artillery; Ensign Robert Dixon, of die 
89d foot; Lieutenant Rudoff, of the 1st regiment light dragoons, King's 
German Legion Ensign Jennings, of the 23d foot, or Royal Welch Fuzi- 
leers. 

Names of Officers wounded. 

Captain Hastings, of the 82d foot; Lieutenant Sutcr, of ditto : Captain 
During, 1st butt. King's German Legion; Lieutenant-General Sir David 
Baird, in the shoulder and hand, slightly; Ensign Bilson. 

ARTICLES OF CAPITULATION for the Tmcn nnrl Citadel of Copen- 
hagen, agreed upon between Jlfajor-General the liiglit Hon. Sir Arthur 
Weltesley, K.B. Sir Home Popham, Knt. of Malta, and Captain of the 
Fleet, and Lieutenant-Colonel George Murray, Deputy Quarter-Master 
General of the British Forces, being thereto duly authorized by Janiet 
damltier, Esq. Admiral of the Blue, and Commander in (hiifofhis 
Britannic Majesty's Ships and Vessels in the 11 it It ic Sea, and ly 
Lieutenant-General the night Hon. .Lord Cathctirl, Knight of the 
Thistle, Commander in Chief of his Britannic .Majesty's Forces in 
Zealand and the North of the Continent of Europe, on the one part, 
and by Major-General frellcntorf, Knight of the Order of Danne- 
brng, Chamberlain to the King, and Colonel of the ^'orth Zealand Re- 
giment of Infantry, Rear-admiral Lulken, and 1. H. Kerchoff, sfide- 
jc- Camp to his Danish Majesty * being duly authorised by his Excellency 
Major-General Pcyman, Knight of the Order of Dannebrog, aud Com- 
mander in Chief of his Danish Majesty's Forces in the Island of Zea- 
land, on the other part. 

Art. I. When the capitulation shall have been signed and ratified, the 
troops of his Britannic Majesty are to be put in possession of the citadel. 

Art. II. A guard of his Britannic Majesty's troops shall likewise be placed 
in the dock-yards. 

Art. III. The ships and vessels of war of every description, with all the 
naval stores belonging to his Danish Majesty, shall be delivered into the 
charge of such persons as shall be appointed by the commanders in chief of 
his Britannic Majesty's forces; and they are to be put in immediate 
possession of the dock-yards, and all the buildings and storehouses belonging 
thereto. 

Art. IV. The store-ships and transports in the service of his Britannic 
Majesty are to be allowed, if necessary, to come into the harbour for the 
purpose of embarking such stores and troops as they have brought into this 
island. 

Art. V. As soon as the ships shall have been removed from the dock- 
yard, or within six weeks from the date of this capitulation, or sooner i f 
possible, the troops of his Britantiic Majesty shall deliver up the citadel to 
the troops of his Danish Majesty, in the state in which it shall be found 
when they occupy it. Ilis Britannic Majesty's troops shall likewise within 
the before-mentioned time, or sooner, if possible, be embarked from the 
island of Zealand. 

Art. VI. From the date of this capitulation hostilities shall cease 
throughout the island of Zealand. 

Art. VII. No person whatsoever shall be molested, and all propertv, pub- 
lic or private, with the exception of the ships and vessels of war, and the 



NATAL HISTORY OF THE PRESENT YEAR, 1807. 251 

naval stores before mentioned, belonging to hi Danish Majesty, shall b 
respected ; and all civil and military officers in the service of his Danish 
uVIajesiy shall continue in the full exercise of their authority throughout the 
island of Zealand; and every thing shall be done which can tend to produce 
union and harmony between the two nations. 

Art. VK1. All prisoners taken on both sides shall be unconditionally 
restored, and those officers who are prisoners on parole shall be released 
from its effect. 

Art. IX. Any English property that may have been sequestered in con- 
sequence of the existing hostilities, shall be restored to the owners. 

This capitulation shall be ratified by the respective- commanders in 
chief, and the ratifications shall be exchanged before twelve o'clock at noon 
this day. Done at Copenhagen, this 7th day of September, 1807. 

(Siancd) " ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 
HOME POPHAM. 
GEORGE MURRAY. 

Ratifie par moi, PEYMAUN. 

Admiralty Office, September 16, 1807. 

Captain Collier, of his Majesty's ship the Surveillante, arrived at this 
office this morn i QK: with a despatch from Admiral Gambier, commander in 
chief of his Majesi/s ships and \esseis in the Baltic, addressed to tle Hon. 
William Wellesley Pole, secretary of the Admiralty, dated Prince of 
Wales, in Copenhagen Ivoud, 7th September, 1807, of which the following 
is a copy : 
sir, 

The communications which I have already had the honour to trans- 
mit to you, will h;ive made the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty 
acquainted with the proceedings of the fleet under my command down 
to the 2d instant; I have now to add, that the mortar batteries which have 
been erected bv the army in the several positions they had taken round 
Copenhagen, together with the bomb-vessels, which were placed in con- 
venient situations, began the bombardment in the morning of that dav, 
with such po'.ver and effect, that in H short time, the town was set on fire, 
and by tiie repeated discharges of our artillery, was kept in flames in 
different places till the evening of the nth, when a considerable part of it 
being consumed, and the cottjhtgfation having arrived at a great height, 
threatening the speedy destruction of the whole city, the general command- 
ing the garrison sent out a flag of truce, desiring an armistice, to afford time 
to treat for a capitulation. A fterome correspondence had passed between 
the Danish general and Lord Caihcart and myself, certain articles were 
agreed upon, of which I have the honour to transmit you a copy. From 
these their lordships will perceive, that all the Danish ships and vessels of 
war, 'of which I enclose a li^t,, with the stores in the arsenal, were to be 
delivered up to such persons as should be appointed to receive them on the 
part of liis Majesty. 1 accordingly appointed Sir Home Popham for this 
purpose, and having made the necessary arrangements for equipping them 
with the utmost despatch, I have committed the execution of this service to 
Vice- Admiral Stanhope, in whose ability and exertions I can place the 
fullest confidence. 

I am happy on this occasion to express the warm sense'I entertain of the 
cordial co-operation of the army, by whose exertions, with the favourable 
concurrence of circumstances, under Divine Providence, ever since we left 
England, our ultimate success has been more immediately obtained. I 
mu.-jt also convey to their lordships, in terms of the highest approbation and 
praise, the conspicuous zeal and eamest endeavours of every officer and 
man under my command, for the. accomplishment of th:S service; and 
although the operations of the fleet have not been of a nature to afford me 
a general and brilliant occasion tor adding fresh testimony to the numeroi" 
records of the bravery of British seamen and marines, yet the gallantry a 



t52 NATAL HISTORY OT THE TOESEST YEAR, 1807. 

energy displayed by the advanced squadron of sloops, bombs, gun-brigs, 5rc. 
which were employed under the command of Captain Puget, to cover the 
operations of the loft wing of the army from the Danish flotilla, ought not 
to be passed over in silence. I have beheld with admiration the steady 
courage and arduous exertion with which on one occasion in particular they 
sustained for more than four hours a heavy and incessant cannonade v:itlj 
the Danish batteries, block ships, praams, and gun-boats, in a situation 
where from the shoalness of the water it was impossible to bring any of the 
large ships to their support. 

I feel it my duty to make a particular acknowledgment of the aid I have 
derived from Sir Home Popham, captain of the fleet, whose prompt 
resources and complete knowledge of his profession, especially of that branch 
which is connected with the operations of an army, qualiiy him in a parti- 
cular manner for the arduous a.nd various duties with which he lias 
been charged. 

I herewith enclose an account of the killed and wounded. 

I beg leave to refer their lordships to Captain Collier, whom I have 
charged with this despatch, for any further piirticulars they may desire to 
know. I have the honour to be, &c. J. GAMBiER, 

An Account of the Killed and Wounded on board the advanced Squadron, on 
the 23d of.lvgust, !8t>7. 

Cruizer Lieutenant Woodford, killed. Fearless 1 seamen, killed; 
lieutenant William* (slightly), 1 seamen, and 4 marines, wounded. Indig- 
nant 1 seaman, killed; I seaman, wounded.^ Urgent I seaman and 1 
marine, wounded. l'a(iun f 's Launch 3 seamen, wounded. Af'ricaine's 
Boat 1 seaman, wounded. Total, 4 killed, 13 wounded. 
A List of Rilled and Wounded by the Explosion of the fmrle$ armed 

Transport, attached to the advanced Squadron, on the. 3 Is/ Angus? , 1807. 

Belonging to the Valiant. 2 seamen, killed; Lieutenant N. Howe, Mr. 
Philip loraiinson, master's mate (since dead of his wounds) , and 12 seamen, 
wounded. \ 

Belonging to the Transport. Mr. James Moyase, master, and 7 seamen, 
killed; 7 seamen, wounded. J. GAMBIElt. 

A List of the Danish Ships and Ves*e.:s delivered np by the Capitulation cf Copen- 
hagen to his Majesty's Forces, &ptember 7, 1807. 



Ships. Gnjis. 

Christian the Seventh - 96 


When bui.t. 
1803 
178D 

1798 
t775 
1777 

1784 
1787 
178f? 

1792 
1791 
1794 
1800 
180j 
1780 
179J 
178-i 

1804 
178i< 
1993 
1795 


SUips. 

Rota - 


Guns. When built. 
- - - - 44 li!01 




- 44 180> 


"Waldemaar - - - - 84 
Princess Sophia Frederica 74 


Nyade - - 


- - - - 36 1796 
28 37'*O 


Frederigstein 
1 ittle Beit - 


- - - - 28 180O 
_ - . _ 5>4 1801 


Heir Apparent Frederick 74 
Crown jnince Frederick 74 
Fuen ------ 74 


Fylla - r 


- 24 ISO''* 


St. Tliomns - 
t.'be - - - 


-. - - - 22 1779 
- - - - 20 1HOG 
_ . _ '>Q 1802 


<5den ------ 74 


Three Crowns - - r - 74 




- - - - 20 1804 


Crown Princess Maria - 74 
Danemark ----- 74 


Sarpe - 


- - - - 18 1791 


Princess Caroline - - - 74 
Detmarsken - - - - 64 


(jlommen 
Ned Elven - 


- - - - 18 1791 
. . _ - 18 179 1 -* 




- - - - 18 1806 




Courier - 


- 14 1801 


Frigates. 

Pearl - 44 


Flying Fish - - . - 1789 
Gun Beats. 
P.leven with two guns in the bow. 
f'onrteen with one 111 the bow and one n 
the stern. 
J. GAMBLES. 











NATAL HISTORY OF TI1 PRESENT YEAR, 1807. 253 

SUPPLEMENT TO THE LONDON GAZETTE EXTRAOPvDINARY, 

Of Wednesday, the IQth of September. 

Prince of Wales, Cupentiagen-RoadSf 
MY LORD, September J, J807. 

Conceiving it to be of great importance to the success of his Majesty'f 
arms asiainst Zealand that every exertion should be used to deprive the 
enemy of the means which the merchant vessels at Stralsimd may afford for 
transporting troops from thence to this island, I have judged it ruy duty to 
issue orders (of which the enclosed is a copy) for the blockade of Stralsnnd ; 
and I hope that this measure will meet with your lordship's approbation. 

T have the honour to be, &c. 
The Right Hon. Viscount CustUrcugh. (Signed) J. GAMBIER. 

By James Gambier, Esq. Admiral of the Blue, and Commander in 
Chief of a fleet of his Majesty's ships and vessels employed on a 
particular service. 

Whereas I have received information thnt the French army is iu posses- 
sion of Stralsund, and it being essential to the service in which his Ma- 
jesty's fleet under my command is employed, that no reinforcements should 
be sent from thence to the island of Zealand, you are hereby required 
sind directed to station such part of the force under your orders offStral- 
sund, as you may judge sufficient for the above purpose, as well as for 
maintaining a close blockade thereof; and to this end yon are to direct the 
captains and commanders of the ships and vessels which you may employ oil 
the above service, to give notice of this blockade to any neutral vessels 
winch they may find 11,01112: into the poit above mentioned, or into any of 
the channels or creeks leading thereto, or connected therewith, with direc- 
tions not to enter the >;\me ; and in case any neutral vessel, after bavin* 
received this notice, shall attempt to enter into the said port, or into any of 
the channels or creeks leading thereto or connected therewith, the said cap- 
tarns and commanders are hereby authorised and lequircd to detain such 
vessels, and leaving their respective nmtc'rs and a proportion of their 
crews on board to assist in navigation them, put a careful petty officer, 
with as many seamen as may be necessary into them respectively, and 
send them to me at this anchorage. 

Given on board the Prince of Wales, off Copenhagen, Au. 23, 1807, 

(Signed) J. GAMBIER. 
To Commodore R. G. Keates, ($r. 4~c. 4' c - Suptrh. 

By command of the admiral, 

(Signed) Jos. TROVKSELL. 

Prince of Wales, off Copenhagen, 

MY LORD, September y, 1807, 

I have the honour, in reply to your letter of the 26th instant, to transmit 
to you a copy of the summons which was yesteutay sent in to the governor 
of Copenhagen, and the governor's answer; by which your lordship will be 
informed of : the terms which, in pursuance of your former instructions, 
Lord Cat heart amd myself conceived it our duty to prouose previously to 
the opening of the batteries against the city. Not conceiving it expedient to 
suspend our operations so long as to ajlow the governor to communicate 
with his Danish Majesty, we have apprised General Peyraan of our deter- 
niination, in a letter, of which 1 have the honour also to transmit jouv 
lordship a copy. 

I have the honour to be, &c. 

J. GAMB1EJEL 
The Right Honourable Viscount Casttereagh. 



254 NAVAL HISTORY OF THE PRESENT YEAB, 1807. 

British Head-Quarters, before Copenhagen, 
SIR, September 1, 1807. 

We, the Commanders in Chief of his Majesty's sea and laud forces now 
before Copenhagen, judge it expedient at thii time to summon you to sur- 
render the place, for the purpose of avoiding the further effusion of blood, 
by giving up a defence, which it is evident cannot long be continued. 

The King our gracious master used every endeavour to settle the 
matter now in dispute, in the most conciliating manner, through his diplo- 
matic servants. 

To convince his Danish Majesty, and all the world, of the reluctance with 
Which his .Majesty finds himself compelled to have recourse to arms, we 
the undersigned, at this moment, when our troops are before your gates, 
hud our batteries ready to open, do renew to you the offer of the same 
advantageous and conciliatory terms which were proposed through his 
Majesty's ministers to your court. 

If you will consent to deliver up the Danish fleet, and to our carrying' 
it away, it shall be held in deposit for his Danish Majesty, and shall be 
restored, with all its equipments, in as good state as it is received, as soon as 
the provisions of a general peace shall remove the necessity which has oc- 
casioned this demand. 

The property of all sorts which has been captured since the commence- 
ment of hostilities will be restored to its owners, and the union between 
the united kingdoms of Great Britain and Ireland and Denmark may be 
renewed. 

But if this offer is rejected now, it cannot be repeated. The captured 
property, public and private, must then belong to the captovs ; and the 
city, when taken, must share the fate of conquered places. 

We must request an early decision, because in the present advanced 
position of the troops so near your glacis, the most prompt and vigorous 
attack is indispensable, and delay would be improper. 

We therefore expect to receive your decision by . We have 

the honour to be, &c. 

J. GAMB1ER, 

Commander in Chief of his Majesty's 
Ships and Vessels in the Baku 1 , 

CATIICART. 

His Excellency General Peyman, Governor 
of Copenhagen, ^-t. 4 - c. $c. . 

MY LORDS, Copenhagen, Sept. I, lf!07. 

Our fleet, our own indisputable property, we are convinced is as safe in 
his Danish Majesty's hands as ever it can be in those of the King of Eng- 
land, as our master never intended any hostilities against yours. 

If you are cruel enough to endeavour to destroy a city that has not given 
any the least cause to such a treatment at your hands, it must submit to its 
fate; but honour and duty bid us to reject a proposal unbecoming an inde- 
pendent power ; and we are resolved to repel every attack, and defend to 
the utmost the city and our good cause, for which we are ready to lay 
down our lives. 

The only proposal in my power to make, in order to prevent further 
effusion of blood, is to send to my royal master, for learning his final reso- 
lution, vvith respect to the contents of your letter, if you will grant a pass- 
port for this purpose. I am, &c. 

(Signed) PRYMAX. 
Commander in Chief of his Danish Majesty's 

Land Forces. 
His TZrellency Admiral Gambier, and Lord Catkcart, 

Commanders in Chief of the British sea mid hind 

Force*. 



NAVAL HISTORY OF THE PRESENT YEAR, 1807. 255 

Head-Quarters before Copenhagen, 

SIR, September 2, 1807. 

It is with great regret that we acquaint you that it is not in our power to 
suspend our combined operations during the time necessary for consulting 
your government. 

We have done the utmost within the limits of our authority in offering 
tn you, utthis moment, terms as advantageous as those which were proposed 
to prevent a rupture. 

We shall deeply lament the destruction of the city, if it is injured ; but 
we have the satisfaction to reflect, that, in having renewed to you, for the 
lar>t time, the offer of the most advautageeu&aad conciliatory terms, we have 
done our utmost to save tiie effusion of blood, and prevent tlie horrors of 
war. We have the honour to be, &c. 

(Signed) J . G A M BIER, Admiral , &c. 

CATliCART, Lieut. Gen. &c. 
His Ercellt'ncy Major-General Peynutn, Commander 
in Chief of his Danish Majesty' f land fortes, 
Copenhagen. 



Prince of Wales, Copenhagen 
MY T.ORD, September 5, 180T. 

I have the honour to transmit your lordship a copy of an order which 
I judged it my duty to issue on the 17th ult. for detaining Danish rcsselsj 
in consequence of which, the ships under my command have sent into this 
anchorage, sixty sail, which I have kept here, in order that, if circumstances 
should have made it expedient, in treating for the Danish fleet, to agree to 
deliver up all private property that had been taken since the commence- 
ment of hostilities, the said vessels might have been restored to their pro- 
per owners; but the Danes not having accepted the proposals made to 
them for the above purpose, it is my intention to send the said vessels to 
London under proper convoy, to be dealt with according to his Majesty's 
pleasure. I have the honour to be, &c. 

J. GAMBIER. 

The Right Himouruble Viscount Cui>tlereagli. 

By James Gamhier, Esq. Admiral of the Blue, and Commander in Chief 
of a Fleet of his Majesty's Ships and Vessels, employed on a par- 
ticular service. 

Hostilities having this day commenced between his Majesty's -arms and 
those of Denmark, by the Danish gun-boats having captured and destroyed 
a British merchant ship passing Copenhagen, the flag officers, captains, and 
commanders of his Majesty's ships and vessels under my command, are 
hereby authorise;! and required to use their utmost endeavours to ta!;c 
possession of and detain any ships or vessels of war belonging to the ,Kiiig 
of Denmark, or any merchant vessels -h:its:>e\er, with Dieir caryne* t-c- 
longing to subjects. of his Danish Majesty, observing io send all si:cK 
auid vessels to me, to be dealt with as arcumstaacee .si'aii reqi 

Given under my hnud on board the PrinCe'of Walea, off CopeBh -^\\, 
August 17,'iao7. 

(Signed) J. GAlviBtER. 

By command of the admiral, 
(Signed) Jos. 



Extract of a Letter from Lien enunt-Geiwal Lard Cai/u\trt to Viscount 

Qattleretigk, dated Heltcrup, 6</<Y < O </<'. . 51, 1 '>('?. 

I have now the honour of enclosing a f.o.:duu..::,-.i v. u _/ ______ a! ;'u:n 

the 22J of August to the 1st of September. 



156 RATAL HISTORY Ol THE PRKSEST YEAR, 1807. 

Joitrnul of the. Army under the Command of Lieut. Gen. Lord Cat heart , 
the tuar-iURg of the I'M of August tfl the Evening of tke 1st September j 
18O7; together a ilk a List of tilt Casualties iritlim that period. 

Head-Quarters, Copenhagen, Sept. I. 1807. 
AUGUST 22. 

Brigadier-General M'Farlane's division having landed the preceding 
{evening, joined the army, aud encamped in t!ie rear of head quarters. 
Lieuteuant-General the Earl of Rosstyn's division marched from tlie place 
of debarkation to Dsunhuis and adjarents. Arrangement and distribution 
Settled for forming the park, and progress of providing .for mortar batteries. 

23d. Lieutenaiu-Geueral the Earl of RosIyn's corps joined the army, 
aud took its position in tlie second line covering the centre. 

The advanced squadron of his Majesty's gun-brigs and bomb vessels 
having taking a. position near the entrance of the harbour, within the 
Crown battery, were attacked at ten in the morning, by all the enemy's 
gun-boats and praams, supported by the fire of the Crown battery, 
bl'x^k-ship, and some of the works; having maintained this position fOr 
several hours, they at length retired, soine of them having been more 
4han once on fire by red hot shot. The batteries near the Mill having 
acted with effect upon the gun-boats, the latter turned their fire upon 
them, but were obliged to retire with considerable loss. 

Sltlu At three in the morning the army was under arms ; the centre 
advanced its position to the height near the road which runs in a direction 
parallel to the defences of Copenhagen, to Fredericks berg, occupying that 
road and some posts beyond it. The guards at tlie same time occupied the 
suburbs between Fiedeiecksbcrg and Copenhagen. flanked by a detachment 
of the 79th. They dislodged a piquet of the enemy, who in their retreat 
concealed thirteen three-pounders, which have since been found. 

All the piquets of the enemy fell back to the lakes or inundations in 
front of the place; our piquets occupying their ground. In the afternoon, 
the garrison shewed itself on all the avenues leading from the town, appa- 
rently with a design either to recover their ground, or to burn the suburbs. 
The several generals immediately drove them iu, each in his own front, 
and at the same time seized all the suburbs on the north bank of the lakes, 
pome of which posts are within four hundred yards of the ramparts. 

Sir David Baird's division turned and carried a redoubt which the enemy 
had been some days constructing, and which was that night converted into 
a work against him. 

The enemy .^et fire to the end of the suburb nearest to the place tlie 
upper part of which was occupied by the guards, and was now defended bj 
them. Iu consequer.ce of this general success, the works which had been, 
intended and begun by as, were abandoned, and a new line was taken, 
within about eight hundred yards of the place, and nearer to it on the 
flanks. 

25th. The mortar-batteries in the advanced line made considerable 
progress. A heavy fire was kept up by the garrison on the suburbs and 
buildings near the lake, whirl* were strengthened as much as circumstances 
would allow. The uavy aud artillery employed in landing ordnance and 
stores, and forwarding them to different parts of the line. 

Lieutenant-General the Earl of Rosslyn's corps, which had a considerable 
share in occupying the suburbs, relieved the reserve, which moved into 
second line. 

Tlie enemy's gun-boats made their appearance in the channel between, 
Oroache and Zealand, and cannonaded the guards in the suburb. I'rocre^s 
made iu preparing a battery to protect the right from the gun-boats. 
Frequent skirmislies with sharp-shooters on ihe right and centre, and several 
shells thrown from (he lines. 



NATAL HISTORY OF THE PRESENT YEAR, 1807. "257 

Sir Arthur Wellesley with the reserve, eic'it squadrons of cavalry, 
And the horSt- artillery, under Major-Genera; Linsengen, the 6th battalion ot" 
'the line, King's German legion, and the light brigade of artillery belonging to 
the reserve, marched to Roskeld Kroe. The gun-boats made an attack oa 
the left of our position, aud were twice driven in by the windmill batteries, 
ne boat having blown up, and several others having suffered considerably. 
The guards severely cannonaded by the gun-boats; the enemy likewise at- 
tempted a sortee, but was quickly driven back. 

27th. At day-break the battery d*f tour twenty-four pounders opened on 
the right, and drove in the gun- boats, oue of which was damaged. Sir 
Arthur Wellesley marched in two divisions to attack the enemy in I'ront 
.and rear at Koenerup, but he had moved up toward* Kioge, upon which 
Sir Arthur took a position to cover the besieging uriny. General Peyman 
applied for an armistice of thirty-six hours to remove the patients from St. 
John's hospital. Four hours was proposed to him, which offer he did not 
accept, and several shots were fired through the said hospital. 

28th. Progress ma'de in landing and bringing forward ordnance and 
Stores, as well as in making batteries tmd communications. 

29th. Sir Arthur Wellesley marched to Kioge, where he completely 
defeated and dispersed the enemy, taking upwards of sixty officers and one 
thousand five hundred men, fourteen pieces of cannon, and a quantity of 
powder, and other stores. The patients of St. John's hospital were re- 
moved to the chapel at Fredereicksberg, and adjacent houses; tlie Danish 
general thankfully acceding to this removal, and declaring that it was not 
tired upon by the order or with his knowledge. 

30th. Batteries nearly finished, platforms laid, and two-thirds of the 
ordnance mounted. New battery planned and begun, near the Chalk :\iiil 
Wharf. 

31st. The enemy attempted a sortie on the right, before sunrise, and 
were stopped by a piquet of the 50th regiment, commanded by Lieutenant 
Light. 

They persevered for some time, and were repulsed by the piquets with 
loss. Sir David Baird twice slightly wounded ; but did not quit the field. 

The Danish General Oxholm arrived with his omceis at headquarters, 
\r\ien they were put on parole, and sent to their respective homes. 

In the evening one thousand five hundred prisoners were distributed in 
the fleet. 

The batteries in progress; all armed and completed, except the Chalk- 
Kiln-battery, which is close to the enemy. 

The gun^boats attacked the in-shore squadron of light vessels; blew up 
one of them, and obliged them to retire; the gun-boats as well as the block- 
ship, having apparently suffered considerable damage from the batteries at 
the Windmill. 

September 1. The mortar batteries being nearly ready for action, the 
place was summoned. The answer arrivin, late, uccoiiij.anied by a desire, 
on his part, to take the pleasure of his Danish Majesty, the reply could not 
be sent till the following day: during all these days the enemy has hred 
from the walls and out-works with cannon and musketry upon the ad- 
vanced posts, and has thrown many shells on all purt^ of the line, but has 
had no success, except in setting fire to some houses, and cutting some 
trees on las own side of the lakes. 

(Signed) CATIICART. 

Head Quarters, before Copenhagen, 
MY LORD, September 2, 1807. 

I have the honour to transmit herewith the report of the expedition un* 
dertaken by Brigadier-General Von der Deckea: iu the course of which, h 

/Sat), erflron. 8JoI,X VIII. L L 



258 NATAI. HISTORY OF THE PKtSEXT YKAK, 1S07. 

made a great miml>er of troops capitulate, and also took possession of the 
foundry and powder-mills at Kricdrictsweffe. Amongst the inclobures K 
the capitulation, which has been ratified ; and the .commanding eneral in 
Copenhagen has actually permitted the artillerymen included m the capi- 
tuation, but who were serving in the place, to come out of the town as 
prisoners on capitulation. 

The talents, zeal, and activity of the brigadier-general have rendered him 
extremely useful on every occasion which has occurred- to employ him. 

I have the honour to bo-,'&c. (Signed) CATHCART. 

Tiie Lord Viscount CastlercugK, <r. 
MY LORD, Jagtrberit, -'1>r. If) .'A, 1807. 

After I had the honour to state to your lordship yesterday, the capture 
of six waggons loaded with powder, and also of a considerable quantity of 
arras at Friederickstadt, which I have sent to Major- General Von Lin- 
sengen, I learned that a convoy of one hundred and eighty waggons, 'loaded 
with gunpowder, and escorted by upwards of five hundred men, waa on its 
way to I'riedrickstadt, after having in vain attempted to enter Copenhagen 
ty way of Roeskikie, I resolved to attempt to-cut it oft' from Friedrickswerk, 
and proceed for that purpose to Kriguinc'. I was informed here that the 
said convoy had passed there two hours before, that the escort was very 
much fatigued, and hud begun to desert. I was told that Friedrickswerk: 
vas a very strong position, defended by a corps called the volunteers of* 
that, place, raised by the crown prince for the protection of the powder 
mills and arsenal there. Although the horses of my detachment (which 
was composed of one hundred light dragoons of the 1st light, including 
ei'Jiteen dragoons of the 3d) were very fatigued, yet I thought it advisabl* 
to a tempt to take the place. by surprise. 1 approached Friedrickswerk at 
me /clock of the morning. Captain Krauckenberg, of the first light dra-_ 
gocns succeeded in surprising an advanced piquet of nine men. In arriving 
near the entrance, where we expected to find a battery, we met an officer, 
who informed me that the commanding officer was willing to capitulate if I 
would grant him honourable terms. After some conversation with Major 
Tschering, aide-de-camp to the prince and governor of that place, he agreed 
to surrender with his corps, (eight hundred and sixty strong, including offi- 
cers,) under the condition that he and his corps should not serve during 
the war, or nntil an exchange had taken piace. 

I found great quantity of p.'r.vder, (;.bout one thousand six hundred 
centners) a number of guns ana small arms. As I had no means to carry 
off the powder, and even no time to destroy it, I was obliged to be satisfied 
with the promise of the major and all the onioers upon honour, that neither 
powder nor stores should be issued to the Danes. As there was no means 
of getting wagrjons, I was obliged to be satisfied with carrying off the four 
g'ur.-s, and half the firms of the corps which had surrendered, and which 
I have delivered to Major-General Linsengcn. 

I left Friedrickswerk this morning at five o'clockj and found myself soon 
after attacked almost in all the villa es by peasants armed with "forks, de- 
livered ti> them for that purpose by the Danish government, the greater 
pini t on foot, but some on horseback. The dragoons took about hltv of 
'.ties*' peasants and rive horses without any loss on our side. On receiv- 
ing inionuaiion that all U.e roads in the woods before and behind Friedric'kb- 
werk. were full of peus'ints (some of which were armed with rifles), I 
changed my road by marching f> t|)e left, where the ground is open, and J 
discharged the peasants, after explaining to them the object of our beiug in 
this country. 

-I cannot conclude this long report without certifying to your lordship rny- 
great satisfaction wua the couduct of the officers and men which I hav 



NAYAI. HISTOKY OF THE PRESENT YEAR, 1807. 259 

lincl the honour to command on this occasion, and to recommend to your 
lordship's notice Captain Krauckenberg of the 1st light dragoons. 

I have the honour to be, &c. FRIED. VON DECKEX, 

Brigadier*General. 

Lieutenant-General the Right Hon. Lord Cathcart. 

Head-Quarters, before Copenhagen, 
MY LORD, September 2, 1807. 

Having stated to your lordship in my despatch of the 22d the prepara- 
tion of force which was assembling under Lieutenant-General Castenschiold, 
and my intention of detaching a force to disperse them before they should 
Ije in a state .to undertake any enterprize ; 1 have now the greatest pleasure 
in transmitting the report 1 have received from Sir Arthur Wellesley, to 
Avliorn, with the assistance of Major-General De Linsengen, and Brigadier 
General Stewart, that service was entrusted. 

The major-general marched on the 26th of last month to Roeskild 
Kroe, and proceeded on the following day to attack the position atBorneruk, 
which was occupied > according to the last reports by the Dimes ; Major- 
General Linsengen having made a long detour towards the sea, for the 
purpose of cutting off their retreat, and attacking the rear. 

But finding that the enemy had moved off by the right to Kioge, Sir 
Arthur Wellesley fell back to Roeskild Kroe, extending to his left to cover 
the besieging army until the cavalry and infantry, who had made a forced 
inarch, had time to refresh. He then proceeded to attack and defeat 
the enemy ia a general action. The deroute appears to have been com* 
plete. 

Major- General Oxholm was within a mile of this action, in hjs way to 
join General Castenschiold, with a corps collected in the southern islands, 
which had got over. He endeavoured to stop the fugitives, but could make 
no effectual resistance; this corps would have endeavoured to connect 
itself with some sortie from the place, and would soon have been trouble- 
some. 

Sir Arthur Wellesley lias moved into the centre of the island, to disarm 
and quiet the country. 

The only corps which appears to have kept together is the cavalry ; but 
by the last accounts these have been found by the patroles, and will be fol- 
lowed up. 

The general and his officers, who are mostly of their militia, have been 
released on a very strict parole; the general being responsible for the" ; 
but their men, one thousand five hundred, to which near one hundred 1, v 
since been added, are distributed in his Majesty's line of battle ships; tue 
dread of which will, perhaps, induce the remaining militia of this descrip- 
tion to be averse to quitting their homes. 

I trust, that it will appear that the affair of the 29th,at Kioge, is us asefal 
as it is brilliant. I have the honour to be, &c. 

The Viscount Castlcreagh, <-c, (Signed) CATHCART. 

MY LORD, Kioge, August 29, 1807. 

According to the intention which I announced to your lordship on the 
evening of the 27th I moved to Roeskild Kroe, and placed Colonel Redcu 
at Vallensbrek: and General Linsengen marched yesterday morning to 
Roe-kild : by these different movements his force became the right instead, 
of the left. 

Having had reason to believe tlmt the enemy still remained at Kioge, 
I determined to attack him this day. I settled with General 1 i 
that ltt should cross the Kiue rivulet at Liilw Sellyas, and turn the 



260 KATA.L HISTORY 0F THE PRESENT YEAR, 1807. 

left flank, while I should move along the sea road towards Kiogc t and attack 
him in front. 

Both divisions broke up this morning, and marqhed according to the plan 
concerted. Upon my approach to Kioge, I found the enemy in force on the 
north side of the town and rivulet,and theycommenced a cannonade upon the 
patroles of hussars in my front ; they had three or four regular battalions 
formed in one line, with cavalry on both flanks, and apparently a la,rge body 
beyond the town and rivulet. At the time agreed upon with General Linsen- 
gen, I formed my infantry in one i;n>, with the left to the sea, having the two 
squadrons .if tiu^ars upon the right. There had been some appearance of 
a movement by the enemy to their left; and I had not had any communica- 
tion with General Liuseii;j,en, and was not certain that he had passed the 
riviilet, I tbereloie thought it proper to. make the attack in an echellon of 
battalions from the ! ft; the whole covered by the 1st battalion 95th 
regiment, and by the fire of our arlillery. 

It fell to the Kit of the 9-2d regiment to lead this attack, and they per-, 
formed their part in the most exemplary manner, and were equally well 
supported by the i>2d and 4Srl. 

Tho c >eny soon retired to an entrenchment which they had formed in 
front of a camp on the north side of Kioge, and they made a disposition of 
their cavalry upon the sand* to charge the -2d in flank while they should| 
attack this entrenchment. Tms disposition obliged me to move Colonel 
Reden's hut.sars from the right to the Ic'r't flank, and to. throw the 43d into. 
a second line; and then the 93d carried the entrenchment, and forced the 
enemy to retreat into the town in disorder. They were followed imme- 
diately in t'ie most gallant style by Col. Iteden and his hussars, and by the 
1st battalion y5th regiment, and afterwards by the whole of th,e infantry 
of my corps. Upon cros ing tiie rivulet, we found General Linsengen'^ 
carps upon our right flank, and the wh,ole joined in the pursuit of the 
enemy. 

Major-General Ozhoken, the second in command, who had joined the 
army with four battalions last night from the Southern Island, attempted tq 
stand in the village of llerfolge, but he \\-\a attacked briskly by the hussars, 
M'ith detachments of which were Captain Blaqniere and V. aptain Cotton of 
the staff, and by a small detachment of the 1st of the 95th; and he was 
compelled to surrender with Count VVedel Jarlsburg, several other officers, 
and four hundred men. 

The loss of the enemy has been very great, many have fallen, and there 
are nearly sixty officers, and one thousand one hundred men prisoners* 
In their flight they have tin own away their arms and clothing, and many 
stands of the former have fallen into o'.ir hands. I believe that we have 
taken ten pieces of cannon ; but I have not yet received all the reports 
from the detachments employed \n : the pursuit of the enemy. I have not 
seen General Linsengen, as he is still out with his hussars, but I under- 
stand that the enemy had destroyed the bridges at Little Salbye, which, 
was the cause of the delay of his operations upon their flank, 

I cannot close this letter without expressing to your lordship my sense 
of the good conduct of the troops; all conducted themselves with the 
utmost steadiness ; but I cannot avoid to mention particularly the 92d 
^regiment, under the command of Lieutenant-Colonel Napier; the 1st 
battalion 95th regiment, under the command of Lieutenant-Colonel Bek- 
with ; the British artillery, under the command of Captain Newhouse ; 
the Hanoverian hussars, under Colonel Iteden. and the Hanoverian light 
artillery, under Captain Sympter, as a corps that had particular oppor- 
tunities of diMir.guishing themselves ; I am also much obliged to General 
Linsengea and to Brigadier-General Stewart, for the assistance I received 
m in the formation and execution of the plan by which $he, 



HAVAL HISTORY OF THE PRESENT YEAR, 1807. 

have been defeated. The officers of the staff fyave also rendered me much 
assistance ; ajid I must pai licul?.; :j mention Captain Blaquiere and Capr 
tain Campbell. 

| have the honour to be. &c. 

(Signed) ARTlil'R \YELJ.ESLEY. 

lieutenant- General Lord Cat heart. K.T* 

P. S. We hr.vc taKen a i.t. b . ' -^ of powder and other military 
stores in this town, which I propose to >... -^y, if I should not be able 
to prevail upon the captain of one of his Majesty's ships to take charge of 
them. 

Head-guarii Before Copenhagen:, 
MY tORp, September 3, 1807. 

I have the honour to inclose an extract of a letter, dated Brasenborg, 
September 2, 1807, '.\ 'iich has been received from Major-Ceneral Sir 
Arthur Wel!e-.ley, covering a report of Major General Linsengen's pro- 
ceedings on the 29th ultimo, and containing an account of the present 
state of operations in that quarter. 

Sir Arthur has established his he ad-quarters between Ringstedt, Roeskild, 
andKioee, from whence be hr,s sent strong patroles and reconnoiteringpartiep 
in different directions. Genera* l.m?engen s at Ringstedt ; and they are 
pot without hopes of finding Gene:al Castenschiold and the cavalry, apd of 
reducing any assembly ot militia, or other troops that may remain. 

A return of the ordnance and stores taken and destroyed, or embarked 
in his Majesty's ships, at Kiose, the amount of which is very considerable, 
will be transmitted as soon as it c:m be made up. 

I have the honour to be,&c. 

(Signed) CATHCART. 

To Lord Viscount Castlereagh, $c. 

Extract of a Letter from MajorrGeneral Sir Arthur Welkshy, K. B. datkd 
Brasenborg, September 2, 1807. 

MY LORD, 

I have the honour to inclose a detailed report of the operations of th 
corps under Major-General Unsengen on the 29th. 
Lieutenant-General Lord Cathcart, fyc. 

SIB, Ringstedt, September 1, 1807". 

I have the honour herewith to transmit a detailed relation oftue engage- 
ment before Kioge, on the 29th instant, in as far as it was connected with 
the troops I had the honour to command on that day. 

I remain, &c. 

(Signed) LINSENGEN, Major-Gen. 
&Injor-General the Right Honourable 
" Sir Arthur Wclledey, K. B. 

SIR, Ringstedt, August 31, 1807, 

The right column, consisting of six squadrons of the 1st, 2r!,n'.d i-'d. Light 
Dragoons, King's German Legion, five companies of the :>5 n, Irxif a bat- 
tery of horse-artillery, the 43d foot, and the 6th line battalion, !\iiin's Gor- 
man Legion, broke up from Roskiold by five o'clock on the ^i>-.-i inst.mt, 
reached Arstead by eight o'clock, when two squadrons thai ' ,<.<. bee:. nt 
the night before from Roskiold to ArMead did join the d>-. isicii. '1 ;;is 
detacl.ment, under the command of Major Grorc, 1st Liaiit ],',ai(,on, ' id 
been >-ent to Arstead for the purpose to L et inri>ni!ini-./n witn ic.' : i -e 
enemy at, and in the neiahbourhood of RingstfCit and Ki(L<". . ' - : ~iF 
tooik two pnsuners in the night ; the one carrying de-patches daccieu itff 



NAVAL HISTORY OF THE PRESENT YEAtt, 1807. 

Danish general, and detailing all our marches, and ascertaining the strength 
of our corps. The major likewise took thirty waggons with provisions. The 
column again, after a short halt, moved towards Laddger, on the road lo 
Eigbye ; having reached the former place, some armed militia, and small 
detachments, were seen towards Eigb\e. 

As ic was my intention to cross the rivulet that runs from Gunard to 
Kioge at Yderholm, or Lutenge Gaard, I decached one squadron, one gun, 
and two companies of the 95th riflemen, to the right, to reconnoitre either 
passage, under the command of Major Piessen, of the 1st Light Dragoons. 
The gr muds between Eigbye and Dajbye being greatly covered with wood, 
intersected by a large morass, and found impracticable for a column $o 
pass, the passage at Yderholn? was given up, and that of Littenge Gaard 
forced on. The detachment under Major Piessen went alons; the left bank 
of the rivulet by Spanager to protect the right of the column, which moved 
on by Eigbye, at about half past, nine o'clock, A. M, The cavalry beiqg 
arrived at the banks of the rivulet, near Littenge Gaard, the planks over the 
bridge had been taken up, and nothing remained for the cavalry and part 
of the horse-artillery but to ford the rivulet, which thev instantly did, and 
advancing along the right bank of it, halted to a-.vait the infantry and the 
rest of the horse-artillery, who, by this time, had arrived in close column 
at the bridge. The pioneers of the 6th battalion of the line repaired it so 
far in twenty-five minutes' time, that the infantry were enabled to pass by 
single files (which retarded much the progress of the column) whilst the 
rest pf the horse-artillery passed through the ford. Till now the enemy 
did not in the least attempt to oppose us. After having passed the bridge 
the infantry moved on in close columns through Littenge Gaard, on the 
road to Kioge, between the rivulet and the wood. Here I ordered part of 
the 05th, to clear the woods to the right of the column; the detachment of 
the 43d to do the same in front; and forming the 6th battalion, apd the rest 
of the 43d in line, advanced with them, and the horse-artillery in the rear 
of the cavalry, four squadrons of which had already reached the plain at 
the end of the woods. In the me.'.n while I detached two squadrons 
in the rear, directing them to cross the wood on the right, and to advance 
lupon Swansberg Syllern to the bridge on the road between Ilortfolge and 
Soeder. Major Piessen, who took the command, passed the wood, which, 
in the mean time, had been cleared by the rifle corps, and some sharpshoot- 
ers of the 6th battalion, who met with little opposition, except some pla- 
toon firing, occasioned l>y several divisions of the enemy's infantry retreat- 
ing out of the woods, thf greatest part of whom were either taken prisoners, 
or cut to pieces. It was at this time that Lieutenant Ruedorf uf the 1st 
Light Dragoons was dangerously wounded; together with Lieutenant Jancc 
of the 3d Light Dragoons, whilst gallantly charging some infantry at the 
entrance of the Kioge. 

The cavalry of Colonel Alten having passed the opening between tue 
woods, I ordered the horse-artillery to play upon a Danish column of 
infantry, retreating from Kioge toward* the shore, which Captain \Yetzeb- 
ben executed with as much precision as effect; but a few shots were tired, 
by the Dani.sh artillery, the same beii>g sqon sijenced by the superior firinj 
of the British. The cavalry during this had taken eighteen waggons with 
ammunition, arms, and accoutrements, and made a few prisoners. 

The country being much intersected with high banks and ditche?, did 

' not allow the 6th battalion and 43d to advance in line, they were obliged 

; to cross them, by filing in divisions before they could reach the plain before 

the wood, where they formed the line again. By this lime the squadron 

of Major Piessen having crossed the wood in front of Abhay, and udvanc- 

. ing across the plain, overtook about fifty waggons, partly lu'den with- bug- 

r fc a e J ammunition, arm ; &c.; and bciug obliged t^.lcavc a good uui 



WAVAL HISTORY OF THE PRESENT YEAR, 1807. 

jf men with' them and the prisoners, they greatly weakened their strength, 
and were necessitated to waft the arrival of the centre, under Colonel 
Alton, whom I, at'ter he had passed Clemenhap, ordered to advance spee- 
dily upon Helfalze, where part of a Danish column of infantry had takeii 
possession of the church-yard. Colonel Alten inclined to the right with 
his squadrons in order to turn the village and whilst the light artillc-ry 
opened a fife upon the church, and some riflemen of the 95th assailed it in 
flank, he and Lieutenant Schnuring, of the '2d Light Dragoons, rapidly- 
advanced with sixteen hussars, obliged the Danish general Oxeriholm, four 
officers, and ahout one hundred and fifty private*, to lay down their arms; 
on this occasion a cOrpor.il of the 2d Light Dragoons was shot, and several 
horses wounded. The villa-je having been taken, the cavalry, joined by the 
horse-artillery, followed up their advantage by pursuing the enemy towards 
Soedar, where many prisoners were taken. 

The infantrv hcinii unable to follow the rapid movements of the cavalry, 
took a position near Swansberg ; and perceiving the enemy completely 
routed, I took the road through the wood by Fuagerod, and from thence to 
Giersier, in order to pursue the enemy in the right liank, and watch his 
movements in hi.s retreat, protecting, at the same time, the flunks of my 
cavalry that had advanced towards the mights of Soedar, losing sight of 
the enemy. The cavalry of my division received orders, with the 95tli rifle 
corps, to fall baek to us to take a position with their advanced posts from 
Lillenge Guard by Ashay, Swaiisberg, Siliecrass, and Viokiold. to cover the 
head-quarters at Kioge. 

The 6th battalion, part of the 43d foot, some horse-artillery, and a few 
cavalry, followed me to Giersier, and with sotne detachments pur uecl the 
retreating enemy towards the plains of Ringstedt. 

The conduct of both officers and rae on this occasion claims my warm- 
est thanks; and I beg leave to bring to your notice Colonel Hohnstcidt. 
who commanded the infantry, and Colonel Alten, who led the cavalry, and 
Lieutenant Wade, at the head of the rifle corps and light infantry, wLj ail 
three, by their zeal and attention, greatly assisted me. 
I have the honour to be, &c. 

(Digued; LLNilLXGEN, Major Gen, 

JMajor-Gcneral the ~Ri&hl Honourable 
Sir Arthur Wtlleslty, K. H. 

Head-guarters, before Copenhagen, 
MY LORD, September 3, 1807. 

Forty-eight mortars and howitzers of different natures being in battery, 
and twenty 24-pounders, I proposed to the admiral to summon the place 
on the 1st instant, offering the terms which we had agreed to propose at 
this period, for the rensons stated in my despatch, of the 31st ultimo. 

I have now the honour to "inclose copies of the summons, of the answer 
thereto, and of our reply to that answer; which last was sent as soon as 
communication could be had with the admiral on board, and closed the 
correspondence. 

At half past seven in the afternoon, all our batteries opened for the first 
time, and the town was set on fire by the first general flight of shells. 

It was afterwards on fire in another quarter. 

Tli,e navy also threw some shells, and the firing continued on shore twelve 
hpurs without producing any overture on the part of the garrison. 

The epemv's fire WHS very slack during tne night, and progress has been 
made hi the new works of attack. 

I have the honour to be, &c. 

(Signed) C ATTIC ART. 

The Lord Vivount Cant 'ereapli, $c. 

N. B. The inciosuiTS alluded to in the above are the same as are annexed 
to Admiral Gambler's letter of- the 2d September. 



564 fJAVAL HISTbRY Dfr THt PREStNT TEAR, J30?; 

MEMORANDUM. 

Copies of Notes which passed between Lieutenant-General Lnrd Cathcart 
and Genera/. Penman, alluded to in tfit Despatches of' Adniral Gambier 
and Lord Cat heart, which were published in. ike Extraordinary Gaxettt 
of Yest 



MY LORDS, Copenhagen, Sept. 5, 1807. 

For preventing further effusion of Wood, and not exposing the city to 
the sad consequences of a longer bombardment, I propose an armistice 
of twenty-tour hours, in order to come to an agreement that may lead to 
the settling of the preliminary articles of a capitulation. 

It is with the highest personal consideration i luive the honour to be, &c. 

(Signed) PEYMAN, 

Commander in Chief of his Majesty's 

I*o the Commanders in Chief of the British Land Forces. 

Sea and Land Forces. 



Head-Quarters, before Copenhagen t 
SIR, September 5, 1807. 

The same necessity which has obliged us to have recourse to arm* in 
the present occasion, compels me to decline any overture which might 
he productive of delay only; tmt to prove to you ray ardent desire to put 
an end to scenes which I behold with the greatest grief, I send an officer 
who is authorised to receive any proposal you may be inclined to make 
relative to articles of capitulation, and upon which it may be possible foi* 
me to a^ree to any, even the shortest armistice. 

I hare the honour to be, &c. 

(Signed) CAT IICARTj Lieut. Gen, 

His Excellency Major-General Peyman, Com* 

mander in Chief of his Danish Majesty's 

Land Forces, Copenhagen. 

MY LORD, ' Copenhagen, Sept. 5, IBOT. 

The proposal has been made without any the le st dilatory intention^ 
but the night being too far advanced for deliberating upon a matter of 
such very high importance, with the respective departments, a measure 
necessary on account of his Majesty's absence, and that of the Prince, 
and my state of health not permitting me to proceed as expeditious! v as 
I- wish, I engage to send to-morrow before twelve o'clock the articles 
relative to tile capitulation, and have in the mean time the honour to be, &c. 

(Signed) PEYMAN. 

Commander in C-mYf of his Majesty's 

Lord Cathcart, Commander in Chief Land Forces. 

of the British T/oops. 

Head- Quarters, before Copenhagen^ 
SIR, September o, 1807. 

Having communicated to Admir.il Gambier your letter received this 
morning, together with those of last night, I have to acquaint you, that we 
will consent to treat with you for the capitulation of Copcuhageu, OD the 
basis of your delivering up the Danish licet. 



NAVAt HISTORY OF THE PRESENT YEAR, 1807. 205 

But as you have not forwarded articles of capitulation, officers of rank 
in the .sea and land service of his Britannic Majesty, shall be sent forth- 
with, to prepare articles with you, or with tiio om*:ers yon may appoint, 
and which may, if possible, unire the objects you have in view, in regard 
to the occupation of Copenhagen, with the performance of the service 
entrusted to us. 

I have the honour to be, &c. 

(Signed) CATIJCART, Lieut. Geru 

fits Excellency Major-General Peymun, Com- 
mander in Chief of his Danish, Majesty's 
Lund Forces, Copenhagen. 

ttr LORD, Copenhagen, September 6, 1807. 

I accept of your proposal with respect to the delivering up of his 
Majesty's fleet, as the fundamental basis of negociations ; hut with this 
proviso, that no other English troops enter the city than those commissaries, 
officers, and military men, who shall be stipulated and agreed on, in the 
course of the said negociations. 

I have the honour to be, &c. 
(Signed) PEYMAN, 

Commander in Chief of his Majesty's 
Land Forces. 

LorJCathcart, Commander in Chief 
of the British Troops. 



MT LORD, Copenhagen, Sep f . 6, 1807. 

As soon as you shall be pleased to appoint a neutral plnce out of the 
town where to meet on both sides for regulating; the articles of capitulation, 
officers provided with full powers for Degociflting shall be sent, and in the 
interim the armistice is considered as subsisting till contrary orders should 
te given. 

I have the honour to be, &c. 

(Signed) PEYMAX. 

Commander in Chief of his Majesty's 
Land Forces. 

Lord Cat heart, C-mmnndcr in Chief of 
the British Troopt. 



Head-Quarters before Copenhagen, 
81 R, September 6, 1H07. 

The officers appointed to treat with yon are, Major-General the Ri^ht 
Honourable Sir Arthur Wcllcsley, K.B. Sir Home Popham, Captain of the 
fleet, and Lieutenant-Colonel Murray, Deputy Quarter- Master-General 
of the army, lliese officers are waiting at the Barrier, and w.ll meet the 
officers named by you, at any place you may appoint for immediate dis- 
cussion, between our advanced posts and your lines. 

Orders were iven to desist from the bombardment, and to cease firing 
the moment your first letter wi.s received ; but there has been no armist ce 
concluded; a proof of which is, that a houe in the suburbs has been set 
on fire within these few minutes by your people, close to our 

. C&ran. SJal.XVlII. M M 



KAVAL HISTORY OF THE PRESENT TZAR, 1S07 

As we have already stated more than once, we can admit of no delay 
in this business, and therefore it will immediately appear, whether the 
articles proposed are of such a nature as to warrant an armistice. 
I have the honour to be, &c. 

(Signed) CATHCART, Lieut. GesX 

Jl! Excellency Major-General Peyman, 
Commander in Chief of his Danish 
Majesty' ' Land forcet. 



promotions anU- Appointments. 

Sir James Saumarez, Bart, is appointed commander in chief on the 
Guernsey and Jersey station. , 

Captain Loring has taken the command of the sea fencibles in the 
Portsmouth district. 

Captain Walpole (son of the Hon. Captain Wai pole), who was taken 
in the Minerve, and is lately returned from Paris, is appointed to the 
Pilot, a new brig at Portsmouth. 

Captain Dumaresq, to the Diomede, of 50 guns, at Portsmouth, which 
is fitting for Sir James Saumarez's flag, at Guernsey. 

Captain Tucker is appointed to the Dover frigate (late Duncan), in tha 
East Indies, 

Captain Charles Bullen, who commanded the Britannia in the great and 
glorious action of Trafalgar, on Thursday commissioned la Volontaire 
frigate* at Portsmouth. 

Captain Downman is appointed commodore of the division of prison 
ships at Portsmouth : he is to hoist his broad pendant on board the 
Assistance, Lieutenant J. M'Arthur. 

Captain Jones is appointed to command the Namur, of 7-1 guns, which 
is to be stationed as a guard ship at the Nore. 

Captain Fowke is appointed to command the Rochester prison ship, 
And is to superintend the whole of the prison ships in the river 
Medway. 

His Majesty has been graciously pleased, by his order in council' 
to direct that a pension of 2001. per annum be settled on the widow of 
the late Admiral Sir T. Louis, Bart, who died in the Canopus, off 
Egypt. 

We have received a series of the Madras Courier to the 5th of March 
last, from which we have extracted the following promotions: 

" His Excellency Sir T. Troubridge, Bart, commander in < chiefi 
has beea pleased to make the following promotions, December 3i 
1806. 

Captain Pigot, from the Harrier, post into the Java. Lieutenant 
1'tnlejs of the Blenheim, commander, into the Harrier. Mr. Bold, Mr, 
Stewart, and Mr. Featherstone, midshipmen of the Blenheim, to be lieu- 
tenants -of the Java. Mr. Dunsford, midshipman of the Blenheim, to bfc 
lieutenant of the Caroliue. Mr. Campbell, midshipman of the Blenheim, 
to be acting lieutenant of that ship. Mr. Cowley, purser of the Harrier, 
to be purser of the Java. Mr. Othen, clerk of the Blenheim, to be pursr 



NAVAL HISTORY OF THE PRESENT YEAR, 1807. 267 

fcf the Herrier. Mr. Warburton, surgeon of the Harrier, to be surgeon 
of the Java. Mr. Martin, first assistant to the surgeon of the Blenheim, 
to besurgeon of the Harrier. Mr. Balfour, from half-pay, to be master 
of the Java.. Captain Trowbridge, from the JVlacasser to the Greyhound, 
vice Elpihustone, proceeding to Europe. Captain Wilbraham, t om the 
Harrier to the Macasser. lieutenant Pigot, to the rank of commander, 
into the Harrier. Mr. Jackson and Mr. Wilson, to be lieutenants, into 
the Macasser, vice Lieutenant! Holmes and Whitehead, proceeding to 
Europe. Mr. Coffin to be lieutenant. Mr. Martin, master of the Grey- 
hound, to be acting master of the Blenheim. Mr. JJoimvon, master of 
the Dasher, to be master of the Macasser. 

Captain Campbell, to the Trident 

Captain Matson, to command the prison-ships at Plymouth. 

Captain C. Otter, to the Proserpine. 

Captain Hanchett, to the Danish frigate Frederickswaern. 

Captain Harris, to the Barracouta. 

Captain J. Douglas (of Ptfrtsea), to the Eclipse, 



B!RTH. 

On Sunday, the 23d August, at Whyat's Cottage, Northwood, Isle of 
Wight, the lady of Captain H. Heathcote, of the royal navy, of a sou. 



MARRIAGE?. 

Lately, at St. John's, Newfoundland, Mr. Daniel Burne, purser of his 
Majesty's sloop Rattler, to Miss M'Curdy, daughter of the late Johft 
>I'Curdy, Esq. surgeon, of St. John's. 

On 9th August, Joseph Williams, Esq. lieutenant and quarter-master 
of the Portsmouth division of royal marines, to Miss Mortimer, eldest 
daughter of the late E. H. Mortimer, Esq. of Trowbridge. 

At Cheltenham, the Hon. Captain Jones, of the navy, to Miss Palmer, 
daughter of the late T. Palmer, Esq. formerly of Portsmouth. 

Lately, at Warblington Church, Captain Moore, of the navy (of 
Emsworth) to Miss Emily HolUway, of the same place. 

In September, W. Landell, Esq. of the royal navy, to Miss Richardson, 
of Berwick. 

In August, Captain J. Patterson, of the Hon. East India Company's 
ship Montrose, to Miss J. Patton, daughter of the governor of St. 
Tlelena. 

At Edinburgh, Lieutenant ?prott, of his Majesty's schooner Herring, 
to Miss Kearney, daughter of XT. Kearney, Esq. 

In September, Captain Monkton, of the royal navy, to Mrs. Mackie, 
widow of the late Thomas Mackie, Esq. and only daughter of the late 
{jforge Hutton, Esq. of Deptford. 



OBITUARY. 



On 2d Apri^-at Bridgetown, Barbadoes, Mr. James A 
fci? Majesty'* ship Dart. He lived respected and died 



Mr. James Arnott, surgeon of 
regretted by his 



NAtAfc HISTORY OF THE PRMENT TEAR, 16157. 

brother officers^ who anxiously attended him during his last illucs., aii'4 
performed the last duties of friendship. 

At Port Jackson, New South Wales; the idth April, Mn. Short,,wife 
of Captain J. Short, of hi* Majesty's ship Buffalo, aged 33. 

On the 27th August, near Wickham* Mrs. Bligh, wife of Captain John 
Biighi of his Majesty's ship Alfred. 

On 4th September, at his lodgings at Portiea, Sir Robert Chalmers, 
-Bart, commander of th Alexander lazaretto, at the Motherbank. 
Sir Hubert is succeeded in his title by his son, Lieutenant Chalmers, of 
the navy. 

On board his Majesty's ship Pitt, in the East Indies, Mr. R. Talbot, 
midshipman, son of H. Talbot, Esq. ef Stone Castle, KenU 

On 23d August, at Bin field Place, Berks, General Rowley, colonel of 
the 2d battalion of the 60th regiment, and youngest son of the late 
Admiral Sir William Rowley, K.B. 

The following melancholy circumstance occurred a few days since: 
Lieutenant Arthur Hyde Nason, of his Majesty's ship Racehorse (on the 
Guernsey station) -, for two or three days was uncommonly irritable, and 
much inclined to quarrel, particularly with those whom he had been 
in the strongest intimacy with. He seemed very thoughtful, and seme- 
litnes flighty, but so as not to give grounds for. alarm. Whilst on hh> 
morning watch, he sent below (it blowing hard) to be relieved for a few 
minutes, sayinf he wished to do something below. Not returning as waft 
expected, a midshipman was sent to call him, when he was found 
extended in hi* cabin, with, a pistol in his hand, the ball , of which had 
entered a little above the right ear, and, taking a transverse direction, 
was found nearly opposite. No reason can be assigned for this rash act. 
He destroyed all his papers the evening before < from which circum- 
stance, and his having been only a snort time in the Racehorse, 
his friends and relations are not known. He was a young gentleman of 
highly respectable character, and itrict honour. He formerly belonged 
to the Theseus, and was recommended by Captain Hope, as an active 
intelligent officer. 

We are sorry to announce a melancholy accident which occurred 
lately at Madras. The h^r boat, having on board nine persons belopg- 

, ing to his Majesty's ship Java, broached too in the surf, which was very 
high and rapid ; in consequence of which six persons who were sitting on 
the cross shafts of the boat, were thrown into the surf by the shock ; of 
these, two were picked up unhurt by the catamarans, but the other four 

"were unfortunately drowned. We believe the sufferers are, Mr. Bowles, 
first lieutenant ; the purser, Mr. John Cowley ; the carpenter, and boat- 

' swain. The other three men had placed themselves in the bottom of the 
boat, and were by that means saved, as the boat righted without ship- 

r|>ing a drop of water. There is reason to think, that had the sufferer* 

4iflt incommoded the steersman by sitting in the stern-sheets, the acci- 
dent would never have happened. One of the bodies only is yet found, 
ou which a coroner's inquest wilt sit; but the inquisition has not been 
able to proceed, for want of witnesses to depose to the accident. 
The sufferer was recognised, and proved to be Mr. John 
purer. 




CAPTAIN 



HOPE, 



fublifhed Octr3llW7.byJ.Gdd IC3. Shoe Lane Landcm. 



BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIR OP 

CAPTAIN WILLIAM JOHNSTONE HOPE, 

OF THE ROYAL NAVY. 



' It much imports you, 'tis your all, 

To keep your trade entire, entire the force 
And honour of your fleets; o'er that to watch 
E'eu with a hand severe, and jealous eye." 

THOMSON-, 

//~1APTx\IN HOPE, who at present has the honour of 
^-^ holding his Majesty's commission, as one of tht 
Lords of the Admiralty, entered the naval service in the 
year 1776, under the patronage of his uncle, Commissioner 
Hope. The ship, in which he commenced his professional 
career, was the Weasel, of 14 guns;* and he afterwards accom- 
panied his uncle, successively, into the Hind, Crescent, Iphi- 
genia, and Leocadia; serving in the West Indies, on the coast 
of Guinea, in the North Sea, and at Newfoundland. 

From the Leocadia, in 173Q, Mr. Hepe was removed into 
the Portland, of 50 guns, then bearing the flag of Vice-Admiral 
Campbell, at Newfoundland. In October, in the same year, he 
was promoted to the rank of lieutenant, in the Dzedalus, of 32 
guns; in which ship he remained till 178-1, when she was 
ordered to be paid off at Chatham. Lieutenant Hope, it should 
be observed, had been re-com missioned to the Dadalus, after 
the peace of 17S3, and suit to the Leilh station, where he con- 
tinued to serve till the period already mentioned. 

He was soon afterwards appointed flag lieutenant to the late 
Admiral Milbanke, then serving in the Sampson, of 64 guns, as 
commander in chief, at Plymouth ; and remained in that service 
till March 178G.f 

* On the 30th of January, 1779, the Weasel, then commanded bv Cap- 
tain Lewis Robinson, on the Leeward Island station, was captured off St. 
F.ustatia, by la Boudeuse, French frigate, of 3d guns. At the period of her 
capture, she was charged with despatches from Admiral Barrington. 

t On the 8th of August, 1785, durine the time that Lieutenant Hop* 
was in the Sampson, a melancholy affair happened on board that ship. 

er&ion. CHoI.XVIII. K N 



270 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIR OP 

It was in the month of February preceding, tbat his Ro^nl 
Highness Prince William Henry, now Duke of Clarence, was 
appointed iirst lieutenant of the Pegasus, in Hamoaze, as pre- 
paratory to his assumption of post rank. On the 10th of April 
his Royal Highness received his commission, as captain of the 
Pegasus ; having, in the interim, been pleased to request 
Lieutenant Hope to sail with him in that ship, and had actually- 
applied for a third officer, for the purpose of his being with 
him. 

Lieutenant Hope accordingly proceeded with the Prince to 
Newfoundland,* Halifax, and the West Indies; where, an un- 
fortunate difference happening to take place between his Royal 
Highness and the officers of the Pegasus, it became a matter of 
prudence, on the part of Liemtenant Hope, to solicit a removal 
into the Boreas, at that time commanded by the heroic Nelson .*{- 

In the winter of 1787, this officer was nominated one of the 
lieutenants of the Victory, then fitting for the flag of Earl Howe, 
the 'First Lord of the Admiralty ; but as the disturbances in the 
United Provinces of Holland were speedily suppressed, by the 
vigorous measures of this country and of Prussia, he was soon 
afterwards paid off ; and, for a short time, he remained on 
half-pay. 

Lieutenant Hope was next appointed to the Adamant, of 50 



The officers of the ward-room having invited some friends on board to 
spend the day, hud drunk rather freely ; and, after supper, a dispute arose 
"between Captain Douglass, of the marine?, and Mr. Walton, the master. 
In the progress of the quarrel, each became extremely violent; and >Jr. 
Walton, being much irritated, struck Captain Douglas a severe blow. The 
latter gentleman immediately Hew to his cabin, seized a bayqnet, and, in 
despite of the exertions of the party in the ward-room, rushed out and 
Stabbed Mr, Walton, wh;> almost instantly expired. Captain Douglas was 
secured upon the spot, and delivered over to the civil power. In conse- 
quence of a verdict of xilful murder having been returned by the Coroner's 
Jury, he was afterwards conveyed to J.Hiu.restoi>, where he took his trial at 
the assizes; but, as certain parts of the cviJcnce appeared to be in his 
favour, he was convicted only uf man-slaughter. 

* The Pegasus sailed for Newfoundland on the 5th of June, in company 
the Rose, Captain Henry Her. < y. 

+ FicfeXAVAi. CiiifOMCi r, Vol. IH. pajrc 107. The Boreas was paid ',* 

Sherrncss on ihe iH'tb of Xovc:nbc , 1 ?cJ7. 



CAP? AIN WILT.IAM JOHNSTONE HOPE. 271 

guns, which was fitting for the flag of Sir Charles Douglas.* 
That officer died, without aFSiiming his intended command; but 
Lieutenant Hope remained in the Adamant, which received the 
flag of Rear-Admiral Sir Richard ftoghes/t 1 who had been 
selected as commander in chief oil the North American station, 
in lieu of Sir Charles Douglas. 

In June 1788, the Adamant sailed (or Ilali'r.x, whore 
Lieutenant Hope remained till 1790, when he v a.-; appointed 
to command the Raltle sloop. In the month of Ja'jt, in that 
year, Captain Knox, of ilie Adamant, w::s under the iiecessuv of 
resigning his command, from ill health ; in. consequence of 
which, our officer was chosen to act as captain of lime ship, 
which still bore Sir Richard Hughes's Hag. From a circum- 
stance nearly similar, Captain Hope shortly afterwards obt-iined 
another appointment. In the month of November following, 
Captain Lindsay, of the Penelope, resigned his commission, as 
captain in his Majesty's navy, and Captain Hope v,ac nominated 
to succeed him. He accordingly took the 001 >>d of the 
Penelope, pro forma, and then returned to the Adamant. The 
Board of Admiralty, however, did not think proper to confirm 
his commission for the Penelope ; and, the Adam-ait having 
been ordered home, in the spring of 1791, he paid that ship off 
at Plymouth, in the succeeding month of June. 

Captain Hope, we believe, was not farther employed till 
January,' 1793, when he received the command of the Incen- 
diary fire-ship; in which he remained till January, \l-j-\-, when 
lie obtained post rank,+ in the Bellerophon, then bearing the 
broad pendant, and afterwards the flag, of Sir Thomas Paisley. 
He was consequently in Lord Howe's engagement of the ever- 
memorable and " glorious First of June" in the same year. 

* For a brief memoir of the professional services of this ofiicer, tho 
reader is referred to the XlVth volume of The NAVAL CURONICLK, 
pa^e 442. 

t As a biographical memoir of Sir Richard Hughes is intended for speedy 
insertion in The NAVAL CHRONICLE, any authentic information which may 
le forwarded respectum him will te highly acceptable. 

f. January the 9th, 



272 BIOGRAPHICAL MEM Of R OT 

" Earl Howe having made the signal for the British ships to 
pass through the enemy's line, the Bellerophon immediately 
obeyed, and passed through in close action, accompanied by the 
Royal Charlotte and the Leviathan."* 

For his share in this engagement, Captain Hope received the 
thanks of Parliament, and was presented with the gold medal, 
then first instituted by his Majesty, as a mark of honourable 
distinction for naval services. 

He continued to command the Bellerophon, tilf January, 
1 795, when he was superseded by Lord Cranston ; but, in the 
month of March following, in consequence of Captain Bentinck 
being taken suddenly ill, and the French fleet being at sea, he 
was again called upon by Lord Howe, to take the command of 
the Tremendous. He remained in that ship till May ; when,, 
at the request of Admiral Duncan, he was appointed captain of 
that officer's flag-ship, the Venerable, ad was for some time 
employed in the North Seas. Unfortunately, however, he 
received a violent contusion on the head, on board of a Russian 
ship of the line;-^ owing to which he was obliged to quit the 
Venerable, and Sir William Fairfax was appointed to act for 
him.J Tlu's accident was a source of much chagrin to Captain 

* Vide NAVAL CHRONICLE, Vol. IV. p. 360. In our memoir of Sir 
Thomas Paisley, the particular share which the Belierophoiv bore in that 
brilliant action is there fully described by Lord Howe's supplementary 
despatch. Farther particulars of the engagement may be seen in the 
biographical memoirs of Earl Howe, NAVAL CHRONICLE, Vol. I. p. 24 ; Sir 
Roger Curtis, Vol. VL page 274; Lord Graves, Vol. V. p. 405 ; Lord 
Bridport, Vol. I. x p. 277; Lord Gardner, Vol. VIII. page 194; Lord Hugh 
Seymour, Vol. II. p. 365; Admiral Berkeley, VoL XII. p. 106; Captain J. 
Hervey, Vol. III. p. <>52; Admiral Payne, Vol. III. page 31; Sir J. T. 
Duckworth, Vol. XVIII. p. 5; Admiral Domett, Vol. XV. page 6; Admi- 
ral Caldwell, Vol. XI. page 8; and Admiral Bazely, Vol. XIV. page 181 ; 
and, at page 21, Vol. I. is given a correct description, from a design by 
Pocock, of the manner in which the Bellerophon and the Queen Charlotte 
passed through the enemy's line. The Bellerophon is seen in the act of 
firing from both sides at once, as she is passing between the ships of the 
enemy. The Queen Charlotte and Bellerophon are portraits. 

t At this time, it will be recollected, a Russian squadron was cruising in. 
the North Seas, in conjunction with that of Admiral Duncan. 

J A biographical memoir of this officer is given in the fifth volume of Th 
NAVAL CHRONICLE, page 463. 



CAPTAIN WILLIAM JOHNSTONE HOPE. 

Hope, chiefly as it deprived him of the honour of sharing in the 
glorious victory which was obtained over the Dutch fleet, off 
Camperdown, in October, 1797-* 

In the month of February, 1798, Captain Hope was 
appointed to the Kent, a new ship, of 74 guns, then fitting for 
the flag of Lord Duncan, f and was again employed in th* 
North Seas. 

The attack upon Holland, by the combined forces of Great 
Britain and Russia, in the summer of 1799? must be well 
remembered. On that occasion, Captain Hope, retaining the 
command of the Kent, participated in the honour of capturing 
the Dutch fleet, in the Texel ; and was afterwards charged with 
the official despatches to the Admiralty, announcing the 
important event. 

For these services, his Majesty was graciously pleased to 
return him thanks, and to direct that a purse of five hundred 
pounds might be presented to him, for the purpose of pur- 
chasing a sword. At a shortly subsequent period, the Emperor 
of Russia was also pleased to send him the ribbon and cross of 
a commander of the Order of Malta. 

In the month of June, ] 800, after Lord Duncan's resignation 
of the command in the North Seas, Captain Hope was ordered 
to the Mediterranean, in the Kent, to reinforce Lord Keith, 
It was determined, in the course of the summer, that a grand 
attack should be made upon Cadiz ; and, in consequence of that 
determination, Lord Keith, about the middle of September, 
te collected his fleet at Gibraltar, accempanied by several 
transports, having on board upwards of 10,OOO troops, com- 
manded by General Sir Ralph Abercrombie. At Gibraltar 
this armament was joined by other transports with troops, untler 

* Vide biographical memoir of Lord Duucaii, NAVAL CHRONICLE,. 
Vol. IV. p. 104. 

t Vide NAVAL CHRONICLE, Vol. IV. p. 112. 

J This was in September, 1709. The particulars of the expedition are 
fully detailed, in our memoir of the late Sir Andrew Mitchell, NAVAL 
CHROMCLE, Vol. XVI. p. 98, et seq. and, in Vol. II. p. 43C, is given aw 
illustrative map of the Texel and Vlieter Roads, with the country f 
Holland, as far south as the Hague. 



274 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIIl Ot 

Sir James Pulteney, the whole amounting to between 1 8,00(5 
and 20,000 men. The fleet and transports having sailed from 
Gibraltar, anchored between Tetuan and Ceuta ; and on the 3d 
of October got under sail and passed the Straits. On the 4th 
they entered the bay of Cadiz, and anchored between it and 
St. Pietri."* The Kent was in this fleet. " Arrangements 
were immediately made for the landing of the troops, in order 
to proceed to the attack of the town of Cadiz, and the forts in 
its vicinity ;" and Captain Hope was nominated to the command 
of a battalion of seamen, to be landed with the army ; but, in 
consequence of representations which were made by the Spanish 
governor, of the miserable situation of the inhabitants, who 
\vere then suffering beneath a violent epidemic disease, the 
enterprise was abandoned ; and the troops, which were already 
in the boats, were ordered back to their respective transports, 
and the whole flotilla returned to Gibraltar. f 

At that port, in the month of December, Captain Hope 
received General Sir Ralph Abercrombie, with his staff, on 
board of the Kent. He was with that officer at Malta, and iu 
Egypt; had the honour of lauding him in the Bay of Aboukir; 
\vas subsequently employed in the blockade of Alexandria;^ 
and remained upon that station, till Cairo surrendered to the 
British arms. As the service then required the Kent to be 
appropriated to the flag of Sir Richard Bickerton, and as Cap- 
tain Hope was not disposed to serve any longer under a flag 
officer, he was allowed to return to Europe ; but, previously to 
his departure, Lord Keith, the commander in chief, v\as 
pleased, in compliment to his professional merit, to offer him 
the situation .of first captain of the fleet. Particular circum- 
stances, however, with which we are unacquainted, induced him 
to decline the offer. 

A general peace soon afterwards took place; in consequence 
of which Captain Hope remained upon half-pay, till May, 

* Vida biographical memoir of Sir Richard Bickerton, NAVAL CHRONICLE, 
Vol. XL1I. p. 345. 
t Ibid. 
+ Vide NAVAL CHRONICLE, Vol. V. p. 436; and Vol. XIII. p. 348. 



CAPTAIN WILLIAM JOHNSTONE HOPE. 275 

f.804, when be was appointed to command the Atlas; but, in 
the month of August following, he was obliged, from ill health, 
to resign the command of thai ship, off the Texel, 

We have thus traced the naval career of this officer to a 
pause. In our slight outline of his professional services, we 
have studiously avoided all ostentatious comment ; conscious 
that a simplicity of narrative accords best with the actions of 
unassuming merit. 

On the 8th of July, 1791, after Captain Hope had paid off 
the Adamant, he had the felicity of receiving the hand, in 
marriage, of Lady Anne Hope Johnstone, the eldest daughter 
of the Earl of Hopetoun, to whom he had been long engaged. 
By this lady he has two daughters, and four sons. 

In June, 1 800, whilst absent in the service of his country, 
Captain Hope Avas elected for the Dumfries district of Burghs; 
and, from the period of his return to England, in 1801, to that 
of his appointment to the Atlas, in 1804, he regularly attended 
his duty in parliament. 

In October, 1804, the county of Dumfries having lost its 
representative, by the death of General Sir Robert Lawrie, 
Captain Hope was unanimously returned as the knight of that 
shire, for which he sat, until the dissolution of parliament, in 
October, 1606. At the succeeding general election, he was 
again chosen for the same place, after encountering a violent 
opposition, raised against him under the influence of the late 
ministry, in which scarcely any means were left untried that pre- 
sented a probability of thwarting his views. 

On the change of administration, in April 1 807, his Majesty 
was most graciously pleased to nominate Captain Hope to the 
situation of one of the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty; 
and, at the subsequent general election, he had the honour 
of being returned, the third time, as member of parliament for 
Dumfries. 

The party who obligingly furnished us with the materials for 
the preceding sketch, has also enabled us to present the s\\\3- 
tic-simile of Captain Hope's hand-writing. 




27<5 



NAVAL ANECDOTES, 
COMMERCIAL HINTS, RECOLLECTIONS, 



NANTES IN GURGITB TASTO. 

FPENCK NAVAL RESOURCES. 

"]" ORD SELKIRK, in the speech which he delivered in th 
JL4 House of Lordo on the defence of the country, August 10, 
1807, and which has since been published separately, observed: 
e< When we look at the vast extension of the resources of France, 
at the means of recruiting her navy, which she has acquired by her 
continental conquests, it would be blindness not to prrceive, that 
her naval power must soon become far more formidable than it 
has ever yet been. France is now in possession of the finest forests 
in Europe, and of countries capable of affording ample supplies of 
every naval store: she may command the services of all the 
seamen which the continent ( can afford, from Memel to Cadiz, and 
from Cadiz to Constantinople. We may look too to the certain 
prospect, that the whole energy of the French government will 
now be directed to this object : we know in fact that during all 
the pressure of their continental wars, the most active exertions in 
ship. building have never been discontinued in their naval arsenals: 
they have now no other object to divide their attention ; and we 
may ba well assured that all the ability of the ruler of France will 
now be turned to naval affairs. The same genius, which has 
created such an astonishing change jn the discipline and tactics of 
the French army, will now be unremittingly employed. in the 
improvement of their navy. We have therefore, my lords, every 
reason to believe, that the naval superiority of England must ere 
long be exposed to a more severe contest, than any which it has 
recently had to maintain. Whatever confidence we may entertain 
in the valour and skill of our seamen, it is not the part of a pru- 
dent politician, under such circumstances, to overlook the 
possibility of our navy being worsted. This, my lords, is an event 
for which we ought to be prepared; and fortunately there is room, 
to hope that we shall have sufficient time to prepare against it. 
But any one who considers wejl what the state of this country 
would be, if the French should obtain a superiority at sea, will 
certainly not be disposed to think that we can begin tgo soon tp 
provide against such an emergency. 



NAYAL ANECDOTES, &C. 277 

<4 But, my lords, this is not all we have clangers more closely 
pressing upon us, dangers which, if we are to meet, we have not a 
moment to lose. An invasion is certainly no impracticable under- 
taking for the French, even at this moment, notwithstanding all 
our actual superiority at sea. The ablest and most experienced 
naval officers have given their opinion of the practicability of the 
enemy landing in force on our shores. Repeated experience 
has proved the impossibility of effectually blockading the ports of 
the enemy, notwithstanding the greatest naval superiority ; and 
when we consider the vast range of coast that is now under their 
influence a range which ere long may have no other limits than, 
those of Europe itself, it is evident that we may be threatened at 
the same moment from so many different points, that it will be 
more difficult than ever to watch them all, and that thus the 
chances are greatly increased, of the enemy being able to convey 
an armament to the most vulnerable points of our empire. Our 
ablest admirals have repeatedly seen the French ileets sscape 
from them, even Avhen their whole vigilance was directed to the 
single port of Brest. But what would be the case, if armaments 
\vere ready at the same time in Cadiz, in Ferrol, in Kochefort, in 
Brest, in Cherburg, in Flushing, in the Tex el, in the Elbe, and 
perhaps even in Norway ? What rational hope could be enter- 
tained that some one or other of them would not escape, and land 
either in England or in Ireland a force sufficient to put the 
existence of our empire on the hazard of the die?" 

LETTER FROM LORD GRENVILLE TO SIR HOME 
POPHAM. 

SIR, Dotvning-street, 19th November, 1799. 

His MAJESTY has thought proper to direct that you should pro- 
ceed to Petersburgh, in order to assist his minister there in the 
detail of such arrangements as his Majesty has proposed to his 
ally to enter into with him, for the vigorous prosecutions of the 
war in the ensuing campaign. The full approbation which I have 
had the pleasure of conveying to you from his Majesty, respecting 
your conduct in the discharge of the important business entrusted 
to you in the course of the present year, and the honourable tes- 
timonies which you have received of the satisfaction of the 
Emperor of Russia, in your zeal, activity, and talents, in the 
execution of that trust, leave me no room to doubt that the same 
qualities will again be exerted with singular success in the service 
of his Majesty, and in the promotion of objects so interesting to 

o o 



NATAL 

the glory of two sovereigns, whoso intimate union and good 
understanding have already accomplished so much towards the 
deliverance of Europe, and afford so fair a prospect of completing 
that great and honourable work. 

The repeated conversations I have had with you previous to 
your departure, and the very ample instructions to Sir Charles 
Whitworth, of which yon are the bearer, and which you are to 
consider as equally addressed to yourself in all points where your 
professional talents and skill, and the activity and resources of 
your mind, can enable you tu render yourself useful, leave me 
little to add to the despatch. 

It is, however, proper that I should mention one subject, to 
which I am more particularly desirous of directing your attention ; 
it relates to the means of facilitating and expediting the arrival of 
a part of the Russian troops destined to reinforce the, army of 
Prince Suwarrow, by sending them from the southern provinces of 
Russia, by the way of the Black Sea, to a port in the Adriatic, 
Venice, or Trieste. I am desirous that you should procure such 
information as may tend to satisfy your own mind respecting the 
degree of facility and advantage that might attend the execution 
of such a plan ; and that if it should appear to you likely to 
expedite the arrival of a part of the troops at the place of their 
destination, you should bring the subject under the consideration 
of the Emperor of Russia, whose zeal in the success of this great 
cause will, I am confident, induce him to listen with readiness to 
any proposal tending to promote the important interests which are 
at stake. I am, &c. 

(Signed) GRENVILLE. , 
A true copy. (Signed) B. TUCKER. 

IMPROVEMENTS IN NAVAL ARCHITECTURE. 

THE Ear! of Stanhope has obtained a patent, for certain 
improvements respecting the form, construction, and manner of 
building and fitting out ships and vessels for the purpose of naviga- 
tion ; and especially for counteracting or diminishing the danger 
of what has been termed the catamaran invention, for destroying 
ships, vessels, &c. by submarine bombs and carcasses. 

William Clegg Cover, a carpenter, of Rotherhithe, has alsa< 
taken out a patent for an improved wheel, or purchase, for the 
steering of ships ; by means of which considerable labour may 
be saved, and a ship may be steered with more ease, and 
greater steadiness and certainty, and with more safety to the 
steersman. 



COMMERCIAL IIIXTi, RECOLLECTIONS, &C. 



279 



LIST OF THE DANISH NAVY, IN THE YEAR lG92. 

THE following is considered as a correct statement of the naval 
force of Denmark, in 1692. Some of the largest of the ships 
drew more water, by live or six feet, at the stern, than at the 
head ; and most of them were lower masted than those of England. 
The Danes had no fire-ships : - 

S/ii/is. Guns. 

Christianus Quintus . 100 

Prince Frederick ... 84 

Elephant 84- 

Three Crowns .... 84 

Norway Lion 84 

Prince George .... 82 

Cour Prince 82 

Mercurius ...... 76 

Mars 76 

Three Lious 70 

Drake 70 

Charlotte Amelia . . 68 

Anna Sophia 66 

Svvan 66 

Christianus Quartus . 64 

Fredericus Tertius . . 56 

Guldeulieu 56 

C'hristiaiiia 58 

Oldenburi; ...... 56 

Lint worm 40 

Sleswick . . 42 



Men. 
650 
600 
600 
660 
600 
600 
590 
510 
500 
490 
490 


Ships. 
Fero 


Guns. 
. . . . 54 


Men. 
380 
300 
300 
250 
220 
210 
200 
160 
140 
140 
120 


An"el 






. 50 


Swedish Falcon 
Neptune . . . 


. . . . 48 
. . . . 46 


Sword-iish . . 


, 44 


Tumbler .... 


, . 42 




34 


Danish Mermaid . . 30 


White Falcon 


... 26 


480 
470 


Small Ships and Snotcs. 


470 

430 
400 
390 


The Tiger. 

New Elephant, 
Phnenix Galley, 
Minden. 


a Yacht, 
a bomb-boat. 




390 


Paean. 






360 

330 


Little Elephant, 
Swermer. 


a yacht. 




300 


The Ape. 







PRESENT STATE OF THE AMERICAN NAVY. 

MR. JANSON, the author of a new work, called, " The 
STRANGER IN AMERICA," gives the following account of the 
very formidable navy of the United States: 

a Oil my last visit to the navy yard, I found six frigates, d.is- 
mantled and laid up in ordinary, and one nearly equipped for sea, 
for the purpose of carrying back the Tunisian embassy to Uar- 
bary. A small vessel of war, pierced for '20 suns, had just been 
launched. Mr. Jefferson, tvyu years ago, adopted an idea of hi$ 
own, in order to raise the credit of the American navy, and for 
the destruction of the powers .of Barbary. This is, to build a 
number of small vessels of about 100 tons burden, to be called 
gun-boats, each of which is provided with two heavy pieces of 
ordnance, one at the stem, and the other at the stern. Though ' 
the inutility of these mockeries of men of war has been manifested 
on many occasions^ yet the president persists in riding his naval 



280 MAVAL ANECDOTES, 

hobby-horse, even in Kentucky -where several gun-boats arc 
building on (he river Ohio. One of them was nearly lost on a 
Toyage to the Mediterranean being, the whole voyage, to use * 
sea phrase, ' wet and under water.' Another gun-boat. No. 1, 
(thus they are named to No. 8) in a hurricane in South Carolina, 

Was driven nearly a mile into the woods ..., . . . 

Added to these, the Americans have a frigate and two or three 
small vessels of war in the Mediterranean, which constitute the 
whole of their navy." 

ANNUAL EXPENCES OF THE AMERICAN NAVY. 

(From the same.) 

THE following appropriations were made by the government 
of the United States for the navy for 1 805, a year when they 

were at war with Tripoli : 

Dollars. Cents. 

Pay and subsistence of officers, and pay of sea- 
men r 4y>,578 

Provisions , 227,086 40 

Medicines, instruments, hospital stores 10,750 

Repairs * of vessels 411.951 20 

The corps of marines 1 82,593 60 

Clothing for the marines _ . 16,536 

Military stojes for the marines 1 ,635 

Medicine and hospital stores 1 ,250 

Contingent expences 8,419 

Navy yards, docks, clerks, &c 60,000 



1,235,799 20 

or about 278, 054/. 15*. 6d. sterling not much more than the 
yearly charge of two line-of-battle ships in the English navy, 
manned, and with a year's provision. This, too, was a war year ; 
in peace, their appropriation will hardly amount to a third of this 
sum. 

ADVENTURES OF CAPTAIN WILSON, COMMANDER OF 
THE MISSIONARY SHIP, DUFF. 

CAPTAIN WILSON was bred to the sea from his earliest year*, 
and served, during the American war, at the battles of Bunker's 

* Though the American navy is scarcely twelve years old, yet the reader 
yy\\\ perceive, by this charge, that the repairs are nearly equal to the " pay 
a>}d subsistence of the officers, and the pay of the seamen,'' 



COMMERCIAL HINTS, RECOLLECTIONS, &C. 281 

Jlill and Long Island. He afterwards went as mate to one of the 
Company's ships to the East Indies, where he determined to settle. 
During the war with Hyder AH, he was employed to carry stores 
for the British army, and while on that service was taken by the 
French, and carried to Cuddalore. Having received information 
that Suffrein, their admiral, had been bribed hy Hyder AH to 
deliver up to him all his prisoners, Captain Wilson resolved that 
very night to attempt his escape. This design he executed with 
his servant, a Bengalese boy. They ascended the rampart, forty 
feet in height ; the captain leaped down, and pitched on his feet, 
but the shock of so great a descent caused his chin to strike 
against his knees, and tumbled him headlong into the river. 
Recovering himself, he returned to the foot of the wall, where 
there was a dry bank, and bidding the boy drop drown, caught him. 
safely in his arms. 

He had passed in his flight three arms of the river, encumbered 
with the weight of the boy, who "was unable to swim, but in 
attempting t cross a fourth in the same manner, they had both 
nearly perished. He returned to the shore, and recommending 
his attendant to the care of a friend, pursued his route alone. 

He at length succeeded in swimming over the main river, but 
was then unfortunately retaken by a party of the tyrant's troops. 
He was immediately carried to the head-quarters, and interrogated 
by an officer, to whom he gave an ingenious account of his escape. 
The Indian looked angrily at him, protesting that he was a liar; 
for no man, he observed, was ever known to pass the Coleroou 
by swimming, as the alligators would infallibly have seized him, 
had he only dipped the tip of his finger in it. The captain, 
however, produced such evidence of the fact, that he could no 
longer doubt the relation ; on which the Mahometan raised his 
hands, and exclaimed " This is God's man!" Captain Wilson, 
however, was driven back naked to Scringapatam, where he was 
confined for twenty-two months, with a part of Colonel M'Leod's 
regiment of Highlanders, and underwent sufferings and torments 
almost too shocking to relate. The prison was a square, round 
the walls of which was a kind of barrack for the guard ; in the 
middle was a place covered over head, but open on all sides, and 
exposed to wind and rain. Ik-re, with no bed but the earth, no 
covering but the rags wrapped round him, he was chained to 
Another prisoner ; and they were often so cold, that they dug a 
hole in the earth as a defence against the chilling blasts of night. 
9 scanty w&s the allowance of the watched captives, that a state 



281 XAYAL ANECDOTES, 

of raging hunger was never appeased, and he was often afraid to 
trust his fingers to his mouth lest he should be tempted to bite 
them. Though he entered this abode of misery exhausted by 
fatigue and disease, yet for a year he enjoyed a better state of 
health than any of his fellows. At length, the complicated 
wretchedness he endured produced in him the symptoms which had 
carried off so many others. His body became enormously dis- 
tended, his thighs swelled to the thickness of an ordinary man's 
waist, and death seemed to have marked him for his prey. 

Reduced to the extremity of weakness, and his irons being so 
strait as to threaten mortification, he was released from them to 
lie down and die. The soldier to whom he was last chained had 
Served him with great affection, and thinking it might alleviate his 
pain, entreated permission to spend his daily pittance of about 
'three farthings (allowed to buy firing and salt to cook his allow, 
ance of rice) for oil to anoint his legs. To this the captain 
objected, representing that he would have nothing to dress the 
next day's provision. The soldier shook his head. t " Master," 
said he, " I fear you will be dead, and never want it." Pro- 
vidence, however, snatched him from the brink of the grave. 
The captain had that day exchanged his allowance of rice for a 
small species ot grain called rutche picr^ which he eagerly devoured, 
and slaked his thirst with the liquor in which they were boiled. 
The consequence was such an amazing evacuation, that he was in 
' few hours reduced to a skeleton, and, though excessively 
enfeebled, he was completely relieved, and recommended the trial 
with success to many of his fellow prisoners. 

After his deliverance, Captain Wilson again engaged in the sea 
service, and having realized a fortune, settled at llorndean in 
Hampshire. This retirement he voluntarily quitted, and. gra- 
tuitously took the cemmand of the DulV, equipped by the 
Missionary Society for a voyage to the South Sea Islands. 

LORD COLLINGWOOD. 

THE Newcastle Association have voted a piece of plate to Lord 
Collingwood, as a mark of the sense which that corps entertained 
of his lordship's services in the memorable battle of Trafalgar/ 
For this purpose, an elegant silver enchased tureen, the handles 
representing twisted serpents, has been executed by a freeman of 
Newcastle, and has lately been exhibited in the Mayor's Chain? 
ber, Newcastle. On one side i the inscription underneath ; oy 
the rcverse ; hit> lordship's arms; aud ; on the too, a figure of Vic- 



COMMERCIAL HINTS, RF.COM-ECTIONS, &C. 

*ory reclining on the prow of a vessel. The value of the tureen is 
125 guineas. 

To the Right Honourable 
CUTHBERT, BARON COL LING WOOD OF IIEATH- 



POOL AND CALDBURN 



Vice-Admiral of the Blue, &c. &c. &c. 

This Piece of Plate is presented 

By his Townsmen and Fellow Burgesses, 

The Loyal Newcastle Associated Volunteer Infantry, 

Commanded by 
Colonel Sir MATTHEW WHITE RIDT.F.Y, Bart. 

In testimony of their Esteem and Regard, 
And to express the grateful Sentiments tliey entertain 

Of the very meritorious and important Services 
He rendered his Country in the memorable Action off 

TRAFALGAR, 

Against the Combined Fleets of 

France and Spain, 

Oct. 21, 1805. 

DESCRIPTION OF ST. DAVI1/S ISLANDS, IN THE PASSAGE 
TO CHINA. 

TH E following letter, addressed by Captain Barclay to John 
Shore, Esq. Secretary to the Honourable East India Company's 
Marine Board, at Calcutta, will be found to contain some 
useful information : 

" SIK, 

" Induced, from having touched at St. David's Islands, in the 
North Pacific Ocean, in our way to China, in the Mangles, and, 
not knowing of any correct account yet being obtained of their, 
danger, natives, &c. I beg permission to present you with a short 
description of them. 

" The best account yet given of them, is by Captain Williams, 
when commanding the Hon. Company's ship Thames, he saw them 
on his passage home from China, coming the eastern route. lie 
places them from latitude 1 S. to 55' S. their longitude from 
134 17' E. to 134 25' E. which, at the distance he passed 
them, must be considered as very accurate. By a good observa- 
tion at noon, when close in with them, we made the centre of the 
reef to be on 0" 54' S. and by one of Margett's chronometers, 
No. 209, whose rate had been regular for upwards of two years, 
131 20 1 E. The full extent of the reef and islands is about four- 



284 SAVAL ANECDOTES, 

teen miles north and south ; and their breadth east to west fife 
miles. 

" Captain Williams not passing close enough to perceive the dan. 
ger of the reef on which they are situated, or what refreshments 
might be procured from them, I considered the first as an object 
of some moment, as the eastern passage to China, in all proba- 
bility, may be more frequented than formerly, by the Bengal 
shipping, should the cotton trade increase. 

u The islands a-re very low, and ships falling in \vith them in the 
night would be close in, before they perceived the land ; and if 
not acquainted with the danger, might attempt a passage between 
them, in which -case they would unavoidably run on the reef; as 
they are situated upon one entire shoal, so that it is not possible 
for a boat to pass between the islands. 

" The natives came off in great numbers ; and on approaching 
near the ship, performed extravagant gestures, and held forth a 
long harangue, which neither our Malays, nor any other person 
on board, understood ; after which they made no scruple of coming 
on board, and freely parted with their ornaments of dress, and 
cocoa nuts, for pieces of iron hoops and old nails. 

*' Their dress consisted of a treble String of coral, stones, aud 
shells, round the waist; a narrow piece of cloth up between the 
legs, made out of the fibres of cocoa nut; a bracelet of tortoise- 
shell round the right wrist ; two square pieces of mother-o'-pearl 
suspended round the neck by hair, one piece hanging down the 
front of the body, and the other down the bapk ; a collar round 
the neck, of fish teeth, and black coral. This was the dress of the 
men ; and the only difference we perceived in that of the women 
was, a small mat tied round the waist, which reached as low ax 
the knee. 

" The natives of these islands arc particularly well proportioned 
and robust ; their features are regular and manly ; some of them 
o symmetrical, that I was astonished, having never seen any 
equal lo them in either Asia, Africa, or America. There is not 
the least resemblance between tluvj and the Malays, or the inha- 
bitants of New Guinea; nor can I form the smallest conjecture, 
from whence these islands could have been first inhabited. Their 
only produce and chief food, is the cocoa nut (fish excepted), con- 
sequently but little refreshments can be obtained by touching at 
them; and water, if any is to be procured, I conceive must be 
brackish, from the low situation and small extent of the islands. 
Anchorage there is noue ? as you have 60 fathoms close to the 



COMMERCIAL HINTS, RECOLLECTIONS, &C. 

edge of the reef. A quantity of mother-o'-pearl might be 
collected ; but I question if sufficient to induce a ship to touch 
for it. " I am, Sir, &c. 

July \, 1806. " ANDREW BARCLAY." 

RUSSIAN IMPERIAL UKASE, IN FAVOUR OF 
COMMERCIAL MEN. 

IN the course of the month of January, 1807, an Imperial 
Ukase v as published at St. Petersburg, in which the emperor 
expresses his desire, that " his faithful merchants, in order to give 
more eilicac) to foreign commerce, would conduct their under- 
takings in associations, without, however, being obliged to this 
measure." The form of these associations will consist of two 
descriptions : 1st, the whole society; 2d, the honorary members 
of the society. The nobility are permitted to join either of these 
divisions. By this proposal, the emperor wishes to aug.nent the 
community betwven thfe nobility and the merchants : in conyc- 
cjuence, he grants sundry privileges to the merchants; among 
others, that of exemption from conscription. The merchants of, 
the first description are allowed either two or four horses to their 
coaches. Wholesale merchants shall be capable of the highest sta- 
ti ms of magistracy. They shall also be received at court, and 
permitted to wear swords. To transmit their names to posterity, 
the minister of commerce ii directed to open a register for them 
under the name of the Velvet Book (Barchatnaja Kniga). This 
book shall be divided into two parts. In the fir>t part those 
families shall be registered, the grandson whereof can prove that 
his father and grandfather have been members of the first asso- 
ciation. The name of this individual shall be marked on the 
register, with all the details concerning it ; and the posterity of 
such persons shall continue to be registered as long as they con- 
tinue in the class of wholesale merchants, without any detriment to 
tht'ir reputation. In the second division shall be enrolled (he 
lateral families, and even those families which have fallen into 
decay, if at any time (hey resume their stations by new branches. 

T:iis book is to be confined to the use of Christian merchants; 
but, at Casan, another, of the same description, is to be opened 
for the registering of Mahometan merchants. 

PRICES OF SHIP BUILDING, BY CONTRACT. 

FKOM the year 1702 to 1713, the price, per ton, for building a 
90 gun-ship, was 161. ; an 80, 12.'.; a 70, 101. 15*.: a U4, 

* (Efjroa. &ol, XVIII. r P 



NAVAL ANECDOTES, 

9/. 10.?. ; a 60, 10/1 6.?. 6d. ; a 50, 9/. 3V. ; a 42,' 71. 15s. ; a 4d # 
/. 7i. 6rf. ; a 32, 8/. ; a 26, 6/. 5s. ; a 24, 7/. 10,?. ; and sloopsy 
W. I2,v. 6rf. 

In the years 1755, 1756, and 1757, the price, per ton, for a- 
74, was 17/. 2*. 6rf. ; a 70, 16/. 5*.; a 60, 15/. 15*.; a 44, 
12/. 12*.; a 36, 111. 12.9.; a 32, 10/. 10*. ; a 28, ditto; a 20, 
8/. 14*. 6d. ; and sloops, Si. 5*. 

In 1771, the price, per ton,, ^for a 74, was 17/. 5*.; a 64, 
16L 12*. Gel. ; and. a 32, of the common class, 111. 11*. 

In 1775* the price, per ton, for a 20 sun-ship, was 101. 10*. 

In 1776, the price, per ton, for a 50, was 14/. 14.?. ; a 44*. 
12/. 15*. ; a 28, 101. 14*. 6d. : a 24, 101. 10s.; a 20, 101. 9*. ;. 
and large sloops, 91. 10?. 

In 1777, the price, per ton, for a 28 gun-ship, was 111. ; and,, 
for large sloops, 91. 17*. 6cL 

In 1778, the price, per ton, fe* a 74 gun-ship, was 17/. 10?. ; 
a 64, 16/. 17*. 6rf.; a 44, 12/. 17*. 6d. ; a 32, of the common 
class, 111. 15*.; a 28, 111. ; a 24, 101. 15*. 

In 1779, the price, per ton, for a 64, was 16/. 17*. 6d. ; a 38, 
12/. 10?.; a 36, 12/. 7*. 

In 1780, the price, per ton, for a 74, was 17/. 10*. ; a 44,. 
12/. 17,?. 6c/. ; a 32, of the common class, 111. 15s. 

la 1781, the price, per ton, for a 74, was 17/. 17*. 6d. ; a 38 r 
1-2/. lOv. ; a 36, 12/. 7*.; a 32, of the common class, 111. 15*.;. 
and large sloops, 91. 17.?. 6J. 

In 1782, the price, per ton, for a 74, was 17/. 17*. 6d. ; a 44,. 
12/. 17,?. 6d. ; a 36, 12/. 7s. ; a 32, of tlie common class, 1 11. 

In 1793, the price, per ton, for a 38, was 13/. 5*.; and large- 
sloops, 111. 

In 1794, the price, per ton, for a 36, was 15/. 

In 1795, the price, per tan, for a 74, was 20,'. ; a 40, a 38, and 
9 36, 15L 10. t. each; and large sloops, 1 M. 

In 179, the price, per ton, for a 32, of the large class, 
was 15/. 

In 1798, the price, per ton, for a 3ft, was 141. 17*. 6d. 

In 1800, the price, per ton, for a 74, was 21V. ; a 36, and a, 
32, of the large class, 16/. 10s. each. 

In 1S05, th price, per ton, for a 74, was 36Y. 

EEQULATIONS RESPECTING SHIPWRECK, IN THE 
ISLAND OF RUGEN. 

THE beach towards the open sea (called the great strand, to 
distinguish it from that of th* bays and creeks) is chieily shallow 



COMMERCIAL HINTS, IIECOLLF.CT1ONS, &C. 287 

and sandy, and, with certain winds., exposed to a tremendous surf. 
In addition to this, the strong currents of the Baltic, which are but 
small when compared to other .seas, allow the navigator no sea-room 
an storms, which often rage with great fury in spring and autumn : 
for, in whatsoever direction he is sailing, he may, with a moderate 
wind, reach either shore every twelve hours. JJence, scarcely any 
year elapses without some shipwrecks on the coast of Iliddensec, 
"Wittows, Tasimind, or Alonchgut, though somHisies they wilfully 
run aground, when the ship and cargoes arc injured tp a great 
amount. 

In the. most ancient times, a number of regulations h^vc been 
issued for assisting the distressed crew, and preserving the 
cargo. As soon as a ship hoists out a signal of distress, the inha- 
bitants near the coast are to hasten to her assistance, and endea- 
vour first to save the people on board, and their ship's materials 
and cargo. Whoever arrives first is entitled to the preference of 
a salvage ; but if any of the inhabitants belonging to tlie'samc 
jurisdiction in which the ship is wrecked, should arrive at the s;irre 
time with strangers, in such case, the former have the preference ; 
but no person is, under a heavy pmalty, allowed to enforce his 
service, if the crew are alone able to save. The salvage is settled 
according to the Swedish sea-laws. If the articles saved are worth 
sixty-six dollars, or less, the half is deducted for salvage ; if it 
exceeds the sum above-mentioned, and - amounts to 24.0 rix- 
dollars, then the fourth part is deducted foe salvage. And if, 
notwithstanding, the value of the goods saved be greater than the 
sum above-mentioned, still no more than sixty rix-do!lars are 
allowed, unless the exertions and danger were extraordina.y. On 
the whole, equity is strongly recommended. The goods saved 
must be taken care of by the magistrates, and lord of the manor 
in whose jurisdiction the ship is wrecked ; and for a moderate 
recompense, be brought to their own territory, after which they 
are immediately to give information to the " Royal (Liceist 
Contoirs) for Shipwrecks." Of laie years a public authorised 
commissary has been appointed, whose duty it is to sec, that in. 
saving the goods, as well as in the public sale by auction of the 
cargo and ship's materials (at which a sworn notary-public takes 
down all the particulars in writing), every attention is paid t 
equity and justice. This regulation has taken place in consequence 
of certain, abuses that were formerly stated to exist ; v hence 
several of thoae odious tales of the refusal of the peasants and 
fishermen to save the unfortunate cre\vs, and all those stories of 
profligacy on these occasions, of th'jir outrageous robberies au^ 



288 NAVAL ANECDOTES, 

frauds, may possibly have some foundation. At least, it is 
reported, that the inhabitants of the coast rejoice when a ship 
runs aground, because then they are sure to get something by it ; 
and that they interpret the prayer of their clergy, " Heavens 
preserve the wreck," in the following manner: " the Lord grant 
plenty of shipwrecks." I had, however, for the honour of these 
people, rather believe the latter explanation to be calumny : for I 
know that the inhabitants of Wittows in particular, have, of 
late years, proved themselves extremely undaunted and disin- 
terested, and have frequently encountered the most tremendous 
hurricanes to preserve the lives of their brethren. TOUR TUROUH 
RUGEN. 

FRENCH VIGILANCE. 

Mil. MEDFORD, the American, in his Observations on Euro- 
pean Courts^ attributes the present ascendancy of France to that 
change in her system, by which merit alone is regarded as a qua- 
lification for public office; and the inferiority of the other powers, 
to their adherence to the old and opposite system; arid he adds, 
that unless France shall relapse into the old, or the other powers 
of Europe shall adopt her new system, France must continue its 
present superiority. We recommend these just reflections more 
particularly to the notice of the Admiralty Board. There is also 
a fact mentioned at the close of this excellent pamphlet, which 
merits the notice of our government : 

tl The French arc very attentive to the discovery of what is 
going on in other nations. As an instance: upon my arrival at 
Calais, in August, 1801, from Germany, by way of Paris, just after 
Lord Nelson had made his first attack on the flotilla at Boulogne, 
I discovered that the French were in possession of all the plans of 
St. James's, respecting the attack. When I called on Mons. 
Mango, the Prefect, for a passport, he immediately informed me, 
that Lord Nelson was going to make another attack, and until 
that was made, he would not permit me to embark ; at the same 
time, he observed, that there was an order in England, which 
would prevent ray landing at Dover, as several persons had been 
sent back." 

This anecdote proves the existence and activity of that system of 
secret intelligence, which puts the enemy in possession of most of 
our projected operations, before they can be put into execution. 
There is no past of our police that ought to be more vigilant than 
tho'superintendance of foreigners iu this country. 



COMMERCIAL HINTS, RECOLLECTIONS, &C. 289 

TREASURERSIIIP OF THE NAVY. 

The following is a copy of the Bill as amended by the Com- 
mittee, for regulating the office of Treasurership of his JSIii- 
jesty's Navy : 

Whereas it is expedient to provide a further security to the 
public against the possibility of abuse, in drawing for money 
issued for the service of the navy. 

Be it therefore enacted by the King's most excellent Majesty, 
by and. with the advice and consent of the Lords Spiritual and 
Temporal, and Commons, in this parliament assembled, and by the 
authority of the same, that from and after the passing of this act, 
no Treasurer of the Navy for the time being, or any other person, 
or persons authorized by him, shall draw upon the governor and 
company of the Bank of England for any sum or sums of money, 
unless the same shall be intended for immediate application to 
navy services ; and if any such money so drawn for shall not 
be immediately so applied, it shall not be lawful for the Treasurer 
of the Navy, or any such person or persons as aforesaid, to place 
or deposit the same, or any part thereof, in the hands of any other 
person or persons whatsoever, except such person or persons as 
shall be usually, and according to the course of the navy pay- 
office, actually employed in the payment of such money to the per- 
sons legally entitled to receive the same. 

And be it further enacted, that every Treasurer of the Navy, or 
other person or persons so offending against this act, and being 
thereof convicted in due course of Jaw, shall be for ever thereafter 
rendered incapable of holding or executing the office of Treasurer 
of the Navy, or any office under the Treasurer of the Navy, or 
any place or employment in the office of the Treasurer of the Navy, 
or any other civil office whatever under his Majesty, his heirs or 
successors. 

REMARKABLE COINCIDENCE OF EVENTS IN THE LIFE OF 
CAPTAIN FALKINGIIAM. 

The following very singular coincidence is recorded on the tes- 
timony of a gentleman very nearly connected with the late 
Captain Falkingham : 

He was captured in the Shoreham, the vessel he commanded in 
the merchant-service, on the second of December. He was wrecked 
ia the Fogo on the same day of the year. He lost a considerable 



2(50 CORRESPONDENCE. 

property by fire in Barbadoes, on the second of December. He 
had frequently mentioned these circumstances to his friends, add- 
ing that he had no doubt, having met with three such disasters on 
the kame day of the year, that Providence would, at length, recom- 
pense him by rendering it the happiest of his life. He died on 
the second of December, 1777. It is needless to say any thing 
farther. 



CORRESPONDENCE. 

MR. EDITOK, 

If" ET me strongly recommend to government, that, with our 
' A other Navigation Laws, they take care, at the close of the 
present war, to demand the restoration of the rightful honours 
which for many successive centuries, were paid to the British flag. 
A contempt, national as well as personal, always succeeds a neg- 
lect of forms ^-Johnson has impressively said, (< When the pale of 
ceremony is once broken down, Insult and rudeness soon succeed!" 
and I am fully persuaded, that had we not relaxed in the mainte- 
nance of those ceremonials due to the dignified superiority of our 
flag, we should have heard but of few, if any, of those confe- 
deracies of the northern states, which, from an impolitic laxity, 
have presumptuously been entered into, to insult our maritime 
power. How the paramount dignity of the British flag has been 
asserted, and how heroically fought-for through ages, the follow- 
ing authentic documents will proudly display : 

A. D. 

1200. King John, in claim of the sovereignty of the seas, had 
it enacted, " That if any of the commanders of his fleets should 
meet with those of foreign nations at sea, the masters of which 
refused to strike to the British flag, such ships or vessels, if taken, 
should be deemed good and lawful prizes, though the state to 
which they belonged should be at peace with England." 

1554. u A Spanish flfet of 160 sail, having Philip, their king, 
on board, on his way to England to espouse our Queen Mary, fell 
in with that of England, under the command of Lord William 
Howard, Lord High Admiral in the Narrow Seas, consisting of 
28 sail. Philip had the flag of Spain flying at the main-top-mast 
head, and would have passed the English fleet, without paying the 
customary honours, had not this gallant officer fired a shot at the 
Spanish adiiiralj and forced the whole Ue^t to strike their colo.ar?j 



CORRESPONDENCE, 291 

ind lower their top-sails, as *an homage to the English flag, 
before he would permit his own squadron to salute the Spanish 
prince !" 

1620. " On the 20th of October, a British fleet sailed from 
Plymouth, under the command of Sir Robert ilansell, consisting 
of six men of war, and twelve merchant ships, on an expedition 
against Algiers. On the 27th of November, the fleet anchored in 
the road, and saluted the fort, to which no return was made. Sir 
Robert Mansell remonstrated with the Dcy upon this insult offered 
to the English flag, which was settled in favour of England's right, 
after much negotiation. The admiral then sailed over to the coast 
of Spain, where he fell in with six French men of war, and obliged 
their admiral to strike his flag, and pay him the usual com- 
pliment." 

1629. " Hugh Grotius having written a treatise called Mart 
Ltiberum, endeavouring to prove the futility of the title claimed 
by the English on the dominion of the seas, Mr. Selden wrote 
another in answer to it, entitled, Mare Clansum, in which he very 
forcibly and incontrovertibly asserts the right we have so justly 
derived from our ancestors ; and to impress it firmly on the mindj 
not only of foreigners, but Britons, he says, that they have ati 
hereditary and uninterrupted right to the sovereignty of the seas^ 
conveyed to them from their ancestors^ in trust for their latent 
posterity." 

By tlje king's order, a copy of this book was ordered to be 
kept in his court of Admiralty, there to remain as a just evidence 
of our dominion of the sea. 

1635. " A junction havuig been formed of the French and 
Dutch fleets off Portland, for the purpose, vauntingly declared, of 
asserting what they termed their own independence, and to dispute 
that prerogative with the English, the king equipped and sent to 
sea a naval force, consisting of 40 ships of war, on the '26th of 
May ; but the combined enemy no sooner lu-ard of this ilect being 
in the Channel, than they quitted the coast, and thus Teft thef 
English in the undisputed possession of the sovereignty of 
the seas." 

1652. " Under the Protectorate many disputes arose between 
England and the Dutch, on the former insisting upon the compli- 
ment of the flag, and the sovereignty of the sea : the matter was 
soon brought to an issue. On the 14th of May, Commodore 
Young fell in with a Dutch convoy, escorted by three ships of 
war, from whom he civilly demanded the usus! honours to be paid 



292 CORRESPONDENCE. 

to the English flag. The Dutch commander positively refused to 
comply, giving as a reason that he had express orders from the 
states-general not to pay those honours which the English exacted 
from their ships in the Channel. Commodore Young, on this 
refusal, fired into the Dutch, which brought on a smart action ; 
but at length the Dutch ships struck, and, after paying the com- 
pliment, were allowed to proceed on their voyage." 
. " On the 18th of the same month, a more serious action 
happened, from a similar cause. Van Trouip got under weigh, 
and stood into Dover with the Dutch fleet, without paying the 
honours to the English flag. Admiral Blake was lying off Dover 
at that time, with 15 English ships of war, and seeing this marked 
djsrespect, ordered three unshotted guns to be fired from his own 
ship, which the Dutch admiral returned, by a whole broadside ! 
Blake, who was at this time sitting in his cabin after dinner with 
his officers, exclaimed, a I take this rather ill^ Mr. Van Tromp y 
that you should take my ship for a bawdy-house^ and now break 
my windows; but I must ses whether I cannot make you pay for 
mending them!" A most furious engagement instantly began: 
at first the whole of the Dutch fleet directed their fire at the 
English admiral ; but he was soon bravely supported by the rest 
of the ships, and Commodore Bourne joining at the same time 
with eight sail more, obliged the Dutch to bear away, though still 
superior in number, and seek shelter at the back of the Goodwin 
Sands, after having been most severely mauled. The ac-tion lasted 
from four in the morning till nine at night. One of the Dutch 
ships was taken, and another sunk."" 

1769. " In the month of June, a French frigate having 
anchored in the Downs, without paying the usual compliment to 
the British flag, Captain John Hoi well, who was the senior officer 
lying there in the Apollo frigate, sent an officer on board to 
demand the customary salute : the French captain refused to com- 
ply ; upon which Captain Ilolwcll immediately ordered the Hawk 
sloop of war to fire two shot over her ; which being done, the 
French commander thought proper instantly to salute." 

Although your readers will be highly gratified by the perusal of 
these records of heroic acts, which tended so much to exalt and 
maintain the maritime dignity of England, they must, as a natural 
consequence, experience considerable humiliation, when they 
reflect how long that dignity has been permitted to lie in a state of 
disgraceful abeyance. 

Tour's, &c. 

NAVALIS. 

Plymouth Dock, September 26. 



293 



MR. EDITOR, 

TTTIHE use of correct lists, in ascertaining, and throwing light on various 
-**- events of our naval history, hitherto so little thought of, has induced 
toe, in addition to my former communications, to send you the following 
official statement of his Majesty's ships and vessels in commission, with 
their disposition, in July, 1762. This, and another similar document in 
my possession, which is also at your service, were found among the 
papers of a person who occupied a high situation in the government of 
that period. S. C. S. 

Admiralty Office, \2th July, 1162. 
A LIST OF HIS MAJESTY'S SHIPS AND VESSELS IN COMMISSION, 

WITH THEIR PRESENT DISPOSITION'. 



IN T THE EAST INDIES. 



Rate. 


Ships. 


Commanders. 


Gns 


Men 


When sailed 
fromEngtand 


Disposition, 


3 


Norfolk 


fRear-Admiral Cornish \ 
1 Richard Kempenfelt $ 


74 


615 


Jan. 6, 1760 


-\ 




Lenox 
Grafton 


Robc-t Jocelyn 
Hvde Parker 


74 

70 


600 
520 


Apr. 14, 1759 
Mar. 6, 1758 






Elizabeth 


fRichard Tiddcman \ 
I Isaac Ourry t 


64 


495 


Mar. 10, 1757 




4 


Weymouth 


Richard Collins 


CO 


490 


ditto 






York 
Panther 
Medway 
America 


Henry Cowell 
William Newson 
John Bladcn Tinker 
Samuel Pitchford 


60 
60 
60 
60 


420 
430 

420 
420 


Apr. 14, 1759 
Jan. 6, 1760 
Mar. 6, 1760 
ditto 


Under the com- 
Vmand of Rear-Ad- 
miral Cornish. 




Falmouth 


William Brereton 


50 


350 


Apr. 14, 1759 






Chatham 


Thomas Lynn 


50 


350 


June 7, 1763 




6 


Ar^o 
Seaford 


Richard King 
John Peiglijn 


28 
20 


200 
160 


Feb. 29, 1762 
Jan. 30, 1761 






Seahorse 


Charles Catli. Grant 


20 


ICO 


Feb. 4, 1761 






Baleine 


Philip Affleck 


20 


160 


Comm. there 




Sto. ship 


Southiea-Caitle 


George Ourry 


44 


130 


Mar. 6, 1760 


j 


Hulk. 


Tyger 






- 














JaVJ 







WITH SIR GEORGE POCOCKk 


B 


Namur 


f Sir George Pocock } 
tJohn Harrison f 


90 


770 


Mar. S, 1762 


3 


Valiant 


(Hon. Augustus Keppel } 
lAdam Duncan J 


74 


665 


ditto 




Cambridge 
Dublin 


William Goostry 
Edward Gascoigne 


80 
74 


650 
650 


Mar. 26, ITfio 
ditto 




Dragon 


Hon. Aug. J. Hervey 


74 


650 


Oct. 30, 1761 




Temeraire 


Mathew Jarton 


74 


650 


Oct. 16, 176! 












im Bc-lleisie 




Culloden 


John Barker 


74 


650 


Sept. 7, 1760 




Temple 


Lxicius O'Brien 


70 


520 


Mar. 26, 1760 




Orford 


Mar. Arbuthnot 


70 


520 


Feb. 2.i, 1762 




Devonshire 


Richard Bickerton 


66 


520 


Apr 25, 1760 




Marlborough 


Molineux Schuldham 


68 


550 


Oct. 18, 1761 




Belle Isle 


Joseph Knight 


t>4 


500 


Mar. 5, 176Q 




Sterling Castle 


Michael Everett 


64 


480 


Sept. 5, 1760 




Hampton Court 


Alexander Innis 


64 


480 


Mar. 5, 1762 


4 


Oenance 


George M'Kenzie 


60 


420 


June 8, 1760 




Rippon 


Edward Jekyll 


60 


4'>0 


Mar. 5, 1762 




Nottingham 


Samuel Marshall 


CO 


4OO 


Oct. 18, 1761 




Pembroke 


John Wheelock 


60 


420 


Mar. 23, 1757 




Edgar 


Francis Samuel Drake 


60 


400 


Feb. 26, 1762 




Hampshire 


Arthur Usher 


50 


350 


Jan. 23, 1759 


6 


Dover 


Hon. P. J. Percival 


44 


250 


Apr. 18, 1761 




Alarm 


Charles Wolseley 


32 


3--'G 


Jan. 22. 1762 




Richmond 


John Elphinston 


30 


220 Feb. 8, 1762 


6 


Trent 


John Lindsay 


M 


200 July 24, 1760 




Echo 


John Lendrick 


24 


160 Apr. 2, 1759 




Mercury 


Samuel Gran. Goodall 


24 


160 Mar. 16, 1762 




Portmuhon , 


Thomas Lempriere 


34 


IW.Jan. 17, 1761 



. QoI.XVIII. 



294 



CORRESPONDENCE. 



Rate. 


Ship*. 


Commanders. 


(ins 


Me*. 


Whtu saiit-d 
tromKnglaiui 


Disposition. 


Frigate 
Sloop 


0>fctt5 

Bonctta 


Hon. Carles Napier 
LanceloWHolmes 


18 
10 


ISO 

80 


Jan. 7, 1760 




Cutter 


Lurcher 


James Walker 


C 


35 


Mar. 10, 1762 




Bumb 


Granado 






60 


Oct. 30, 1761 






Basilisk 


Robert Brire 




60 


Oct. 18. 1761 






Thunder 


Philip Boteler 




60| ditto 




3 


Centaur 
Alcide 


Arthur Forrest 


7-1 
64 


650 

500 


Jan. 17, 1761 

4uff 4 1*"01 


1 Ordered by Sir G. Pococfc 












IorT the Havanna. 




' 






13,510 





AT JAMAICA. 



Deptford 
Winchester 


Dudley Digges 
John l)alr\'inple 


bo 

M 


350 
360 


\ov.28, 1761 
Nov. ir,, 17111 


Sutherland 


Julian Leg'ge 


M 


330 


Apr. 25, 1761 


Penzance 


John Boyd 


1-1 


280 


Mar. 11, i;fio 


Stag 




32 


220 


Oct. 17, 1761 


Cerberus 


Charles Webber 


28 


2OO 


Jan. 1!J, 17.W 


Fowey 


Joseph Mead 


24 


160 


Au. <t, 1761 


Rose 


Francis Banks 


20 


IOO 


Nov. :>, I7i 


Glasgow 


Richard Cartcret 


20 


160 


Dec. 10, 1760 


Femtt 


Jaine.; Alms 


U 


!2J 


Mar. 30, 1761 


Port Royal 


John Hinxman 




80 


connn. there 


Centurion 


f Sir James Douglas ~) 
I James (Jalbraith J 


iO 


350 


July 24, 1760 


Boreas 


Samuel Uvcdale 


HI 


200 


Mar. So, 1760 


Viper 


Jolin I'rry 


10 


110 


Dec. 18, 1757 








3,095 





I Coming home with the 
I convoy trom Jamaica, 
r which was to sail about 

J the0thof June. 



AT TIIE LEEWARD ISLANDS. 


Foudroyant 


Robert Duff 


80 


650 


Oct; 20, 17'51 " 


. 


Vanguard 


Robert Swanton 


70 


520 


Oct. }, 1761 






John Hollnal 


64 


500 


ditto 




Falkland 


Francis William Drake 


50 


350 


Mar. 7, 1760 




Norwich 


William M 'Cleverly 


50 


330 


Apr. 6, 1700 




Rochester 


Thomas Burnett 


50 


350 


Apr. 25, 1761 




Woolwich 


William Bayne 


44 


380 


Oct. 30, 1760 




Repulse 
Crescent 
Levant 
Lizard 


John Carter 'Allen 
Thomas Collinjfwood 


32 
32 
28 
28 


aae 

2-2O 
2OO 
200 


Apr. IS, 1700 
Apr. 23, 1759 
Julv 23, 175!) 
Feb. 29, 1760 


Under the command 

r o{ 

Hoar- Admiral Rodnry 


Acta'on 


P. H. Gurry 


Cs 


200, 


Oct. 10, 1701 




Aquilon 


Chaloner Ogle 


28 


200 


Dec. 19, 1701 




Amazon 


Hasil Keith 


24 


160 


Aug. 7, 1761 


t 


Antigua 


John Ne',1 Pleydell 




100 


7 commissd. 




Guadeloupe 
Virgin 


Roger Williams 
Charles Buckner 




80 
80 


f there. 




Kinsale 






3O 












4,oyo 







IN NORTH AMERICA. 



Northumberland 
Squirrel 


fRt. Hon. Lord Colvillj 


70 
20 


536 
100 


Apr. 18, 1759 
Jan. 7, 1760 


1 Under the command of 
(. the Right Hon. Lord Col- 
{ vill. 


John Cleland 


Arundel . 
Intrepid 
Enterprize 
Porcupine 


Will Mainwaring 
John Hale 
John Houlton 
James Harmood 


S4 
60 
44 
14 


HX) 
420 
2HO 
125 


Dec. 40, 1761 

Aug. 14, 1701 
Jan. 24, 1702 
Sep. 22, 1758 


t Convoy to the troop? 
sfrom New York to air 
j George Pocock. 








1,680 







IN THE MEDITERRANEAN. 



Neptune 


(Sir Charles So*mders ~> 
IBrod. Hartwell S 


90 


770 


May 91, 1760 


Ordered home. 


Newark 


(Sir Piercv Brett } 
I Charles Inglis ) 


80 


665 


Jan. 24, 1762 




Thunderer 


Charles 1 Toby 


7t 


650 


July 81, 1760 


Under the command of 


Hercules 

Warspite 
Arogant 


Jervis Henry Porter 
W. S. Willttt 
John Amlierst 


74 
74 
74 


CM 

650 

l\bt> 


Julv 0, 1700 
Dec. 11, 1701 
Mar.iS, 1762 


yVice- Admiral Sir Charley 
1 Saunders. 


Dorsetshire 


John Campbell 


70 


Nov. 30, 1761 





Chichester 


John Klliot 


70 


520 


_Nov. 27, 1701 




Somerset 

bienftisajtt 


Edward Hughes 
i>vor^ Balliour 


:<> 

04 


S20 
iOO 


May 21. 17'il 
Nov. 30, 1761 


J 



595 



Kite. 


Ships. 


< urnnim'.lt fi. 


6;n 


Jfc*. 


,'( /;< a,ttii 
fr,::,il-:;:?tand 


Dfcpwitton. 


S 


Africa 


. \lex; u \et Mood 


64 


son 


Ore. ', .. 






lielliqueux 


Richard Edwards 


64 


500 


i'ell. ii. 170M 




4' 


Montagu 


William Ma.uell 


60 


4W 


N'nv. -2', 1761 






Dunkirk 


Kol'iTt i 1 


UD 




Mav -J.S 1760 






1'iriu 


Joim I'ers'isi-nn 


(iO 


4 .M 


May si, 






Auson 


Matthew -"Whitwell 


6O 


4-.' I 


Sept. (i, ITi-l 






Jcr_-ev 


Andrew Wilkinson 


6O 


400 


May 28, 






Pieston 


John l.vans 


M 


SM 


M.IV --'I. 17. i; 




1 


Uif 

I'alUis 


Charles .Meadows 
Mn ha' ! Clements 


W 
36 


SiO Jan. is, 1761 
lime 19, 17(iO 






riietis 


John Moutray 


3-J 


Dec. KS.-1737 




6 


Vestal 
Urn-lux 
Jrune 
Montreal 
Active 


Samuel Hood" 
Hon. J. ).. Cower 
George Ant. Tonyn 
William Howe " 
Herbert Sawyer 


}j 
9t 

3-> 


990 

v'-J, i 


.May l .. 
\ug. 28, 
Nov. -J6, 1761 

l)ic..!i, i7<;j 

Vnr. 10. 17M) 


In the Mediterranean, 
Bunder tlie common, 1 oj 
\ ire- Admiral SirChafl^f 
Saunacrs. 




Valeur 


Kobert Lambert 


M 


'.''' lo'iim. tlu-n 






Siicerness 


John Clark 


24 


16(i 


Jnnc -4. 






Ki.'iiiiin^ton 


Kobtrt Harbor 


90 


160 


Am;. 1--', I7d0 






Gibraltar 


Walter Griffith 


20 


100 


April 1, 171!.' 




Vrigate 


Favorite 


I'Uilip Pownall 


\r, 


12S 


M.-.v 1, I7M 




Moop 


SaltMh 


.Michael Kaerney 


14 


!U 


\pr. 1, 17.V. 




Bomb 


Tenor 


St. .lulin Chinery 




60 


Apr. 14, 17.W 






Internal 


Charles Koche 




60 


Mar. 30, 1761 






I'iredrake 


James Orrok 







ditto 






fr'urnare 


James Chaplen 




<* 


ditto 




Hulk 


Ipswich 






(If 






2 


Blenheim 


James Cranston 


PO 


7X) 


Afay -2S, 176i 


To relieve the Neptune. 


4 


Windsor 


Archibald Clcvland 


CO 


4'. 1 ' 


Sept. 11, 1761 


t'liiier the KIHK'." orders 














for renewing treaties with. 















tilt Burbary Stale*. 










13,815 







FOUKIGN- CONVOYS AM) ClU'IZERS. 


Viloop 
Buss 
Brig 

4 


?oree 
xindon 
iorec 
\ssistance 


ohn Hickes 
olm Hrown 
olm Howerbank 
Villiam Norton 


R 

i< 
M> 


so 

4:> 

4.i 


^ept. 13, 17W 
Mar. '.>, 
iimin. theie 
I'eb. J5, 176^ 


6 


>eal Castle 


George Tindall 


M 


160 


\pr. 10, 1762 


.> 


)aiuio 


Henry Martin 


38 




May ( , 


6 


Greyhound 


Thomas Francis 


20 


160 


June 16, 176-2 


;, 


Chesterfield 


John Scaife 


44 


8,00 


Dec. 4, 1761 
















5 


Launceston 
Gosport 


Edmhnd Affleck 
John Jmis 


44 

44 


88f 


\pr. 7, 176-2 
ditto 














e 


Aldborough 


M. Graham 


'X) 


Iftl 


Mar. 28, 17O2 


i 


Success 


John Botterell 




160 


June -23, 176-J 


4 
6 
Frigate 
i 


Antelope 
Syren 

Gramont 

Thames 


Thomas Graves 
Charles Duuglai 
1'atnek Mo4Utt 
John Kliot 


SO 

J4 

U) 

'. 


350 


June 5, 176-: 
Apr. Ji, l/6i 
Apr. -- 
ditto 



I Employed fnr the protec- 
j tion of Senegal 
Ditto at G-iree: 

ioiu- io St. Helena to con- 
oy the homeward-bound 
la->t hidiamen. 

Gone convoy to trai 
with troops on boaid to Se- 
iei;al, to return with the 
empty transports. 

Gone with the trade to the 
reward Ulands and Ja- 
naica, to remain at the 
alter. 

Gone to Cork, to convoy 
ictualltTb iiom thence to 

he Leeward Islands and 
Jamaica : to remain at the 
alter. 

Convoyed the trade to Vir- 
ginia, ice. and was to return 

rom thence the <-n<f of la.t 
month. Ordered by Lord 
Col\ill to convoy the troops 
:'ri uriN e York to Sir George 
Pocock. 

Coinin',' home convoy to 
mast ships, from New Eng- 
land. 

Convoy to the trade to Vir- 
ginia and Maryland. To 
return from thence with the 
homeward-bound trade in 
September next. 

Convoy to victuallers, and 
the trade to Nova Xotiri 
and Quebec; to return with 
the homeward-btmnd trade. 

Convoy to the trade to 
South Carolinaand Georuis. 
To attend on the ti. 
those provinces till further 
orders. 

[ Protecting the Newfound- 
I land Fishery. 

Cruizing off the island t> 
Madeira. 



296 



CORRESPONDENCE. 



Rate. 


Ships. 


Commanders. 


G'n.s 


Men. 


When railed 
from England 


Disposition* 




Blonde 


Arch. Kennedy 


'.it 


220 


Dec. 6, 17GO 


i Station between Oporto 


Sloop 


Jamaica 


George Burdon 


14 


125 


\Iar.2t>, 17<50 


/and theBayonne Islands. 


6 


Surprise 


Joseph Fraine 


24 


160 


Mar. 4, 17fiQ 


^Station between Lisbon 


Sloop 


Zephir 


John Lewis Gidoin 


to 


110 


June 6, 17C2 


/and the Borlings. 


4 


Lion 


Edward Le Cras 


fiO 


440 


May 19, 1762 


> Coming home with empty 


I 

a 


Hind 

Essex 


Philips Cosby 
Alexander Schomberjr 


20 
64 


160 
400 


ditto 
Juneai, 1762 


/ transports from Lisbon. 
To Belle Isle, to convoy 














Lroops from thenre to Lis- 














bon, and after waiting there 














five or six days, return with 














the trade 


* 


Venui 


Thomas Harrison 


36 


210 


June 28, 1762 


Gone with Prince of Meck- 














lenburg to Lisbon ; to return 














immediately. 





Unicom 


Charles Fielding 


28 


200 


June 4, 1762 


Gone with the Count de la 












from Ports- 


Lippe to Lisbon ; to return 












mouth. 


immediately. 




Renown 


Hon. Fred. Maitland 


23 


200 


At Plymouth 


Ordered to convoy trans- 














ports to Opnrto ; and when 














the merchants'effects areput 














on board, return with them. 




Dolphin 


Robert Keeler 


20 


160 


June 3, 1762 


Convoy to corn ships, &c. 
toLisbon, in her return from 














thence to call at Oporto, 














and into Ferrol, for intelli- 














gence. 


Frigate 


Postilibn 


Hugh Dalrymple 


18 


120 


May 23, 1762 


Gone with the trade t 
Viana and Oporto; then to 














cruize for a month between 














Cape Finisterre and the 














Borlings, and return with 














homew.ird-bound trade. 


Sloop 


Peregrine 


Edward Knowles 


10 


110 


Dec. 28, 1761 


Was sent to Lisbon with 
orders to commence hostili- 














ties against the Spaniards. 














Has not been since heard ot. 



WITH SIR EDWARD HAWKE. 



Royal George 


tf-\r Edward Hawke } 
> William Bennett 5 


100 


880 


Prince 
Ocean 


Henjamin Marlow 
William Langdon 


90 
90 


750 
750 


Princess Amelia 


r-His Royal Highness -j 
4 the Duke of York V 
?Right Hon. Lord Howe J 


80 


665 


Magnanime 
Hero 


John Montagu 
Hon. S. Barrington 


74 
74 


650 
650 


Nassau 
Revenge 
Prince of Orange 
Achilles 


Maurice Suckling 
Edward Vernon 
Samuel Wallis 
William Fortescue 


64 

fi4 
60 
60 


4SO 
480 
420 
420 


Kolus 


William Hotharn 


32 


220 


Tartar 
Martin 


John Knight 
Benjamin Caldwell 


28 
14 


20O 
125 


Swiftsure 


f-Sir Thomas Stanhopg } 
IR. Teale, acting per or- i 


70 


550 




der 












7,210 



After seeing the Valentine 
East India snip 200 leagms 
into the ocean, to repair to 
Sir E. Hawkes' rendezvous. 



AT BELLE ISLE. 



Mars 


Richard Spry 


74 


650 


Lancaster 
Prince Frederick 


James Sayer 
Jervis Maplcsden 


70 

1,4 


530 
4HO 


Dreadnought 
Southampton 
Wager 


Mathew Moore 
Charles Antrohus 
Thomas Fitzljerbert 


CO 
32 
24 


4*1 


Mortar 


John 8ymons 


10 


110 


9 MO 



Ordered into port to clean. 



CORRESPONDENCE. 



207 



IN BASQUE no AD. 



Rate. 


Ships. 


Commanders. 


Gns 


Men. 


**,. 


3 


Bellona 


i' Peter Dennis ) 
I Charles E1U s j 


74 


665 




8 


Sandwich 


Richard Norbury 


yo 


750 






Union 


I'homas Kvans 


90 


770 






Royal William 


Hugh Pigott 


4 


750 




3 


Fame 


Hon. John Byron 


74 


650 






Buckingham 


Peter Parker 


70 


i2o 






Burtbrd 


James Gambier 


64 


500 




4 
5 


Trident 
St. Florentin 
Lynn 


Benjamin Clive 
John Stanton 
Archibald Millar 


64 
(K) 
44 


500 

MO 
2HO 


r Under the command of Commo- 
dore Denis. 


6 


Phoenix 
Guarland 


Christopher Bethell 
Francis Renolds 


44 
24 


loo 


Ordered home. 


Bomb 


Mast 


John Hay 




60 




J-'ireship 


Vesuvius 


James Chads 




45 


Ditto. 




^Etna 


Michael Henry Pascall 




45 


Ditto. 




Roman Emperor 


William Locker 




4.S 






Raven 


Alan Gardiner 




45 


- 



DOWNS SQUADRON. 



c 


St. George 


Thomas Warrick 


W 


515' 


1 


4 


Portland 


Richard Hughes, jun. 


50 


350 




5 


Lowes tofl'e 


Walter Sterling 


32 


220 






Flora 


G. Nightingale 


32 


HO 






Diana 


William Adams 


32 


220 






Pearl 


Joseph Ueane 


32 


220 




6 


Maidstone 


Westun Varto 


>>) 


V'OO 


Under the command 


Frigate 


Pomona 


John Brooks 


IS 


130 






Nautilus 


Peter Forbes 


18 


125 


> of 


Sloop 


Fortune 


Samuel Cockfield 


14 


12.'. 






Kingsfisher 


James Worth 


10 


no 


Commodore Moore. 




Hazard 


Hon. H. St. John 


8 


00 




Homb 


Carcass 


Rt. Hon. Lord W. Campbell 




60 






Pelican 


Edward Mountford 




00 




JVeship 


Cormorant 


John Hamilton 




45 






Proserpine 


George Talbot 




45 


j 



EZAV&E SQUADRON. 



4 


Guernsey 


James Smith 


50 


350 




5 


Rainbow 
Adventure 


Mark Robinson 
Charles Middleton 


44 
32 


C80 
220 


Under the Command 




Tweed 


William Piuton 


32 


280 


of 


Ffipate 
Sloop 


Sardoirne 

FV 


Ij-muel Slmldharft 


J4 
8 


110 
80 


Commodore Young. 




Hambro's Prize 


Francis Lynn 


8 


70 






, 






1,330 





HOME CONVOYS AND CRUIZ 


Niger 


John iientinck 


32 


220 


-] . 












Arethusa 


Hon. Raby Vane 


32 


220 


>} 










\ i 


Coventry 
Saphire 


Robert Carpenter 
John Straclien 


2S 
32 


900 
220 


jl 
At 

turn 


Juno 


Henry Philip Towry 


32 


220 


At 

tlm 










and 










50 1 


Torrington 


Charles I.u<'as 


30 


200 


Co 

will 


Looe 


Taylor Penny 


30 


250 


IAI 


Milford 


Joim ReynoWi 


28 


BOO 


y/ii 


Shannon 

Mermaid 


Kicnard iiraithwaite 
Jamos Watson 


K 

28 


20O 
'200 


l c 
i* 


i 






1 



~\ Cruizing to intercept three flute* 
loaded with provisions for the West 
Indies. After continuing on this 
'service three weeks, to proceed off 
Ferrol and O]iori for intelligence, 
j then return to England. 
At Plymouth refitting, ordered to re- 
turn to her station oil' Tory Island. 
At Plymouth. Ordered to cniiie :V>r 
three weeks, between the latitudes 48 
and 51 decrees, nor'h, not exceeding 
SO league? t the westward of Scilly. 
Convoy to the Ualtir, and to return 
ith the homeward-bound trad.:. 

Attends the Bristol Trade. 
Cruizing off Bvi-si 
Sent for into Plymouth 



298 



COnRESPO.NDEN'eE. 



Hate. 


Ships* 


Commanders. 


Gn, 


Men. 


Disposition. 




^iverpool 


Richard Knight 


28 


200 


At Plymouth. To cruize for thref 












weeks, between the Isle of Bas and 












IJshant, and then to return to Ply- 












mouth. 




Rye 


ames Innis 


il 


160 


Cruizing between Yarmouth and 












'lambro Head, and convoys the trade, 












occasionally, to Holland. 


I 


Solebay , 


ohn Wilson 


ii 


160 


Gone convoy to some Hudson's Bay 












hips, 100 leairues westward of the 












Orkneys, then to return to the Nore. 




^ively 


ion. Keith Stewart 


30 


160 


Cruizing (with the Kanger) between 












ioly Land and liurhanness. 




? lam Borough 


Samuel Thompson 


*> 


1GO 


(ione convoy to the transports to the 












Weser and back. 




Scarborough . 


John Scott 


iO 


160 


Convoyed tin- Draught, from New- 












castle to the Wu.ier, coming home with 


Frigate 


1'amar 


Thomas Lee 


16 


185 


he empty transports. 
Constant convoy to cattle ships, &c. 












>etween Cork and'Belle Isle, and Basque 












toads. 




lacehorse 


fohn M'Cartney 


1C 


125 


Gone convoy to the Baltic, and to re- 












urn with the hoiiifward-b'iund trade. 




Escorte 


lohn Bagster 


1* 


110 


Gone with the trade to Miltord, to re- 












urn to Plymouth. 


Sloop 


tlbany 


rhnmas Symonds 


14 


ttt 


At Spithead. 




Weazle 


"faucis Richards 


16 


12i 


Gone to convoy some ships down the 
Channel. 




Scorpion 


lohn Henshaw 


14 


H.i 


Otj Brest. Ordered into Plymouth. 




Swan 


lacob Lobb 


14 


1S3 


Cruizing between Harwich and Hd- 












iietsluys, for the protection of the 












uickct boats. 




Despatch 


rlon. Pere Bertie 


14 


125 


Cruizing between Holy Island and 












jnchanness, till further (irder. 




Sound 


Robert Carre 


14 


125 


Protects the .Shetland Kisherj-. 




tryall 


James Cunyngham 


1 + 


l-ih 


Goiitto DuMin, i< convoy some linen 


m 










ships from thence t<> the Downs. 




Swallow 


James M'Kenzie 


14 


Ii5 


Gone to Liverpo.4 v by Hear- Admiral 












Durell's order 1 to attend tlie impress at 












that port till the return of the Hawke. 




Senegal 


William Forstcr 


14 


1-25 


Gone with an express to Sir Edward 












Hawke. 


1 


ffedger 


Henry Scott 


13 


in 


Protects the 1 Iceland Fishery. 




Diligence 


William Usborap 


10 


no 


Gone off Brest to recall the Mermaid 












and .Scorpion. 




Hawke 


Kichurd Smith 


10 


110 


Employed on the impressing service at 












Liverpool, coming with seme new 












raised men to Plymouth. 




Otter 


Francis Davis 


10- 


110 


At Plymouth; "when refitted, to ex- 
ecute former orders for attending the 












trade of Exeter. 




Spy 


Thonias Hayward 


10 


110 


Convoy with the Torrington to the 












Baltic trade 




Hunter 


James Ferguton 


10 


110 


Convoy to transports (with the Ham- 
>rf>) to the Woser, and return with the 












empty transports. 




Lynx 


isir Alexander Holborne 


10 


< 100 


Constant convoy to victuallers, &c. 












leiwten Cork, Belle Hie, and Basque 












Koad. 




Druid 


John Luttri-H 


10 


w 


Comingwiththe trade from Plymouth 












to St. Helen's, to return to Plymouth 






& 






and clean. 




Happy 


Hugh Bromedge 


8 


HO 


Cruizing till further order, between 
Harwich and Hamhro' Head, for pro- 












tection of the fisheries on that coast. 




Speedwell 


William Kite 


8 


8( 


Cruizing between the Lands-end and 












the Lizard. 




Wolf 


William Long 


8 


80 


Cruizing between the Lizard and 












Dodman ; to continue on this station 












till relieved by the Savage. 




Peggy 


Lieutenant C. Hudson 


8 


80 


Cruizing between the Lizard and 












Ram head. 




Kanger 


George Douthwaite 


8 


6t 


Cruizing (with the Lively) between, 




Cruizer 


Charles Leslye 


8 


fr' 


Holy 1. viand and Buchannr^. 
Protects the Mackrull Fishery on the 












coast of Norfolk. 




Laurel 


.lohn Millipcn 


a 





At Pool, raising men. 


Cutter 


$wifi 


George B<m\. r 


10 


SO 


F.mploved on the impress service at 












Liverpool. 


Bomb 


Baltimore 


Stephen Hammiek 




()0 


Coming with a tender, with impressed 












men ou board, from Newcastle to the 








1 


- 


Nore, 






1 


6,0i 





CORRESPONDENCE. 



293 



IN 7 PORT, FITTING OH REFITTING. 



Kate. 


Ship*. 


Coir.maniicr.-i, 


Gns 


Men. 


Disposition. 


3 


Kent 


Robert Faulkener 


74 


650 


At Longreach, taking in her guns. 




Shrewsbury 


Rueh Palliser 


74 


650 


At Portsmouth, refitting. 




Torbay 


William Brett. 


74 


650 


At Plymouth, do. 




Cornwall 


Robert Maun 


74 


650 


do. do. 




Superb 


Joshua Rowley 


74 


6iO 


At Portsmouth, do. 




M on mouth 


John Storr 


64 


480 


At Plymouth, do. 




St. Anne 


William Harman 


64 


iOO 


At Portsmouth, fitting for foreign 












service. 




Bedford 


William Martin 


04 


480 


Fitting out. 


4 


Roniney 


Hon. If. B. VVaUinghatn 


5O 


350 


At Woolwich, do. 


I 


Prince "Edward 


Thomas Willis 


44 


280 


In Plymouth Sound. 




Chester 


William Hay 


40 


850 


At Plymouth, lining out. 




Melampe 


John Clerltf: 


.Sli 


240 


At Spithead. 




Brilliant 


James Loggie 


36 


840 


At Plymouth, refitting. 




Minerva 


Joseph Pcvton 


M 


2-20 


At Portsmouth, do. 




Emerald 


Timothy Elwafds 


32 


220 


At Hull, fitting out. 




Lark. 


Thomas shirli'j 


32 


220 


At Longreach, taking in her guns, 




Boston 


Sir Thomas Adams, Dart. 


32 


220 


At Deptford, lining out. 




Humber 


Rirhcrrd Oiislow 


3* 


200 


At Sliterness, tilting out. 





Ludlow Castle 


Thomas Halium 


24 


1BO 


Al Dt-ptt'ord, repairing. 




Nightingale 


John lirisbane 


24 


160 


At Woolwicii, refitting. 




Terpsichore 


Hon. John Ruthven 


24 


IliO 


At Sheemess, do. 


Armed 


George 


Thomas Male 


24 


100 


At Plymouth, do. To return to 


vessel. 










Cork, and execute former orders for 






- 






attending the impress at that port, {*c. 


Frigate 


Merlin 


William Francis Bourke 


18 


130 


At the Nore, ready all but men. 


Store-eh 


Crown 


Jam 06 Fealtus 


22 


120 


At Woolwich, fitting to carry stores 












to Gibraltar. 


Sloop 


Beaver 
Epreuve 


William Abdy 
Peter Blake 


14 
14 


125 
125 


At Plymouth, refitting, 
do. do. 




Hornet 


George Johnstone 


It 


125 


At Sheerness, repairing. 




Alderney 


Uichard Urudutll 


10 


110 


At Woolwich, ready to proceed to 












Galleon's Reach to ta'ke in her guus. 




Harbadocs 


James Hawker 


to 


100 


At Plymouth, refitting. 




Savage 


George Peard 


8 


HO 


do. da. 




Wasp 


George Collier 


8 


80 


do. do. 


Tire-ili. 


Lightning 


Joseph Norwood 




45 


At Portsmouth, do. , 




Grampus 


John M -Bride 




45 


At Sheemess, fitting. 




Pluto 


William Allen 




45 


7 




Strombolo 


Mark Pattison 




45 


V At Woolwich, to be refitted. 




Salamander 


William William*. J 




45 


3 


Yacht 


Dorset 


William Wiiliamsof 


10 


50 


Attends on the government of Ireland. 




Fubbs 


Henry Richard Dubois 


8 


40 


-. 




Katharine 


Henry Marsh 


8 


40 


(. In the river. 


1' Augusta 


Charles Wray 





40 










9,120 





HARBOUR SERVICE. 



1 


Royal Sorcreign IRobert Hathoro 


BO 


670 


At Spithead. 


2 


Duke 


Samuel Graves 


fO 


770 


At Plymouth. 




Princess Royal 


John I aikingham 


yo 


465 


Ordered from the Nore to Chatham, 












to refit. 


3 

4- 


Captain 
Princess Mary 


Hon. George Falconer 
James Shirley 


64 

00 


400 
300 


In Sea Keach. 
At Blackstak.es, fitted to lie in Sea 












Reach. 


p-sh 


Princess Caroline 


Lt. John Foster 




41 


At Sheerness. 




Canterbury 
Rupert ' 1 
Rubv 1 


Lt. Will. Mainwaring 
Lt. John Ffaser 




50 
28 
10 


> At Plymouth. 




Phtthix JLt. Isaac Crouch 




'" 


At Tower Wharf. 








8,750 






300 



CORRESPONDENCE* 



ABSTRACT. 



Rate. 


i'ftl/K. 


Men, 


Rate. 


Skips. 


M<-n. 




5 ' 

la the East Indies < 6 
/Store-*h 
*-Hulk 


4- 
7 
4 
1 
1 


2i30 
280O 
680 
130 


I 
2 
3 
4 
5 


1 
2 
6 
2 
1 


880" 
1500 
3445 
840 I 
320 


1 

,With SirEd*d Hawke. 




1" 


5,840 


6 


1 


200 1 


















^ 2 


I 


770 




14 


t 7,210 




3 

4 
5 

With Sir George Pocock 6 
Frigate. 
Sloop 


16 

6 
3 

4 


8635 
2410 
69O 
680 
130 


3 

4 
5 
6 

Sloop 


3 
1 
1 

1 
1 


1650, 
420 / 
221) \ 
1601 
110, 


At Belle Isle. 


Cutter 


1 


35 




7 


J,V>0 




.Bombs 


3 


180 














l*,0'!O 


3 


5 


2835 , 


' 


f M 

At Jamaica < Sloop 


3 

2 
4 
2 


I05Q 
500 
68O 
2O5 


4 
5 
6 
Bomb 
Fire-sh. 


1 
2 
1 
1 

4 


420 
560 
IfiQ 
60 1 
180, 


>In Basque Road. 


Ic 4 


1 


350 




17 


fi,J85 




Coming home! J 6 
LiSloop 


1 

1 


eoo 

110 


2 


1 


SIS, 


| 




14 


3,oy:. 


5 


4 


880 


f 


f 3 

At the Leeward Islands s jt 


3 
3 
3 


1670 
1050 
720 


6 

Frigates 
Sloops 
Bombs 

Fire ih p. 


1 
2 
3 
2 
2 


200| 
2.V5 I 
2PS 
120 ' 

B(M 


.Downs Squadron. ; 


I Sloops 


3 


260 




16 


-!,70.i 




(.Hulk 


1 


30 


4 


I 


3501 






IS 


4,fii*> 


b 
Frigate 
Sloops 


; 

H 


720 ( 
110 

)50J 


Havre Squadron. 


5 * 


L 


42O 




7 


1,330 




la Korth America < 5 

I 6 

^Sloop 


1 
2 
1 


980 
320 

125 


6 


6 
10 


isoo"! 

1800 








1,680 


Sloops 


24 


25OO( 


' cruisers. 


r s 


2 


1590 


Cutter 
Bomb 


1 
1 


30' 
60. 




3 


11 


635 




45 


6,050 




4 
5 

In the Mediterranean r> 
Frigate 
Sloop 
Bombs 
.Hulk 


8 
6 
5 

1 
1 

4 


3200 
1340 
MO 
lt 

125 
240 
CO 


3 

4 
5 
6 
Ann-ves 
Frigates 


8 
1 
9 
3 
1 


4710, 
350 

2O90 
5OO 
100 

1.10 


In Port, fitting or re- 
fitting. 




:W 


13,815 


Sloops 


7 


725 




-. 3 


1 


500 


Fire-sh. 
Yachts 


5 
4 


255 
170^ 




f < 


3 


1120 




40 


.0,120 




5 

Foreign convoys and I 6 
cruizers. "l Frigates 
1 Sloops 
1 Buss 
'-Brig 


7 
10 
2 
4 
1 


1740 
1680 
345 
395 
45 
45 


1 
2 

4 
Ho:p-s i 


1 
2 
t 
1 

5 


670> 
Iii5 1 
400^ 

sool 

145 j 


-Harbour Service.- 
1 






1 V70 




10 


2,7*0 





GENERAL ABSTRACT. 



Hate. 


i /i ;/>>. 


Men. 


Rate. 


Ships. 


Alrn. 


1 


2 


1550 


Bomh-vessels 


11 


<!CO 


* 


11 


7H10 


Store-ships 


| 


3MJ 


3 


58 


32955 


Armed vessel 


1 


100 


4 


4O 


15430 


Cutters 


2 


35 


5 


48 


IIJ(X) 


Yachts 


4 


170 


6 


52 


9100 


Brigantine 


1 


45 


Frigates 


11 


1355 


Buss 


1 


45 


Sloops 
Fire-ships 


51 
11 


5205 
495 


Hospital-sb. 
Hulks 


5 
3 


145 

90 


General Total 


314 


*fi,7in 



301 



STATE PAPER; 

OR, 

DECLARATION OF HIS BHITANNIC MAJESTY. 



HIS MAJESTY owes to himself and to Europe a frank ex- 
position of the motives which have dictated his late mea- 
sures in the Baltic. 

His Majesty has delayed this exposition only in the hope of that 
more amicable arrangement with the court of Denmark, which 
it was his Majesty's first wish and endeavour to obtain, for which 
he was ready to make great efforts and great sacrifices; and of 
which he never lost sight even in the moment of the most de- 
cisive hostility. 

Deeply as the disappointment of this hope has been felt by his 
Majesty, he has the consolation of reflecting, that no exertion was 
left untried on his part to produce a different result. And while 
he laments the cruel necessity which has obliged him to have 
recourse to acts of hostility against a nation, with which it was 
his Majesty's most earnest desire to have established the relations 
of common interest and alliance, his Majesty feels confident that, 
in the eyes of Europe and of the world, the justification of his 
conduct will be found in the commanding and indispensable duty, 
paramount to all others amongst the obligations of a sovereign, 
of providing, while there was yet time, for the immediate seciisity 
of his people. 

His Majesty had received the most positive information of the 
determination of the present ruler of France to occupy, with 
a military force, the territory of Hoi stein for the purpose of 
excluding Great Britain from all her accustomed channels of com. 
miinication with the continent ; of inducing or compelling the 
court of Denmark to close the passage of the Sound against the 
British commerce and navigation ; and of availing himself of the 
aid of the Danish marine for the invasion of Great Britain and of 
Ireland. 

Confident as h Majesty was of tbe authenticity of the sources 
from which this intelligence was derived, and confirmed in the credit 
\\hichhegavetoit, as well by the notorious and repeated de- 
clarations of the enemy, and by his recent occupations of the 
towns and territories of other neutral states, as by the prepara- 
>. Cfcron. ftol.XVIII. 9. R 



302 STATE PAPER. 

tions actually made for collecting a hostile force upon the frontiers 
of his Danish Majesty's continental dominions, his Majesty would 
yet willingly have forborne to act upon this intelligence, until the 
complete and practical disclosure of the plan had been made mani- 
fest to all the world. 

His Majesty did forbear, as long as there could be a doubt of 
the urgency of the danger, or a hope of an effectual counteraction 
to it, in the means or in the dispositions of Denmark. 

But his Majesty could not but recollect that when, at the close 
of the former war, the court of Denmark engaged in a hostile con- 
federacyagainst Great Britain, the apology offered by that court 
for so unjustifiable an abandonment of a neutrality which his Ma- 
jesty had never ceased to respect, was founded on its avowed 
inability to resist the operation of external influence, and the threats 
of a formidable neighbouring power. His Majesty could not but 
compare the degree of influence which at that time determined the 
decision of the court of Denmark, in violation of positive engage- 
ments, solemnly contracted but six months before: with the in- 
creased operation which France had now- the means of giving to 
the same principle of intimidation, with kingdoms prostrate at 
her feet, and with the population of nations under her banners. 

Nor was the danger less imminent than certain. Already the 
army destined for the invasion of Ilolstein was assembling on the 
violated territory of neutral Hamburgh. And Ilolstein once oc- 
cupied, the island of Zealand was at the mercy of Frauce, and the 
navy of Denmark at her disposal. 

It is true, a British force might have found ils way into the Bal- 
tic, and checked for a time the movements of the Danish marine. 
But the season was approaching when that precaution would no 
longer have availed ; and when his Majesty's fleet must have re- 
tired from that sea, and permitted France, in undisturbed security, 
to accumulate the means of olience against his Majesty's domi- 
nions. 

Yet, even under these circumstances, in calling upon Denmark 
for the satisfaction and security which his Majesty was compelled 
to require, and in demanding the only pledge by which that se- 
curity could be rendered effectual the temporary possession of 
that fleet, which was the chief inducement to France for forcing 
Denmark into hostilities with Great Britain ; his Majesty accom- 
panied this Demand with the offer of every condition which could 
^end to reconcile it to the interests and to the feelings of the court 
f f Denmark. ' 



STATE PAPER. 303 

It was for Denmark herself to state the terms and stipulations 
which she might require. 

If Denmark was apprehensive that the surrender of her fleet 
would be relented by France as an act of connivance, his Majesty 
had prepared a force of such formidable magnitude, as must have 
made concession justifiable even in the estimation of France, by 
rendering resistance altogether unavailing. 

If Denmark was really prepared to resist the demands of France, 
and to maintain her independence, his Majesty proffered his co- 
operation for her defence naval, military, and pecuniary aid ; 
the guarantee of her European territories, and the security and ex- 
tension of her colonial possessions. 

That the sword has been drawn in the execution of a service 
indispensable to the safety of his Majesty's dominions, is matter 
of sincere and painful regret to his Majesty. That the state and 
circumstances of the world are such as to hare required and justi- 
fied the measure of self-preservation, to which his Majesty has 
found himself under the necessity of resorting, is a truth which his 
Majesty deeply deplores, but for which he is in no degree respon- 
sible. 

His Majesty has long carried on a most unequal contest of 
scrupulous forbearance against unrelenting violence and oppres- 
sion. But that forbearance has its bounds. When the design 
was openly avowed, and already but too far advanced towards 
its accomplishment, of subjecting the Powers of Europe to one 
universal usurpation, and of combining them by terror or by 
force in a confederacy against the maritime rights and political 
existence of this kingdom, it became necessary for his Majesty 
to anticipate the success of a system, not more fatal to his interests 
than to those of the powers who were destined to be the instru- 
ments of its execution. 

It was time that the effects of that dread which France has in- 
spired into the nations of the world, should be counteracted by an 
exertion of the power of Great Britain, called for by the exigency 
of the crisis, and proportioned to the magnitude of the dnn^r. 

Notwithstanding tho declaration of war on the part of the Da- 
nish government, it still remains for Denmark to determine whe. 
ther war shall continue between the two nations. His Majesty 
still proffers an amicable arrangement. He is anxious to sheathe 
the sword which he has been most reluctantly compelled to draw. 
And he is ready to demonstrate to Denmark and to the world, that 
having acted solely upou the sense of what was due to the security 



304 CORRECT RELATION OF SHIPWRECKS. 

of his own dominions, he is not desirous, from any other motive, 
or for any object of advantage or aggrandizement, to carry mea- 
sures of hostility beyond the limits of the necessity which has pro- 
duced them. 

Westminster , Sept. 25, 1807. 



CORRECT RELATION OF SHIPWRECKS. 



No. XX. 

Again the dismal prospect opens round, 

The wreck, the shore, the dying, and the drown'd. 

FALCONER.. 



AFFECTING NARRATIVE. 

Copy of Henry Ellard's Narrative of the Loss of his Majesty's 
Schooner Felix, dated off Santunder. 

HONOURED CAPTAIN, 

IT TAKE the liberty of sending you these few lines to inform 
-UL you of our misfortune of being cast away in your schooner, 
on the night of the 2?d January last, between twelve and three in 
the morning, on the coast that lies opposite the fort, at the en- 
trance of Santander, where every soul perished but me, being 79 
in number, including nine prisoners that we got exchanged, being 
sent here for them as cartel. We arrived here on the 18th of the 
said month, got our prisoners on board on the 19th; after twelve, 
when it came on to blow so strong right in the harbour, that we could 
uot put to sea, being to anchor under the fort, from which they 
hailed us, ordering us to put to sea. We told them we could 
not, as the wind was right in the harbour ; .that if we did, we 
should be in great danger, as the weather looked bad, and the wind 
was right dead on the shore. They tolfl us, if we did not go out 
immediately, they would fire into us, which they did about eight 
o'clock, and at twelve in the night gave us another shot ; at four 
in the morning a third, it then blowing a gale ; and at eight in the 
morning fired again on us, so was forced to weigh anchor, but it 
was impossible to get out, the wind blowing so strong from the 
N. W. with a terible sea, which obliged us to anchor at the en- 
trance of the bay, the sea breaking over us every instant, and the 
gale still increasing. We rode out all that day in the greatest dan- 



CORRECT RELATION OF SHIPWRECKS. 305 

ger, was forced to haul dowu our cartel flag, and hoisted the Eng- 
lish Hag union downwards, and fired a number of guns in distress ; 
but no assistance attempted to come near us, though a French brig, 
as we have since heard, and several American merchantmen, of- 
fered to assist us, but the heads of Santander would not permit 
them to come near us. We stood in this state all the night of 
the 20th, the gale continually increa ing : on the 21st, we hove 
eight guns overboard, the sea running so high, that it washed our 
boat overboard, together with a great number of our hands, no 
one remaining on deck but what was lashed to different parts of 
the ship, in which we stood until the 22d, not knowing what to do, 
the sea running mountains high, nothing but death before our eyes. 
The captain, Lieutenant Mitchell, the pilot, and myself, were all 
that could be seen aboard ; the bulwarks being all stove in, we 
were lashed to the ring bolts, on the quarter deck, the sea flying 
over us every instant. About twelve, a sea carried away our masts 
and bowsprit, so that nothing remained but clear decks and a bare 
hull j we lay lashed until two in the morning, when a sea parted 
our cables, so that we did not know what to do. I spoke to Cap- 
tain Cameron, and persuaded him to jump overboard, that in five 
minutes we should be all to pieces on the beach, and murdered by 
the wreck; we immediately unlashed ourselves, and jumped over- 
board, where I held Captain Cameron by the head for some time, 
until the pilot or Mr. Mitchell laid hold of me by the leg, at 
which time I was obliged to let go Mr. Cameron, to clear myself; 
at length a sea hove me on shore, where I crawled upon my hands 
and knees, not being sble to walk, until I was clear of the sea, 
where I lay until half past six the next morning, almost dead, no 
person being there to assist me. I rose, and went towards the hills, 
but being so weak from the blood I lost from dreadful wounds I 
received on my head and several parts of my body, that I could 
not go any farther. At length, a Spaniard took me up, and 
dragged me to his house, where I lay for some time bleeding; 
at light they sent for a doctor, who dressed my wounds, and or- 
dered me to be put to bed. In this situation I lay several days, 
until I was a little recovered, when they took me from thence, 
and put me in prison, where I remain, naked, half starved to death, 
and eaten up with dirt and vermin jie one to assist me. The Eng- 
lish agent was once to see me, and told me he could not assist me, 
as the Spanish goverment had me in their charge, and only allows 
5d. per day, which scarce keeps in tv alive. 1 should be happy to 
be able to relate verbally to you all this, but I am afraid it. will be 



306 CORRECT RELATION or SHIPWRECKS. 

a long time, as I am kept so close confined. I should have sent 
you this account before now, but had no opportunity : at length a 
friend has offered to deliver this to our ambassador at Lisbon, to 
have it sent to you, &c. 



NARRATIVE OF THE VOYAGE AXD LOSS 

OF 

THE DUKE WILLIAM, TRANSPORT, 

WniCH FOUNDERED AT SEA, WITH UPWARDS OF THREE HUN- 
DRED FRENCH PRISONERS ON BOARD, IN THE YEAR 1758 I 
AND OF THE ESCAPE OF HER CREW, IN OPEN BOATS. 

Now first published, 

From the original Manuscript of Captain Nicholls^ her 
Commander. 

[Continued from Vol. XVII. page 485.] 

ON the 25th day of November, we sailed out of the bay of 
Canso. It ble\v strong at N. W. Captains Hurry, Beeton, 
Dobson, Sugget, Whitby, Kelsy, and myself, agreed to make the 
best of our way -to France with the people, and not to go to 
Louisbourg, as it was a very bad time of the year to beat on that 
coast. I was appointed to lead the fleet. We took leave of the 
agent, who was bound to Louisbourg. The third day after we 
had-been at sea, it blew a storm in the night, being thick, with 
sleet, and very dark : parted company with three ships of the 
fleet: the storm still continuing ; in a day or two parted company 
with the rest. The ship continued in very good order, and though 
the sea was mountains high, she Avent over it like a bird, and made 
no water. On the 10th of December, we saw a sail, which proved 
to be the Violet, Captain Sugget : on coming up, I asked how all 
were on board : he replied, in a terrible situation ; they had a great 
deal of water in the ship, her pumps were choked, and he was 
much afraid that she would sink before morning. 1 begged of 
him to keep up his spirits, and I would, if it were possible, stay 
by him, and spare him the pump which I got out of the Parnassus. 
I told him that, as the gale had lasted so long, I hoped after 12 
o'clock, it would moderate ; but unfortunately it rather increased. 
At changing the watch, at 12, 1 found that we went fast a head of 
him, and that before morning, if we did not shorten sail, we should 
run him out of sight. I consulted with Captain Moore and our 



CORRECT RELATION OF SHIPWRECKS. 307 

mate, what was proper to do (we were then scudding under 
the foresail and' treble reefed mainsail), and every one \vas unani- 
mous that the maintopsail should be taken in, as the only May to 
save their lives was by keeping them company till the weather 
should moderate. 

We then took in the maintopsail, and got our three pumps readj 
in case of necessity. The spare pump we had forced down an. 
after hatch way, and shipped it into an empty butt : of which the 
French had brought several on board to wash in. We aired them 
with spun yarn, to bail in case uf need ; and every thing being pre- 
pared^ we thought nothing could hurt us. Alas! we were too 
soon to find to the contrary. We thought now that the Violet 
gained on us ; and at 4 o'clock we saw him very plain, for which 
1 was quite glad. 

On changing the wa<ch, we found our ship ?till tight, and going 
Tery well, the carpenter assuring me there was no water to strike a 
pump. Being very tired with walking the deck so long, I thought 
I would go down and smoke a pipe of tobacco, to beguile the time, 
telling the mate to acquaint me immediately should there be any 
alteration. W r e had driven the bard next the lower part of the 
pump, to see how much water was in the well ; and every half 
hour, when the ball was struck, the carpenter went down. As he 
had yet found no water, 1 was quite happy in regard to our own 
situation. On my coming down, I bade a little negro boy that I had 
as an apprentice, to get me a pipe of tobacco. Soon ai'tcr I had filled 
and lighted my pipe, while sitting in the state room, I was^ thrown 
from the chair by a blow which the ship received from a terrible 
sea. I sent the boy to ask Mr. Fox (the mate) whether any 
thing was washed over. lie sent me word that all was safe, arid that 
he saw the V'iolet coming up fast. Being very much fatigued, I 
thought I would try to get a little sleep to refresh me ; and, with- 
out pulling off my clothes, threw myself on the side of the bed. 
Before my eyes were closed, Mr. Fox came and told me, that the 
carpenter had found the water above the keelson, and that the 
ship must certainly have sprung a leak. I immediately arose, and 
took the carpenter with me into the hold, and, to .my great sur- 
prize, found the water roaring in dreadfully. On examining it, 
I found it was a butt started, and the more wo endeavoured to 
press any thing in to stop it, the more the plank forsook the tim- 
ber. We then went on deck, to encourage the people at the 
pumps. I had made a mark with a piece of chalk 'to see how the 
water gained upon us. Finding our case desperate, I went to all 
the Frenchmen's cabins, and begged of them to rise; that their 



SOS CORRECT RELATION OF .SHIPWRECKS. 

lives were not in danger, but that their help was desired at the pump, 
as it would be of the greatest service. They accordingly got up, and 
cheerfully x assisted. By this time it was day light ; when, to our great 
surprize and concern, we saw the Violet on her broad-side, a little 
distance from us ; the fore yard broke in the slings, the foretopsail 
set, and her crew endeavouring to free her of the mizen mast; as I 
suppose she had just then broached-too by the foreyards giving way. 
It came on a most violent squall for ten minutes, and when it 
cleared up, we saw the poor unfortunate Violet, with near four 
hundred souls, was gone to the bottom ! I must needs confess it 
shocked the stoutest of us all, especially as our fate seemed to be 
near. I got all the tubs before mentioned, and made gangways, 
the French men and women (who behaved with uncommon re- 
solution) assisting. We then opened all the hatches, and as the 
water flowed fast into the hold, we filled the tubs and hauled 
them up, and turned them over the comings on the upper deck ; 
which, with three pumps constantly at work, and bailing out of the 
gun room scuttle, must have vented a la.ge quantity of water. A 
seam would not have hurt us; but the butt's end was more thaji we 
could manage ; though I flatter myself every method was tried we 
thought of service. We quilted the spritsail with oakum and 
flax, with one of the topgallant sails in the same manner, to see 
whether any thing would suck into the leak, to stop it ; but all in 
vain. We continued in this dismal situation three days; the ship, 
notwithstanding our endeavours, full of water, and expected to 
sink every minute. I had given all the liquor that we had kft on 
board to the people, and all the provisions ; the hold being full of 
water, and the ship swimming only by the decks being buoyed up 
with empty casks. The people, about six o'clock on the fourth morn- 
ing, came to me, and declared that they had done all in their power ; 
that the vessel was full of water ; and thai it was in vain to pump 
any more. I told them, I was convinced that what they said was 
but too true. I could not desire them to do more, for I was cer- 
tain that they had behaved as brave men, and that we must trust 
to Providence, as there was no expedient left for us to save our 
lives. I then acquainted the priest with our situation; that every 
method for saving the ship and lives had been used ; but that >ve 
expected the decks would blow up every moment. He seemed 
confused, but said he would immediately go and giVe his people 
absolution for dying; which he did, and I think a more melan- 
choly scene cannot be supposed, than so many people, hearty, 
strong, ^and in health, looking at each other with tears in their 
eyes, bewailing their unhappy condition. IS T o fancy can picture 



CORRECT RELATION OF SHIPWRECKS. 309 

the seeming distraction of the poor unhappy children, clinging to 
their mothers, and the wives hanging over their husbands, lament- 
ing their miserable fate. Shocking situation ! Words cannot 
describe it ! I then called the people to come with me down the 
main hatchway, and examine the leak in the hold. I told them we 
must be content with our fate ; and as we uere certain we had 
done our duty, we should submit to Providence, to the Almighty 
will, with pious resignation. 

I walked upon the dock with Captain Moore, desiring him to 
think, if he could, of an expedient to save us from perishing. \V ith 
tears in his eyes, he assured me he knew ol no method, as ve had 
made use of all that could be thought (if. Providence, I trust, put 
it in my mind to endeavour to hoist the boats out, that in case a 
.'hip should appear, we might save our lives, as the gale w;s more 
moderate. This 1 proposed to him. He said it. would be impos- 
sible; for every body would endeavour to get info them. I said, 
i thought otherwise, as the sailors had behaved with uncommon Re- 
solution under the severe trial, and were ve.y obedient to my corrf- 
maiuls. I llattered myself that they would still continue so, and 
they were all sensible, that in case the ship broached to, we must 
cut her masts away to hinder her from o\crsetting, and then it 
would be out of our power to hoist the boats out. VV e had tnrown, 
over all the booms, &c. oif the decks to case the ship. I then 
called the mates, carpenters, and men. and proposed getting our 
boats out ; at the same time acquainting them that it was to save, 
if possible, every soul on hoard; and that in case any person should 
be so rash as to insist upon going into the boats, beside those whom 
L -hould think proper, 1 would immediately scuttle them. They 
all solemnly declared that my commands should be as implici ly 
obeyed as though the ship were in her formergood condition. Such 
instances I believe are rarely to be found. 1 went and acquainted 
the head prisoner whom we had on board, wi h what we were going 
to attempt. FTC was a hundred and ten years old, was the father 
of the whole island, and had a number of children, grand children, 
and other relations on board. lie told me he was convinced that 1 
would not do a bad action ; as by experience, they had found what 
care 1 and my people had taken of (hem ; and likewise what endea- 
vours we had used to save the ship and their lives : they w ere there- 
fore ready to assist in any thing I should propose. 1 assured them 
that I would not leave them, but w ould run the same chance with 
ihem : and that 1 thought it the o ily method to save our lives, in 
rase Providence should send any ship to our assistance ; and that it 
certainly our duty to use ail the means given us. I asked Mr. 
, <ZT&ron, ftol, XVIII. s s 



310 CORKECT RELATION OF SHIPWRECKS. 

Fox and the carpenter if they were willing to venture in the long" 
boat ; they answered bravely that they were ; as, whether they died 
there or a mile or two farther oil, was a matter of very little conse- 
quence: and as there was no prospect but death if they stayed, they 
would willingly make the attempt. I proposed to Captain Moore, 
the carpenter, and mate, their going in the cutter, which they agreed! 
to. As the sea was too high to lower the boats into the water with 
"the runners and tackles, 1 told them we would get the cutter over the 
side, and have a proper painter made fast to her, before she dropped 
into the water ; and that they should have two axes to cut the run- 
ners and tackles when they should think it the most convenient 
time. We accordingly got the cutter over the sides ; and the 
ship lying pretty quiet, they cut the tackles, and she dropped into 
the water very well, and the painter brought her up. We went 
then to work with the long boat. Daylight was, thank Gotl ! fairly 
come upon us, which gave us great spirits, as we flattered ourselves 
that if it pleased the Almighty to send a ship, it would be in our 
power to save all our lives, as the weather was now brave and mo- 
derate to what it had been. The mate and carpenter cut the run- 
ners ; and the long boat fell into the the water as well as the cutter 
had done ; and, having a proper painter made fast, she brought up 
extremely well. 

There were people at the fore and matntopmast head's, to look 
out for a sail ; when, to our unspeakable joy, the man at the main 
topmast head, cried out that he saw two ships right astern, making 
after us. I went and acquainted the priest and the old gentleman 
with the good news. The old man took me in his aged arms, and 
cried for joy. I ordered the ensign to be hoisted to the main- 
topmast shrouds, and to get the guns all clear to fire. It was 
very hazy, and the ships were not far from us when we dis- 
covered them first. As soon as we hoisted our signal of distress 
they hoisted English colours, and seemed to be West India- 
men, of about three or four hundred tons. We kept loading and 
firing as fast as possible, when we perceived that they spoke each 
other; and, setting their foresail and topsails, they hauled their 
wind, and made from us. I, imagining that the bigness of the 
sh'p, and her having so many men on board, it being war time, 
might occasion a distrust, ordered the mainmast to be cut away, to 
undeceive thew. We had people all the time placed at the shrouds, 
to cut away in case of necessity. One of the shrouds, not 
being properly cut, cheeked the mainmast, and brought up right 
athwart the boats. I ran aft myself, and cut both the boats' 
painters, or else they would have beeu store to piece*; and sunk 



COIlREC'r. RELATION OF SHIPWRECKS. 311 

immediately. A dismal thing, to be obliged to cut away the only 
thing that could be the mearvs of saving our lives, and to see the 
ships so basely leave us ! No idea can reach our distress. Driven 
from the greatest joy to the utmost despair, death now appeared 
more dreadful. We had only the foresail hanging in the brails ; 
and the braces of both preventers being rendered useless, by the 
falling of the mainmast, and the yard flying backwards and for- 
wards by the rolling of the ship, we were fearful that she would 
overset directly. 

We ran from the boats till we could but just see them, and find- 
ing that they did not endeavour to join us, though they had each 
oars, foremast, and foresail, I consulted with the boatswain what 
was proper to be done in our dismal condition. I told him, that 
I thought, at all events, we should bring the ship to, though I con- 
fcfsed it a terrible attempt, to hazard her oversetting. He 
said it appeared too hazardous, as the vessel steered very well. 
However, finding that the men in the boats did not attempt to join 
MS, I called all the people aft, and told them my resolution. They 
said it was desperate, and so was their condition ; but they were 
ready to do whatever I thought best. Captain Moore seemed to 
be quite against it. I then acquainted the priest, the old gentle, 
man, and the rest of the people ; who -were pleased to say, that. 
Jet the consequence be what it would, they should be satisfied, I 
had acted for the best, and they were all resigned to what might 
happen. 1 ordered men to every foreshroud, and one, with an 
axe, to the foremast, to cut it away, in case I should have occasion 
to do so. 1 must say, that my situation was dreadful, to think 
that mv doing a thing, which, though in my o\vn judgment it was 
right, might be the means of sending nearly four hundred souls to 
eternity. But the Almighty gave me resolution to persevere in it. 
I gave orders to bring the ship to. In hauling out the mizen, 
which had been greatly chafed, it split. We then got a new stay- 
sail, and bent it to bring her to, which had the desired effect ; 
though it was along time first, and we were once afraid that we 
should be obliged to cut away the foremast, by a large sea strik- 
ing her on the starboard quarter. The next sea hove her to. and 
she stayed very well. When they saw from the yawl, that we were 
lying to for them, they shipped their foremast, and ran us on board. 
AS there was too much wind, and a large sea, to sprit the sail, 
they came on board holding the sheets in their hands. As soon as 
she came, I sent some men into her to row and fetch the long boat. 
They soon joined her, gather foiemast up, and set the sail, as did 
the cutter, and, to our great joy, came safe to us. 
[T be continued.] 



312 



PLATE CCXXXVIII. 

NEWCASTLE UPON TYNE. 

NEWCASTLE upon Tyne is situated in longitude 1 26' west, 
of Greenwich: latitude 55 1' north. It lies 271 miles 
north of London, 1 4 miles north of Durham, and 107 south of 
Edinburgh. 

This town is supposed, by Camden$ to be the Garbosentmn of 
the Romans ; afterwards to have been called Monkchcster ; to 
have taken the name of Newcastle, when it w.is rebuilt by Robert, 
the eldest son of William the Conqueror, who erected the castle ; 
and to have been subseqently called Newcastle upon Tyne, to dis- 
tinguish it from Newcastle undur Line, a borough town of Stafford- 
shire. In the year 1135, the town was taken by David I. 
King of Scotland, but was soon after restored to Kin:; Stephen. 
Tlu casile was repaired by King John, who added a ditch to the 
fortification ; and, in the year 1209, he held a conference there, 
with William the Lion, King of Scotland. Another royal con- 
ference was holdeii at Newcastle, in 1235, or 1236, between. 
Henry III. of England, and Alexander II. of Scotland. In 
the early part of the reign of Edward 1st, King Baliol did 
homage to him there. In the tenth year of Edward, Newcastle 
was amongst the first boroughs summoned to send representatives 
to parliament: its present members are. Sir Matthew White 
Ilidley, iiart. and C. J. Brandling, Esq. In this reign, also, a 
rich man, who had been taken .prisoner by the Spots, began the 
fortifications of the (own, after his ransom : they were completed 
by the mhaiutants. in the time of Richard II. who made Newcastle 
a corporation town: it is governed by a mayor, sheriff, and twelve 
aldermen. The wall is rather more than two miles in circum- 
ference, was formerly defended by towers, ami had seven gates. 
In the year 1346., Newcastle furnished seventeen ships and 31 4 
mariners, for the siege of Calais. In 164', it was taken by the 
Scots; and in 1C 14, after a long siege, it again fell into their 
hands. In the latter instance, Sir John Morlcy, the mayor, re- 
tired to the castle, with 500 men, and held out till terms of capi- 
tulation were obtained. The inhabitants saved the town by pav- 
ing a sum of money ; but the parliament disfranchised the corpora- 
tion, and ordered the mayor to be tried by a court-martial. 

Newcastle is situated, as its name imports, on the Tyne; over 
; from the bouth side, it bus a bridge, on which is a boun- 



PHILOSOPHICAL PAPERS. 313 

lary, dividing the county of Northumberland from the bishoprick 
of Durham, it possesses an excellent harbour, to which ships 
of 400 tons may come up with safety : those of a larger size gene- 
rally stop at Shields. The boats, which are introduced in the an- 
nexed plate, are called keels, apd are used for the purpose of con- 
veying coals down the river, to Shields, to vessel* lying at the 
quay, &c. They are nearly of an oval shape, being very broad 
at the centre, and sharp at both ends, with a large square hole 
in the middle, for receiving the coals. 

The town contains four parishes. The church of St. Nicholas, 
on the top of the hill, has the gracefulness and dignity of a cathe- 
dral. The number of houses, in Newcastle, agreeably to the re- 
turns under the late population act, in 18Q3 or 1804, was 3,162, 
inhabited by 6,845 families. The total population was 28,366 ; of 
which, 12,o69 were males, and 15,9^7 females. 

Newcastle is a place of considerable trade. In addition to au. 
immense quantity of coals, it exports wrought iron, lead, glass, salt, 
bacon, corn, salmon, butter, tallow, grindstones, stones for paving, 
&c. It has two markets, holden weekly ou Tuesdays and Satur- 
days. 

In the year 1737, the site and demesnes of the castle were 
granted to George Lyddel, Esq. for lifty years, at the yearly rent 
of 100 chaldron of coals for Greenwich Hospital. 



PHILOSOPHICAL PAPERS. 

Extracts from a Book entitled^ u Naval Speculations and Mari- 
time Politics; being a modest and brief Discourse of the 
Royal Nary of England., and oj its Economy and Government." 
3y HENRY MAYDMAN. 1C91. 

[Continued from Vol. XV. page 212.] 

QEVENTHLY; The Hope-house, viz. the clerk and master 
^~y rope maker are the guides of that affair, only the master at- 
tendant sometimes may inspect, or order some sizes of ropes and 
cordage, cables, &c. to be made as they are needed ; and also 
sometimes his orders arc necessary to detach some of the ordinary, 
or labourers, to twist the great cables. Indeed this office is very 
distinct from interfering with any of the rest of the offices ; only 
the master attendant may detach some of their hands, to help to 



314 PHILOSOPHICAL PAPERS. 

heave a ship in or out of the dock, or the master builder on some 
emergencies ; the nature of their work being such, that they do 
their work often by task, and so commonly do their day's work 
by two or three o'clock. The clerk hereof has a fine, quiet busi- 
ness, and very separate, if he be a good spirited man, so to use it, 
and to be just toward the king and the men ; for he keeps the 
prick and check over them, and makes the quarterly books 
wp for their pay, and the clerk of the check meddles not with 
them. 

But there Is an affair dependant or appendant rather : for there 
is a rope maker that makes up all the old and half worn cables, 
and cordage, opens the strands and knits them, and makes them up 
into cordage again ; and it is called twice laid stuff, and serves for 
running ropes, port ropes, stage ropes, and sinaH cordage. At 
Portsmouth it is prettily managed ; the said rope maker contracts 
for so much by the hundred, and has tar allowed him : the store 
keeper deliyers it to him, and receives it from him, and certifies his 
quantities ; and the king's rope maker is excluded, in that parti- 
cular yard only, from having cognizance therein, who is the most 
able man to inspect it, and oversee the work, that it be done as it 
ongfct, and no more made, or certified to be made, than is needful, 
or tha.t too much tar be not put into it : but it is there finely car- 
ried ; so that there is more made thereof in that yard in a year, 
than is in all the yards beside put together : it amounts to about 
four hundred pounds, some years, bare workmanship, which the 
man doth himself, and two or three servant boys, for the most part. 
I accuse not ; but it is worth observation, which is all I have to say 
of the rope house. 

Eighthly, All the other offices, viz. mast maker, boat builder, 
joiner, &c. are under the builder's orders: but the clerk of the 
check, if he be a lit man, will espy some works doing in the join- 
ry, painters, and carvers' offices, for the beautifying of men'* 
houses with cabinets, fine utensils of (livers kinds, costly, aud more 
to the king ; for what is done there, costeth the king twice as much 
time and materials as it is worth. Jn this nature divers offices are 
corrupted : L fall not on particulars, but great sums may be spent 
that kind of wsiy ; for work and materials may serve to adorn men's 
bouses, or build them about the town: these things arc too obvious, 
and may not, nay must not, be denied, and all by connivance ; and 
yet at the same time thrift pretended, and scruple to let a warrant 
officer on board have a small lock for his cabin, or store room: 
| say, these all arc under the builder's direction, but he is blinde4 



PHILOSOPHICAL 2APER3. 315 

and cannot see it; but the clerk of the check ought to Ti-it them, 
and check them ; as also the labourers that are employed by 
greedy and purloining officers of the yard, if they set tln-.ni to \rork, 
in their gardens, do all the small offices about their houses, nm 
abroad any where about errands, and absent themselves at any 
rate, under the pretence of being an onicer's man or boat man ; the 
king may lose no small matter yearly ; I say, if a clerk of th* 
check be not a man every \vay \vell appointed to his business. 

And thus I will conclude with the yards ; that they arc all war- 
ranted from the Admiralty, and are under the command and defi- 
nite orders of the commissioner of (he place : but the carver, 
painter, smiths, &c. I reckon not of the yards, but are de- 
pendants, and therefore I will say a t"c\v things to them here; that 
is thus : 

That carved work on the ships is come, with the painting them, 
to be a good part of the charge of the ship, and is not of uny in- 
trinsic value, in any manner oi' proportion to the cost, contri- 
buting to the good of the service, or strength of the nation ; but 
on the contrary, serve to rot the ships, entangle them when two 
ships happen to cosie together, ami mo:st dangerous of burning the 
ships when (ire ships shall board them : for it is severally the 
carved work that takes fire first, and it runs on it like wild 
fire, by means of the oil of the paint ; and manv times the carved 
work is as rotten as touchwood, and will take lire even with a 
"wad or coal of n cartridge, or tobacco. You may moderately com- 
pute the charge of carving and painting, that is needless unto the 
the navy, at the twentieth part of the charge of the hulls of 
the ships of the navy; which now may be thought considerable, 
where the navy is swollen to so great u bulk, and a certain neces- 
io have it greater : for our neighbours put so fair for the do- 
i)iimo<i of the seas, that i doubt, before the naval force of 
Christendom will be settled in the general peace, this kingdom may- 
happen to be put to many hard tugs, to maintain their right; and 
the wealth of the nation, together v\ ith the blood thereof, will be 
greatly exhausted ; and therefore for the saving the one from 
profuse expences, and preserving the breeding and maintaining the 
other, is of no small consideration at this time ; and the more 
timely it be considered, we may with the more facility eii'ect our 
desires. As for the former, i compute the unnecessary charge 
thereof, by the thirty last ships, by the parliament's order built, if 
the money they gave for it (as i think) was six hundred thou- 



316 PHILOSOPHiC.il. PAPERS. , 

sand pounds, and the king spent two hundred thousand more, m 
all eight hundred thousand pounds (admit that there were 
1he cost), I compute the carting and painting at the fortieth part 
of the whole, allowing the hulls to he but half of that cost, -which 
is four hundred thousand pounds : then the carving and painting is 
the twentieth part thereof, which is twenty thousand pounds prof use 
expcnces, out of four hundred thousand pounds spent on hulls; 
which twenty thousand pounds might be saved, and with more safety 
and security to the ships from fire, and less rotting their work. 

The arguments against this thrift are usually the splendor of the 
navy, and the discouragement of arts. The arguments being weak, 
the confutation may be short ; which is thus : The true splendor 
and glory of the navy lies in the good government thereof, the easi- 
ness of the cxpcnce to the nation, and the achievement of great 
actions, preserving the honour, safety, and wealth of the nation; 
aud not in adorning of our ships : and for the arts of painting 
and carving, it is not worthy to be named, in comparison with the 
cost of the affair. The means of this profuseness hath been created 
by interest of builders at the navy board, every one endeavouring 
to excel each other in beautifying their own works, thereby to 
bring them and themselves into greater esteem ; and that they 
might be so with the commanders, they have not stayed there, but 
endeavoured also to exceed each other in the contriving the accom- 
modations for them, to that degree that the other officers, and the 
seamen, are pent up into too little and small accommodations and 
conveniences ; and the warlike uses and institutions thereof ne- 
glected, and much impeded ; the which I shall more plainly make 
appear, when I am come on board. 

Yet before I lea,ve the yard, I must take leave of the porter, 
who hath shut the gate upon me, who is an officer also, and war- 
ranted from the Admiralty : his office is to open and shut the gates, 
and cither himself or helper to be always at his post, to take no- 
tice of all that enter or go out thereof all the day time ; and to see 
the watch set, giving them such instructions as he shall receive from 
the commissioners. If he be a temperate, careful, and honest man. 
he may prevent much evils, which otherwise will slide without no- 
tice; by giving the commissioner, check builder, and all the other 
chief officers, needful notice, and true information of what ho 
shall see, or they inquire after ; and tell them I am gone on board, 
and dare not lie a night with my wife, although corae lately from 

Mfc 

[To bt continued.] 



317 

NAVAL LITERATURE. 

Naval Anecdotes ; or, a Nczo Key to the Proceedings of a late 
Naval Administration. Second Edition. 

TFT 3 ! ROM the Introduction to this work, we learn that an ano- 
nymous pamphlet has been "industriously circulated" 
amongst naval officers, and other persons, under the title of 
" A Key to the Papers presented to the House of Commons 
-upon the Charges preferred against Lord St. Vincent by 
Mr. Jeff'ery." * That such a pamphlet has been circulated, 
we must take for granted ; but that it has been so " indus- 
triously " circulated, as the author of the New Key takes upon 
himself to assert, we scarcely know how to accredit; as, al- 
though we have made several applications for that purpose, 
we have never been able to obtain a sight of it. All the ac- 
count, therefore, which we can present our readers with, re- 
specting it, is the following; which, without pledging ourselves 
for its accuracy, we copy from the concluding chapter of the 
publication before us : 

" The various charges which the author of the Key has thought 
^proper to adduce against the Navy Board may be summed up as 
follows : 

" He begins by charging them, in his Introduction, with being 
the actual accusers of Earl St. Vincent, through the medium of Mr. 
Jeiiery, and with silently acquiescing in the censures of the Com- 
missioners of Naval Inquiry. 

" He proceeds to accuse them, under the head of stores, of 
betraying the trust reposed in them, and perfidiously creating a 
scarcity of naval stores for the base purpose of effecting a clamour 
against Earl St. Vincent under the head of copper, of being 
instrumental in causing sL-kir.'ss ar.u desertion among our seamen, 
and a long catalogue of other evils, concluding with the escape of 
the enemy's fleets. 

" Under the head of timber, he arraigns them of disobeying 
the positive orders of the Admiralty, regulating the store of timber 
in the dock yards, causing the rapid decay of his Majesty's ships, 
and sacrificing the interest of the public to the, rapacity of con- 
tractors. Again, in treating 01 building ships by contract, the 
Navy Board are represented as in league with the merchant build- 



* Vide MAV. CIIROK. vol. x;ii. p. 4'i 

. er&ron. QOI.XV11I. T T 



318 NATAL tlTKUATL'ttE. 

ers, and as aiding them to extort from government ncar)v 60 per 
cent, more than they were fairly entitled to. 

" In discussing the mode of working t?ic shipwright, the Nary 
Board arc charged with the most profligate waste of money and 
labour, and with paying ' the greatest possible quantum of money- 
fur the smallest possible quantum of work ;' and finally, under the 
head of Navy Board, they are indiscriminately charged with ne- 
gligence and fraud of every description." 

To refute these alleged charges, is the avowed object of the 
Nezv key; the author of which, if not actually a member of 
the late Navy Buard, must be intimately acquainted with all the 
details of that department. Not havii^ seen the criminating 
.charges x we cannot pretend to say whether the present tract may 
be considered as a complete vindication of the Navy Board. 
The author, however, is an able writer ; as a partisan, his lau- 
.guage is entitled to praise for its temperateness ; yet his animad- 
versions are keen ; and, if the object of his attack be not clothed 
in the impenetrable mail of conscious rectitude, they must inliict 
wounds both deep and galling. 

We are utterly indisposed to take any shave in the dispute ; 
but as the following observations, on subjects which relate to the 
improvement of our naval resources, seem to have been dictated 
rather by a spirit of patriotism, than of party feeling, we sub- 
mit them to the consideration of our readers : 


" In regard to public establishments for Ihe manufacture of 
naval stores, we should be disposed to recommend them only in 
tlu>s. articles in whirl; duality is a much greater object than price. 
."We dissent altogether from the opinion of their superior economy, 
and we. should regret the further extension of a system of such 
doubtful promise. 

" In respect to building ships, there is, in war, when the ship, 
wrights in the royal yards arc almost wholly occupied with the re- 
p tics o! oi-.r immense navy, an obvious necessity to resort to the 
merchants' s a; i!s. In the present condition of our na?y and of 
Kurope, the same necessity may be found to exist at the conclusion 
of peace. Every tiling in the state of Europe demonstrates flic 
necessity of bt:in^ prepared in the event of peace for the renewal 
of war; and the condition of our ria<y abundantly proves that 
tin ring several years of peace, the labour of our workmen in the 



NAVAL LITERATURE. 310 

/oyal yards will be required for the indispensable (ask of repairs. 
J/et us never forget that the strength of our navy consists not in 
the number, but in the condition of our ships. The expediency of 
building in the merchants' yards can become, a question therefore 
only in profound peace, and -with a navy thoroughly repaired, 
When we shall be placed in these desirable circumstances, it AT ill 
then, and not till then, become a proper season for the advocates 
in building exclusively in the king's yards, to urge the adoption 
of their system. 

" Instead of r 

,. in reducing the number of workmen in the dock yards, 

a prudent administration -will anxiously endeavour to increase 
them. The waste of our navy, during fourteen y-.-ars of war, will 
not be made good without the most strenuous exertions, and 
France will strain every nerve to lay the foundation in peace of 
that * maritime preponderance' which, her government will tell her, 
is the right of a nation ' equally warlike and twice as populous as 
Britain,' 

" In connexion with this topic, it is important to consider the 
proposed change in the mode of shoaling the shipwrights. On this 
interesting question, we have already candidly stated the reasons on 
both sides. The new plan will obtain at first the approbation of the 
inquirer, but he will be staggered no less by the fallacious argu- 
ments adduced in its support, than by the opposition of proles- 
jfessional men. Still however we are not averse to the experiment 
being made, under skilful direction, and at a period of tranquillity. 

" Our next subject of consideration is the supply of timber. 
The increasing scarcity demands the adoption of effectual mea- 
sures to prevent an aggravation to our posterity of an evil which 
we fear we shall soon seriously feel. The door is shut to supplies 
from the continent of Europe ; a circumstance which would not be 
matter of regret, were our own more abundant, because no other 
country can rival the British oak, but which is imported in time of 
scarcity, because the importation of foreign timber, like the re- 
peipt of the inferior kinds at home, is useful in preventing an un- 
necessary expenditure of the best qualities of our awn. A com- 
prehensive system of regulations in regard to the growth of timber 
is therefore a most important object. It is in vaiii to defer the 
adoption of thc:-.e regulations from year to year, and from war to 
peace. How much more tranquil should we have been, had our 
fathers been sufficiently provident to adopt for us those salutary 
precautions which we meditate" for the security of our children ! 

^ These regulations will of course embrace both (hv nnal fa. 



320 NAVAL LITERATURE. 

rests and the more extensive sources of supply in the property of 
private individuals. Much information may be obtained from for- 
mer inquiries of the legislature and the commissioners of land re- 
venue ; and we decidedly agree with these commissioners, that the 
attention of the British parliament cannot be too speedily devoted 
to this most important topic. 

" It is a fact not generally known, that the building of ships 
for the India or rather the Chinese trade, absorbs a considerable 
proportion of the large timber which is so much wanted for our 
ships of the line. Yet it is the policy of the East India Company 
to prevent the importation of India cargoes in India -built 
ships, and to confine the whole trade to British shipping. Here 
then is a powerful argument, from a great national object, on the 
side of the advocate of private trade to India. Measures, it is v.-Si 
known, have been taken for constructing ships of war in India, 
and the directors, some years ago, discovered a disposition to con. 
suit the public wants by a temporary suspension of building at 
home ; but has the country derived all the benefit it ought from the 
important fact, that by the use of teak ships, the waste of large 
and scarce kinds of British oak in building merchantmen, may be 
entirely prevented ? 

" The military part of our navy is happily in a condition to in- 
spire confidence into the country, and to maintain the proud su. 
periority it has so gallantly acquired. Wlien we consider, how- 
ever, the time which elapses after the beginning of a war before a 
navy is formed, it is impossible not to acknowledge the expediency 
of attention on the part of government to the suggestions of Lord 
Melville, which propose (see his speech of the 21th of May, 1805, 
page 41) to devise a method whereby seamen may be more 
easily procured, in a manner equally beneficial to the interests of 
the mercantile and the military marine, and whereby the two ser- 
vices might become more united, as well as to render the military 
service not only popular but desirable.' 

u But it is important, above all, that succeeding Boards of Ad- 
miralty should avoid a recurrence of those unfortunate differences 
which prevailed during the period we have described. We have 
often hati occasion to advert to the origin of these diiferences, and 
to lament their unhappy operation. May future administrations 
take warning by this lamentable experience, and, avoiding arbitrary 
controul, respect and cherish, in subordinate departments, that 
spirit, which, zealous in the discharge of duty, revolts at imperious' 
command a spirit, the birthright of our countrymen, the spring of 
honourable ambition, the foundation of national greatness," 



NATAL LITERATURE. 321 

Captain Foofe's Vindication of bis Conduct izhen Captain of his 
Majesty's Ship Sea Horse and senior Officer in the Bay of Na- 
ples, in the Summer of 1799. 1807. Svo. Pages 171. 



nrUIJS very interesting pamphlet has been brought forward 
in consequence of a direct attack on this officer's profes- 
sional character, in a work published by a Mr. Harrison, for- 
merly a bookseller in Paternoster Row ; which he professes to 
be genuine Memoirs of Lord Nelson. A life more replete with 
error and illiberal attacks on individuals has not lately appeared. 
Lady Hamilton seems to be the goddess of the writer's 
imagination ; and poor Lord Nelson, Sir William, and his wife 
are styled the illustrious triumvirate ! Nothing could well be 
more calculated to injure the fame of our renowned countryman 
than such a work as this. No man's character stands higher 
in the service than that of Captain Foote. We lament that we 
can only give some leading extracts, and must refer our readers 
to the pamphlet itself, for the curious documents it contains il- 
lustrative of an historical event of so much importance, as what 
took place in the bay cf Naples in the summer of 1799- Some 
discussion respecting it had already appeared in the British Cri- 
tic for February, 1807, \\lu:n reviewing the two last volumes of 
Mr. .Belsh'un's History of Great .Britain, which were the llth 
and 12th. It was also lately alluded to in the Monthly Review, 
when considering Charnock's Life of Lord Nelson; and was 
discussed with all the violence of a democratic spirit, in the Let- 
ters of Miss Helen Maria Williams. 



CAPTAIN* FOOTE'S VINDICATION OF HIS CONDUCT. 

It is natural for men placed in certain situations in life to be 
anxious that their reputation should remain unsullied ; -and that no- 
thing deserving the epithet of infamous, should, \vitli justice, bo an- 
plied to any part of their conduct. The character of an officer 
in the ariny or navy may be said to be his whole stake in life ; to 
reputation he is willing and ready to sacrifice even his existence. 

In many professions and situations, conscious rectitude may en- 
able a man to despise calumny in whatever shape it may appear. 



3-22 NAVAL LITERATURE. 

In those less public employments, misrepresentations of malignitr, 
or the falsehoods suggested by interested views or motives, inav bo 
treated with silent contempt ; but an officer must either repel in- 
jurious aspersions and insinuations, or be contented to have them 
affixed as a known part of his character. No one man's reputation 
can be justly sustained at theexpence of that qf another man ; nor 
can fame or services, however shining, justify laying one person's 
errors at the door of another. To ut) this, at the expense of truth 
or candour, is to debase, not to exalt the hero whose character 
was intended to be presented to public view. This is to dim the 
blaze of glory which is to surround his head ; it is to drag his in- 
firmities into open day, which might and ought to have remaiiipd 
in the shade. 

In detailing the wonderful actions and the great services of Lord 
Nelson, there seemed to be no necessity for urging self defence to 
bring forward the most considerable, the most prominent error, in 
his whole public life. 

To this task I am unfortunately called : I am dragged forth to 
assert that I never " signed an infamous armistice !" This is in- 
cautiously laid to my charge, in a late publication, entitled " Ge,- 
nuine Memoirs of Lord Nelson," &c. in the 13th part of which 
are the following words : " On the 24th, they arrived in the Day 
of Naples ; where Lord Nelson saw a flag of truce flying on board 
the Sea-horse, Captain Foote ; and also on the castles (Jovo and 
Nuovo. Having on the passage received information, that an 
infamous armistice was entered into, with the rebels of these castles, 
to which Captain Foote had put his name, his lordship instantly 
made the signal to annul the truce, being determined, as he said, 
never to give his approbation to any terms with rebels, but un- 
conditional submission." And in the last page of the said 13th 
part, is inserted, what is called the copy of a private letter from 
Lord Nelson to Earl Spencer, then first Lord of the Admiralty, 
dated the 13th of July, 1799;* in which Lord Nelson calls the 
treaty, lt a most infamous one entered into with rebels." 

On my return to England in the year 1800, 1 found the trans- 
actions in the bay of Naples had become a comnion topic of coiu 
versation ; and, from rumours that sqme blame might possibly 

* I wrote to Earl Spencer on tins subject last February, and by re^ 
turn of post, his lordship had the goodness to iutbrm me, that he not only 
ncver authorised the publication of Lord Nelson's private letter; but that 
my letter was the firbt mfonuatiou he had received of Mr. Harrison's put*, 
lication. 



NAVAL LITEHATURE. S2S 

be attached to ray conduct, I vras inclined to request, that a public 
inquiry should take place, upon what doncerued my signing the 
capitulations. 

But before taking this step, I understood from a naval member 
of ;he Admiralty, and many other respectable friends, that by urging 
a public investigation I should act injuriously to my country, and 
in some measure attach myself to a party ; for which idea ther? 
seemed to me to be good ground, in consequence of the speech 
v aich the late Honourable Charles James Fox made on the 3d 
of February 1800, on the address, thanking his Majesty for re. 
fusing to negotiate; an extract from which I shall transcribe, ob- 
serving, that Mr. Fox's speech closed the debate without any an- 
swer from the ministry. 

u I wish the atrocities of which we hear so much, and which I 
abhor as much as any man, were indeed unexampled. 1 fear 
that they do not belong exclusively to the French. When the 
right honourable gentleman speaks of the extraordinary suc- 
cesses of the last campaign, he does not mention the horrors by 
which some of these successes were accompanied. Naples, for in- 
stance, has been, among others, what is called delivered; and yet, 
if I am rightly informed, it has been stained and polluted, by mur- 
ders so ferocious, and by cruelties of every kind so abhorrent, that 
the heart shudders at the recital. It hap been said, not onlj r that 
the miserable victims of the rage and brutality of the fanatics were 
savagely murdered, but that in many instances, their flesh was eaten 
and devoured by the cannibals, who are the advocates and instru- 
ments of social order! Nay, England is not totally exempt front, 
reproach, if the rumours which are circulated be true. I zcill 
mention a fact, to give ministers the opportunity , if it be false, to 
n'ipc aicay the stain that must otherwise ajjix on the British na. e. 
ft is said, that a party of the republican inhabitants at tuples to k 
shelter in the fortress of Castle del Uovo. They ice re bssiegi'd by 
a detachment from the royal army, to whom they refused io tar* 
render, but demanded that a British officer should be brought for- 
icard, and to him they capitulated. They made tents zcith him 
tinder the sanction of the British name. It rc? agreed that their 
persons and property should be safe, and that they should be con- 
veyed to Toulon. They ~ccre accordingly put on board a vessel, 
but before they sailed, their property teat confiscated, numbers of 
them taken out, thrown into dungeons, and some of them, I under- 
ftand, notwithstanding the British guarantee,absolutely executed!" 
All those who were acquainted witb the true state of the case 



324 XAVAL 

and who regarded the character of Lord Nelson, Or the reputation 
of the country, saw the necessity of burying the whole transaction 
Jn oblivion as fur as that could be done. In this view, and in this 
view only, I relinquished the idea of demanding a court martial. I 
should have continued in the same disposition, had Mr. Harrison 
(author of the u Genuine Memoirs") paid proper attention to a 
letter I wrote to him on the 27th of last February, and which 
Messrs. Herries, Farquhar, and Co. were so kind as to send 
Mr. Chappie (Mr. Harris-on's bookseller) by a very trusty person. 
But to this letter, of which the following is a copy, I have re. 
ceived no answer. 

S1R? Warsash, near Tichfield, Hants, Feb. 27, 1807. 

<c By my desire a friend of mine called at Mr. Chappie's, in Pall 
Mall, three dincrent times, very lately, tosec yon. The subject of 
what he had to say, related to a second edition of the Memoirs 
of the late Lord Nelson, which, if continued in the same words as 
the first, respecting my conduct in the bay of Naples, I shall be 
under the very painful necessity to publish papers and facts, which 
will demonstrate that no such epithets as you have stated, in the 
13th part of your first edition, are in any manner applicable to my 
conduct on that occasion. This task I am compelled to perform, 
notwithstanding my respect for Lord Nelson's memory ; and I 
have considerable satisfaction in being able to appeal to Sir John 
Duckworth, and the captains who served under his lordship, for 
the truth of what I am thus obliged to publish in defence of my 
own character. I shall expect an answer to this letter in the course 
of a few days. I am, Sir, 

Your most obedient servant, 

EDW. J. FOOTE, 

Captain of his Majesty's Yacht, Royal 

Charlotte, but absent on Admiralty lc;uc. 

To - Harrison, Esq. Mr. Cluipple's, 

66, Pall Mall, London." 

Passing over, at present, any observations on Lord Nelson's 
private letter to Earl Spencer, let it be supposed, that there had 
been some great impropriety in my conduct, in signing capitula- 
tions with rebellious enemies, whose power I had endeavoured to 
subdue with the force placed under my command ; stiH even this 
concession will not justify the language of the Genuine. Memoirs. 

It contains a sophism so gross, and yet so apt to mislead, that 
the fallacy ought to be expostd. This fallacy is a veil intended to 



NAVAL LITEUATURE. 325 

cover what might deserve an epithet even more severe than that 
which Lord Nelson has been pleased to apply to my conduct, in 
his private letter, but which his subsequent letters, and order in 
Appendix, No. 2, evidently shew his lordship did not think any 
part of that conduct deserved. 

The term infamous, which Lord Nelson applies to the treaty, his 
biographer applies to the armistice, because it seems better to an- 
swer the purpose of clearing his lordship from blame. A treaty, 
or a capitulation, may be infamous, but an armistice or cessation 
from hostility, cannot deserve that term : it is only a step towards an 
accommodation ; something of this kind must precede all capitula- 
tions ; even a surrender at discretion must be preceded by a 
cessation of arms : a truce, not confined to time, may, with jus- 
tice, be annulled or broken ; but a treaty, or capitulation, cannot 
be infringed without a breach of faith, which even the most bar- 
barous nations have found it necessary to respect! The author of 
the Genuine Memoirs, sensible of this fact, says, that Lord Nelson 
*' annulled the truce," whereas his lordship himself says, u the 
treaty entered into with the rebels ought not to be carried into 
execution." This is the mode adopted by his panegyrist to screen 
the hero from censure; the capitulations are converted into a sim- 
ple truce, because the one may be annulled or broken, but the 
other is a sacred engagement, the obligation of which no sophistry 
can destroy. To this abuse of language Lord Nelson's letter gives 
no countenance it only shelters a treaty, signed and determined 
under the term " entered into," which, not being defined, may be 
supposed not to have been fully concluded, although the fact was, 
that the capitulations were completely signed, and became binding 
to all intents and purposes ! 

Although I have supposed that there might be some impropriety 
in the capitulations with forts, I am very far from admitting that any 
such impropriety existed. Under all the circumstances, I think 
such capitulations were not only expedient, but of real advantage to 
his Sicilian Majesty, as they exhibited clemency to men who were 
deluded from their duty by a clamour for freedom, by the intrigues 
and by the power of the French. The idea which the chief of the 
army of the king of Naples entertained of breaking the treaties, 
may be collected from the conversation which Cardinal Ruffo, Sir 
William and Lady Hamilton, and Lord Nelson, held on board the 
Foudroyant, as related in the Genuine Memoirs. The cardinal 
maintained, inflexibly, that the treaty ought to be kept sacred ; 
and upon the following opinion being given in writing, by Lord 
Nelson, the cardinal retired in disgust : 

OW.XVUI. u u 



326 SAtAL POETRY. 

tl Rear Admiral Lord Nelson, who arrived in the bay of Na- 
ples on the 24th of June, with the British fleet, found a treaty en- 
tered into with rebels, which he is of opinion ought not to be 
carried into execution, without the approbation of his Sicilian 
Majesty, the Earl of St. Vincent, and Lord Keith." 

But Lord Nelson acted, with respect to the treaty, without con-t 
suiting the two senior flag officers mentioned. He gave this opi- 
nion apparently in haste, after he found that nothing could pre- 
vail oa the cardinal te assent to an evident breach of an engage* 
ment, in which he himself had been a principal agunt. 
[To be continued.] 



Tfif heart's remote recesses to explore, 

And touch its Springs, when Prose avail'd no more. FALCON z* 



THE MARINER. 

(INCLUDING POETICAL SKETCHES OF VARIOUS PARTS OF THE 
WORLD.) 

By en Officer in the Navy. 
(Now first published.) 

[Continued from page 221. J 

" PEn VARIOS CASTS, PEH TOT DISCniMINA BSBUM, 

TENDIMUS." Vine. 

WHEN restless mortals first began to brave 
The various perils of the briny wave ; 
To leave the friendly shore, in quest of gain, 
And boldly launch across the faithless main ; 
The azure god, whose arm the trident sways, 
Whose dread command old ocean's orb obeys, 
Indignant view'd th' invasion of his reign, 
And thus rebuk'd the wand'ring naval train : 
" Hence \ to your native plains and shady wood; } 
Nor dare to trespass on thes sacred floods ! 
If, by the fates and Jove's supreme decree, 
The empire of the seas devolve on me, 
Shall earth-born sons usurp my just command ? 
Not while the trident owns this dexter hand/' 



NAVAL POETRY. 327 

He said ; and wav'd the emblem as he spoke ; c 

Forth from their caves the rushing tempests broke; 

Along the glassy plain at first they sweep, 

And white with foam appears the boiling deep: 

But soon the congregated surges rise 

In proud rebellion tow'ring to the skies ! 

The inexperienc'd mariners in vain 

Furl ev'ry sail, and all their tackle strain ; 

With force resistless comes the furious gale, 

And whelming waves the reeling ships assail ! 

Abandon'd to the storm's tumultuous rage, , . 

(For who with angry Neptune dare engage?) 

The floating wrecks 'mid shoals and breakers drive, 

And few the elemental war survive ! 

Revolving in his thoughts the late event ? 
For realms below", his course the monarch bent; 
A gloomy presage labouring in his mind, 
Of future ills that yet might lurk behind. 
For oft 'twas rumour'd through the vast profound, 
That not remote from Europe's western bound, 
There lay a small, but rock-encircled isle, 
Where FREEDOM in her last retreat would smile; 
Where, safe from TYRANNY'S despotic sway, 
Her equal sons would equal laws obey; 
While brandishing OPPRESSION'S galling chains, 
A haughty despot rul'd Kuropa's plains ! 
From thence, the seer,* whose keen prophetic eye, . A 
In fate's dark womb can each event descry; 
Had long foretold a martial band would spring.. 
To wrest the trident from the azure king; 
And o'er the wat'ry world a cross display, 
The future eiu.blem of imperial sway. 

Deep in a murky cavern of the main, 
A loathsome tyrant held his gloomy reign ; 
With hollow eyes, pale cheeks, and snaky hair, 
He seem'd the grisly image of despair ! 
To him 'twas giv'n, with pestilent disease, 
To scourge the wand'rers on the pathless seas. 
Now urg'd by Neptune to the dre -.A employ, 
With poison fraught and eager to dt-stroy, 

* Proteus. 



328 NATAL POETRY. 

The hideous fiend forsakes his dreary care, 
And floats a frightful spectre on the wave ! 
Where'er the monster's horrid form appears, 
Desponding doubts, and pale unmanly fears, 
With baleful influence, sap the springs of life, 
And sow the seeds of foul discordant strife! 
A dire disease each torpid frame invades, 
Their spirits languish, and their valour fades; 
Then, strange to tell and horrible to hear! 
One putrid mass their bodies soon appear I 
From ev'ry pore life's rosy current flows, 
They sink beneath accumulated woes! 
Plung'd daily in the wave's tumultuous roar, 
The flushing tide is ting'd with purple gore 1 

Of naval heroes, many a daring band, 
Thus fell inglorious from their native land. 
Oft did the conquering sons of Albion's isle, 
(Whose fame had spread from Ganges to the Nile, 
Whose wooden walls BRITANNIA'S thunder bore, 
The dread and envy of each hostile shore;) 
Fall unresisting victims to the blow 
Of this insatiate and vindictive foe ! 
Thus fell the gallant crew, by ANSON led, 
From whom the proud Pizarro's squadron fled, 
When round the globe his circling course he made, 
And Albion's flag in ev'ry clime display'd. 
But by degrees, as human art prevail'd, 
The powers of this destructive demon fail'd, 
Till England's genius bade her COOKE defy 
His utmost rage beneath a polar sky. 
Through seas remote, an exile now he strays, 
Or on some wave-worn bark, malignant preys; 
When wintry winds and famine pale oppress 
Her jaded bands with ruin and distress ! 

Such was the state of our ill-fated crew, 
When ST. HELENA'S mountains bless'd our view ; 
Along the decks the joyful tidings ran, 
Of land in sight , reveal'd from man to man ; 
While all who yet survive, in transport raise 
TO Heaven an humble tribute of their praise ! 

(To be continued.) 



320 



NAVAL HISTORY OF THE PRESEXT YEAR, 1807. 

(September October, ) 
RETROSPECTIVE AND MISCELLANEOUS. 

TjfT^OR some weeks the attention of the public lias been irresistibly drawn 
to the state of affairs in Portugal. At this moment, there is every rea- 
son to believe, that a French army is in possession of that country; as, 
according to the latest accounts, a force of 60,000 men was rapid!/ 
approaching its frontiers. 

From her geographical situation, paucity of-popnlation, &c. it has lon 
been obvious, that Portugal could oppose no effectual resistance to aa 
attack from France, provided the elforts of that power were not counteracted 
by Spain ; an event justly considered as hopeless. Portugal, however, 
possesses an advantage, which no other European state enjoys; as, under 
the protection of a British naval force, the government might emirate, en 
masse, to the Brazils; and it is generally believed, that the visit of Earl St. 
Vincent to Lisbon, in 1806, had that object in contemplation. 

Agreeably to the latest advices, the Prince Regent of Portugal remained 
firm in his determination to resist the unprincipled demands of Buonaparte; 
in consequence of which, the French and Spanish ambassadors iiad left the 
capital; all the English merchants, with their families, were making die 
greatest exertions to quit the country; and, under an apprehension of the 
immediate approach of the French army, the Portuguese royal navy, with 
the royal family on board, had actually dropped down below the. bar, to be 
ready for sailing, as it was supposed, to the Brazils. Some persons, 
however, were of opinion, that, when all the English should have left Por- 
tugal, Buonaparte would be appeased, and the government would not feel 
itself under the necessity of executing its hazardous rfjsoltition.* Should the 
Portuguese ha,ve submitted to be lulled into a security of this kind, wg 
fear that their independence, ere this, is totally gone. 

Admiral Purvis's s^'iadron, which had been employed, du-jng the ab- 
sence of Lord Collingwood, in the blockade of Cadiz, is understood to have 
quitted that station, according to orders, and to have proceeded to Lisbon; 
either to facilitate the departure of the^Portuguese government, or to pre- 
vent theip navy from falling into the hands of the French. That the latter 
object is an important one, is obvious, from the following List of Shift uf 
War, which were lying in the Tagus, when Lord St. Vincent was there, in 
September, 1806 : 

* Several English families have reached this country, witli such of their effects 
as they could bring away. It is said, that the demand for shipping was so great 
at Lisbon, that a British merchant had paid upwards of 1000?. for the freight of a 
single vessel, to carry himself, family, and only a part of his property. The ports 
of Portugal were expected to be shut against the British, on the 15th of 
October. 



330 NATAL HISTORY O? THE PRESENT YEAR, 1807. 

JVame*. - Guns. Their iState. 

Principe Real 84 Ij^ , rigged, and the lower yard* 

Pnncepe de Brazil 84 > 

Rainha de Portugal 74 \ are across ' 

Allbnzo de Albuquerque 74^ 

Princese de Abeire , 64 1 Lower inasts rigged, top-masts up, and 

Infante de Pedro ...... 74 I down the lower masts, jib-booms on 

Meduse ^ 74 \- the bowsprit, cables bent to the spare 

Belem 64 I anchors : appear to have their baUa:t 

Maria Princeipa 74 | on board. 

St. Sebastine* 74 J 

Name unknown 74 > ^... ,. t . ,. 

TT .. Ditto, ditto, ditto. 

Is ame unknown 74 \ 

Santa Anionia 70 In dock 7 years and 3 mouths. 

Prince Regent 74 Building. 

GdfinTa'."." .'!.'.".".".! 11!" I!!!!!! 44^ Lo t er u masts - rig " ed> an n Ji b - boom oq 

Amasonia 50$ UlC bows P nt ' ^ Caulked ' 

Active ' 36? Lower nmsts S? ed ' and the r P masts 

........... jj r up, and down the masts; anchors on 

Pnneesa de Abiena 36f , , . 

. , . , ^nV board, and one cable bent. 

Audoniuha 32 J 

jjf| nu! ' og C Repairing, and preparing to heave down. 

Real Fon so r 28 Just repaired, and tilting. 

Bon Ventura .16 Caulking. 

I) T- "nt ' " " 22 ^ Lower masts rigged ; anchors and cables 

G..,. f on board, 
aivota 22 \ 

Real.Fonza 16 

Fereta (schooner,) 8 Fitting for sea (now) 

Benjamiim 22 Corvette (French) 

rp 44 J Lower masts rigged/ 1 topmasts and spars 

i on board ; just caulked. 

N.B. One 74 gan-sbip sailed the latter end of August, and the Rainha Portugal 
arrived. 

These ships, in general, wore said to be in good repair; and as to con- 
struction, c-quni, if not superior to the British. 

We sincerely hope, that the Prince Recent may have persevered in his de- 
termination : as we know it to be the opinion of persons of the best infor- 
mation, that, with proper assistance from Britain, every thing that is valua- 
ble in the country, exclusive oflanded property, could Be conveyed to the 
Brazils, where the new kingdom mijjit bid defiance to the utmost efforts of 
European invaders. It is not, indeed, to be supposed, that every inhabitant 
of Portugal would thus migrate to the other side of the Atlantic ; but the 
royal family, nobility, officers of state, principal merchants, &c, mijilit remove 
thither with safety, and find a most clegible asylum. Whoqver will take the 
trouble of referring to a map of South America, will perceive, that the im- 
mense and flourishing country of Brazil, i#, in every respect, most admirably 
adapted to become the seat of a ureat empire. St. Salvador, its present 
capital, might remain so. The colony is about thirty times as hir<:e as 
England, or twelve or thirteen times as large as Great Britain and Ireland; 
being not less than 2400 n.iles in length, from north to south, and 700 in 
breadth, from east to west ; and, consequently, affording room for more 
than ten times the number of inhabitants l;ich Portug-.vl contains. The soil 
is amazingly fertile in sugar, tobacco, and valuable drugs ; a:iil, were agricul- 

f Just undergoue a good repair, aud afloat. 



HiSTORY OF THE PRESENT YEAk, 1807. . 331 

tre to meet with due encouragement, there is every probability that all sorts 
l>f grain might he plentifully produced. Horned cattle are in such abundance 
as to be hunted for their hides, more than 20,000 of which are annually sent 
to Europe ; and so valuable are the mines, that gold to the amount of 
nearly 4,000,000/. sterling, and diamonds to the amount of 130,000/. are 
generally procured in a year. Brazil has also some excellent rivers and 
harbours; and, in fact, possesses every facility for trade and commerce. 

If any thing were wanting, to corroborate the assertions which are made, 
in the Declaration of his Britannic Majesty, respecting our proceedings 
against Denmark, abundance of facts might be adduced. Indeed, the in- 
tended hostility of Denmark against this country, is beyond a doubt; con- 
sequently, though we may still lament the sacrifice of human blood which 
has occurred, we are oppressed with no feelings of compunction for the act, 
nor can the slightest sentiment of commiseration for the Danish govern- 
ment, be for a moment longer entertained. We are happy, however, to 
learn, that the number of lives which have been lost is small, compared with 
what it was at first stated to be. 

The Crown Prince has peremptorily refused to sanction the capitulation, 
signed by General Peyman, for the surrender of the fleet and arsenals to the 
English; Denmark has entered into a treaty of alliance, offensive and de- 
fensive, with France; French troops are to occupy Ilolstein and Sleswick ; 
and the most rigorous measines have been adopted throughout the Danish 
dominions, against the property and subjects of this country. Amongst 
other thing*, a proclamation has been issued, by which the principle is 
asserted, " that free bottoms make free goods and the Danish ships ot' 
war are therefore strictly ordered and enjoined not to capture, bring in, or 
detain any ship, either of friendly or neutral nations, let the cargoes apper- 
tain to whom they may, if the ship's papers are found to be regular, and she 
be not loaded with contraband of war, destined for an English fleet." On 
the other hand " Enemy's ships are to make enemy's goods, unless it can 
be satisfactorily shewn that the cargo is neutral property, and was put on 
-board before the commencement of hostilities." 

So cordial was the friendship of the Prince towards Buonaparte, and so 
anxiously did he anticipate his wishes, that he actually issued orders for the 
destruction of the Danish fleet, rather than that it should fall into the hands 
of the English. Fortunately, however, those orders were intercepted. Se- 
veral of our transports, laden with Danish naval stores, have safely reached 
this country ; and all the captured ships of war were expected to be ready 
to sail for England about the loth of October. Nothing can more strik- 
ingly evince the chagrin and disappointment which Buonaparte has sus- 
tained by this measure, than the strictures of the Moniteur, and of other 
continental papers under the influence of France. 

Notwithstanding the refusal of the Crown Prince to sanction the capi- 
tulation, it is believed, that our troops will evacuate Zealand, by the period 
which was originally specified ; but it is conjectured, that the Crown battery 
and some forts upon the shore, will be previously destroyed. 

After what has been sUted, the manner in which " the LATE Danish 
navy'' is spoken of, in the subjoined order of Admiral Gambier, expressing 
his Majesty's approbation of the fleet, will be noticed with much satis- 
faction by every person who thinks properly on the subject: 

His Majesty's skip Prince of Wales, off Copenhagen^ 
September 28, 1807. 

" The admiral has the sincerest satisfaction in obeying the orders of the 
tight honourable the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty, by con- 
veying to the flag officers, captains, commanders, officers, seamen, and 
marines of the fleet under his command, his Majesty's most gracious ap- 
probation of their zealous and persevering excitious, aud, above all, their 



332 JTAVAt HISTORY OF THE PRESENT YEAR, 1807. 

cordial co-operation with the army under the command of Lieutenant 
General Lord Cathcart, in carrying on t he seige against Copenhagen, which, 
"by its result, has added the navy of' Denmark to that <>f the united king- 
dom. 

" The admiral also seizes this, as the fittest occasion, to express his sin- 
cere tliauks to the flag officers, captains, commanders, officers, seamen, 
and marines, for their prompt execution of all his commands, by which 
he has been honoured with the most flattering testimony of his sovereign's 
approbation, and lie assures them, at the same time, that he shall not 
fail to convey to his Majesty his most perfect conviction, that the alacrity 
with which they have fitted the late Danisli nary for sea, is unexampled 
iu history. 

H. POPHAM. 
. To the respective Captains and Commanders." 

From the first we entertained an opinion, that the Danes had forfeited 
all right to restitution; and, by the above, all idea of returning their ships 
is evidently disclaimed. For their loss, they have to thank themselves, 
and not us. 

There is still something very problematical in the Court of St. Perersburgh, 
Several travellers, who have lately left Russia, all agree in representing 
the peace of Tilsit as universally unpopular ; and there are not wanting 
persons even of authority, whose insinuations rather than assertions, are 
in favour of a friendly understanding between Russia and Eiiiiland. Prince 
Menzikoff is charged with an important mission to Great Britain; and 
many draw a favourable prognostic from this circumstance. 

Various rumours are afloat with regard to the determination of our 
government respecting the Danish West India islands; and it is said that 
orders have been recently sent out for an attack upon these colonies. 

There is a list of the Russian navy, given in the Gallo-Gcrman papers, in 
*liirh it is said, the grand fleet in the Baltic consists of 66 ships, carrying 
2,260 guns, viz. 20 entirely new ships of the line, with 1,588 guns; 1 4 fri- 
gates, with 4-26; six cutters, with ISO; and 19 smaller vessels, with 116 
guns. Beside these, there are, in the ports in the Baltic, 12 old ships of 
the line. The fleet of galleys, gun-bouts, &c. consists of 189 sail, with 705 
guns, viz. 20 galleys, with 130 guns; 25 floating batteries, with ICO guns; 
81 gun-boats, with 162 guns; and 63 other vessels, with 163 guns. The 
fleerfn the Black Sea consists of 41 ships, carrying 1,255 guns, viz. 12 ships 
of the line, with 981 guns; 4 frigates, with 162; 7 brigantines, with 54; 
and 14 smaller vessels, with 91 guns. There are also 40 gun-boats, with 
62 pieces of cannon ; and 80 other boats. The flotilla iu the Caspian sea 
consists of six vessels carrying, in the whole, 70 guns. 

A quantity of silver in bars, part of the subsidy intended for Russia, and 
brought back by the Attrea frigate, was, October 26, conveyed to the 
Bank, under an escort, from Chatham. The bars were about 15 inches in 
length, "four broad, by three thick. 

The foreign journals appear to be at considerable pains to induce a be- 
lief, that Sweden is no longer friendly to this country. They also assert, 
that an application has been made by the British government, to that of 
Sweden, for a temporary surrender or deposit of the Swedish navy. Such 
a circumstance is not improbable ; and, unless swayed by Russia, through 
the predominance of French influence, it is not likely that the request 
would be refused. 

In Holland, in Prussia, and in other minor states, subservient to the will 
of Buonaparte, the severest restrictions upon British commerce continue 
to prevail. Even at the Havannah, the Spanish government, in obedience 
to the decrees of the Corsican, has taken measures to prevent ihe intro- 
Uuittwji of English uierchaiidue. 



NAVAL HISTORY OF THE PRESENT YEAR, 1807. 333 

The negotiations between this country and America have not yet been 
terminated ; and, 111 consequence of some difficulties which have arisen, or 
of some new points which have presented themselves, Mr. Rose, jnn. has 
been appointed on a special mission to the government of t : 'e Un.tcii States. 
In the mean time, the American rabble continues its inflammatory exer- 
tions, and adopts every mode, within its reach, of sowing dissention, and of 
instituting mutiny amongst the seamen of the British bhips. A mutiny, 
which had broken out on board of the Jnson, is thus mentioned, in a let- 
ter from Halifax, of the IGth of September: ' His Majesty's ship Ja^on 
has arrived from New York under very unpleasant circumstances. While 
lying theie, when the captain went on shore (k was obliged to be done in 
disguise, and by ninht) having occasion to send a lieutenant on shore, the 
moment the boat landed, the American rabble invited the crew to desert, 
r>y saving, " Do you want your liberty ? Xow is your time: you are in the 
land of liberty !" inconsequence of which the crew immediately left the 
boat. The officer attempted to intimidate them by drawing a pistol upon 
them, but was immediately surrounded by the mob, and hud it not been ft,r 
the interference of a captain in the American na\y, he would have been 
tarred and feathered ; he however escaped unhurt. After this, a still more. 
unpleasant affair occurred: a mutiny broke out amonj; the crew of the Ja- 
son. They put on the gratings, placed shot boxes upon them to prevent the 
officers from Coming up, and rushed aft to lower the boats down, in order 
to desert. Fortunately the ofliccrs forced their way to the deck in spite of 
the precautions taken to prevent them, and upon the first lieutenant making 
some thrusts at them with a boarding pike, and the other officers getting 
possession of the small arms, they were obliged to retreat below, and sur- 
render. Forty- five were put in irons, and they are now here for trial.''- 
From what has transpired, desertion seems to have been the main object 
of the mutineers. When the last accounts came away, a court martial had 
been sitting two days upon tie olfcnders, but was not closed. 

It will be seen, in a succeeding sheet, that several of the deserters, who 
were taken out of the Chesapeake, have been tried and convicted on the 
dearest evidence. 

Admiral Berkeley has been recalled from the command, on the American 
station, and Sir .1. B. Warren i;oes out to succeed him. 

The royal proclamation, for recalling and prohibiting sea'ren fiorn 
serving foreign princes and states, considered as an act of his Ma- 
jesty's ministers, has occasioned no slight dissatist'iction ; particularly as 
every other act of those ministers appears to have hud the welfare and 
honour of the country in view. The objectionable passage of this procla- 
mation, is that which relates to the order, for his Majesty's captains, mas- 
ters, &c. to clnirn such natural born subjects of Great Britain, as may lie 
.MTving on board foreign ships of war, in a state of amity with ns; and, in 
case of refusal, to transmit a statement of the same to the British ministers 
residing at the seat of government of the state so refusing, or to the Admi- 
ralty at home. It is contended tiiat the order for this circumloc.utorv mode 
of proceeding, is an absolute abandonment of the rig/it <>fset;r;//, r.nd a 
complete disavowal of the propriety and justice of the proceeding under 
Admiral Berkeley. Without duelling upon the particularity of the case 
of the Leopard and Chesapeake, or on its total want of prfc'efOent, we must 
insist, that the conduct of Admiral Berkeley was in the strictest conformity 
not only to the maritime laws of England, but to the lav\s of every maritime 
power in the world. Admiral Berkeley ,did not claim the right tfsian-h. 
as an exclusive riht ; but in his official orders, expressly observed, that " if 
a similar demand should be made by the American, he it to be permitted 
tu search for any deserters from their service, according to the custo.n and 

irtoI.XVl.il. x x 



334 NAVAT, HISTORY OF THE PRESEXT YEAR, 1807. 

usapc of civilized nations on terms < f peace andiniili/< '>> fif.'t offier.*' This, 
as we have just ot served, was in the strictest conformity to maritime Uw. 
Amongst, various claims of power, lurisdictidn, mid of tl.c atltfapritY ot iRc 
lord hii'li admiral, ve find ihe f,llowin<_ r state me-nt of dcnrnml ami' admis- 
sion: "The lord high admiral, by \irine of the authority he de-rites 
from the crown, MAY and DOTH require the commander; of our ships of 
war, to demand seafaring men, who are natural horn subject*, from fo- 
reign ships, and K/WII rejatitl (which is a palpable injury to the priftco 
whose subjects they are) to take tlntn by fni-rc. This is an u-ndonbitd right 
of l.r. maritime princes whatsoever, and hath been an ancient custom." 
The justice and /ri;iilih/ of Adiniral I'icrkeley's conduct is, therefore, 
clearly established; and any cession of the "undoubted" n^\\\ here described, 
is a deterioration of the rights and respectability of the country. 

The latest accounts from Lord Collingwood, off the Dardanelles, are 
of the "1st of August, at which time the following ships were lying at 
anchor there : 

Ocean, Lord Collingwood; Queen, Hoar-Admiral Martin; Repulse, 
Canopus, Montague, Malta, Hind, Herald, Philomel,. Delight, and F.lcctra. 
The Kent was surveying the port of Skiro: and the Seahorse was examining 
Porto Trio, inParos, to see if either of them were fit for shelter for a 
squadron. The Thetis was cruising in the gulf of Solooica ; the \Vi/.nrd 
was at anchor off Tencdob ; and the Active had just hove in sight from 
off Smyrna. 

The midshipman, and the five seamen, who were taken in the sea of Mar- 
mora, in theEndymion'sjolly.boar,hy the Turks, during Sir.T.T. Duckworth's 
expedition, were on board the Kent. They hail been in both of the 
actions between the Russians and Turks; and. having been found in one 
of the ships captured from the latter, they were sent to our fleet by the 
Russian admiral. 

Sir Arthur Panel's mission is understood to have failed ; the Porte 
refusing to listen to any propositions, unless our fleet should leave the 
Archipelago, and our troops evacuate tgy^t. Such not being the inten- 
tion of his Majesty's government, a continuation of hostility may, of 
course, be considered as determined 0:1. 

'Hie latest intelligence from Alexandria states, that the Mamelukes and 
Arabs were decidedly in oiur favour; and, as considerable reinforcements 
have Bailed thither from Malta and Sicily, ihc probability is, that we shall 
be enabled to retain possession of Kgypt. 

One of our earli< st friends has favoured us with a letter from Buenos 
Ayres, from which the following is an extract. u Yon will all in Kngiand 
be astonished at the disastrous termination of the expedition, and the 
capitulation which followed; by which we are to siivc up Monte Video, a 
place so very strong i'rom nature and art, and which co*t so many bra\u 
and valuable lives. At tirst, affairs were conducted with a celerity and 
promptitude that promised suco -s. I have heard, that if Buenos Ayrts 
had been bombarded by sea and hind, the troops would have come ont, 
and laid down their arms: which I think probable, a.s their strctt de- 
fences would then have been useless, and the city is too extensive to bu 
regularly fortified. Liniers was formerly >i captaiii of a r'lench privateer; 
and I believe he had none but provincial troops and rabble. Hie King of 
Spain ought to make him a prince. I ahull soon learn further particulars : 
but at present I feel too much, to s;>y much." 

Oct. 20. Since the preceding pages were prepared for the press, intel- 
ligence has been received, of the Arrival of Vice Admiral Man hope, in 
Yarmouth Roads, with len sail of the line (five English, and live Danish) 
and a fleet of transports, with Danish naval jtorci. They wtrfr to proceed 
to Portsmouth. 



NAVAL IirSTOUY OF THE PHESEXT YF.AK, 1807.' 353 

The second ciivisbn under the command of Admiral Gamhier, was to 
sail about t lie '-'1st consequently may be hourly expected. The whole oi 
our troops, excepting tlie rear guard, are on tlie'r passage home. During 
the winter, we are to have some troops stationed in Scania, a Swedish pro- 
vince, opposite to the island of Zealand, and only separated from it by the 
Sound. 



Courts 



Minntes of the Proc-cod'u:^ of :; Court Martial, assembled and 
helj on board his Majes'/s .->!iip I> ileisle, in Halifax harbour, 
Nova Scolia. on \Vedn-.-sday, August '26, 1807, to try Jenkin 
Rurford, of ho ..I;ij 'sfv ,liip lla 1. 1\, for mutiny, desert. on, 
and contempt, as st-i forth in a letter from her commander, the 
Right Hon. Lord James Tov. nshend, 

Present, 

The Honourable Sir A!cxandcrCochranc, K. Pi. Rear-Admiral of the White, 
and second oliicer in the command at Halifax, President. 



CAi'T \1NS- 



Francis Pici.more, 
William (. harle- J'aliie, 
Edward Hawker, 



J >hn F.rskine Douglas, 

Philip iiraver, 

Nathaniel Day Cochrnne : 



Ueing ull the captains of the rank of post at this place. 

On the Court assembling, at half past, ten o'clock, the prisoner being 
brought forward, lUc evidence being called over, and audience adm'tied, 
read tiic order addressed to the president fro u t:!Q Hon. (Ji'-ir^e Crauneld 
Berkeley, Vicc-Afi .iral of tiie White, and conmiander in chief at Halifax, 
Nova Scotia, &c. dated tbe 25th of A'.i^nst, and the president's ordei- to 
fl".' .I'siJ^e- Advo(:Ue to otliciate as such; \\lien the ineniliers and Jud.^o 
Advocate were severally sworn, aurteaMv to act of parliament; and Hie 
following letter, containing .lie charges iigain- 1 the prisoner, read : 



His Majesty's sloop Halifax, Halifax Harbour, August 1J:7(, 1D07. 

SIR. 

" '. '..''j, k. f-.'c to represent to yon, that the five men, named in the ninr- 
gin,* belonging to Ins Ahi'Csty's sloop Halifax, under my fommaiiij, when 
sent with a pettv oihc^'r iii the jollv-boat, in ilampton l!oad->, on the 7th of. 
March laM, to wcih a ked.sic anc;inr, \\lueh had heen previously dntj.pect 
for the purpose of swinging the s-liio iiv, taking tin a Ivantaue of tlie dusk 
of the evening, mnliiiied upon tlu 1 petty olh'cer, some of them threatening, 
to i.i'irder him ; hut iiie rot intertcrin^, they (k-i^ted. However, taking 
tlic boat, under their own command, they succeeded in dtertin>;, by landing 
at Sewer's Point. 

" The whole of the above-mentioned deserters, I have since bfcn in- 
fonnedj entered on board the (;nited States frigate Chesapeake, and were 
seen by me, and several of my oliicc-r.-, parading the *t reels of NorfoJk, 
in t^ni'nph, under the American flag. A few days ai'u r tlie de-ertion, I 

* ludmrd Hubert, lleurv Sau:idrs, Jfukiu Kuti'urd, G(. i iir t ;': Nurili, \ViIiiuia 
ILll. 



336 jr.ivAi, HISTORY or THE PEESEVT YEAR, 1807. 

accosted one of these men, Henry Sannders, asking the reason of his <k~- 
sertin", and received for answer, that lie did not intend any thing of the 
kind, hut was compelled by the rest to assist, and would embrace the first 
opportunity of returning. At that moment Jenkin Ratford, one of the 
taid deserters, coining up, took the arm of the said Henry Samiders, de- 
claring vith an oath, that neither he, nor any of the rest of the deserters, 
should return" to this ship ; and with a contemptuous gesture told me he 
was in the land of liberty, and instantly dragged the said Henry Saunders 
away. 

" Finding that my expostulating any longer would not only be useless 
in obtaining the deserters, but in all probability have collected a mob of 
Americans, who, no doubt, would have proceeded to steps of violence, 
I instantly repaired to the house of Colonel Hamilton, the British consul 
there, and related every circumstance which occurred, and applied to him, 
as also to Lieutenant Sinclair, of the rendezvous for the United States ser- 
vice, to recover the said deserters, but without effect. 

" Being since informed that Jenkin Rut ford has been recovered, in action, 
on board the United States frigate Chesapeake, with his Britannic Majesty's 
ship Leopard, and now a prisoner on board his Majesty's ship Bellona, I 
have 'to request you will be pleased to direct a court martial may be assem- 
bled for the purpose of trying the stud .lenkin llatford, fur the within- 
mentioned charges of mutiny, desertion, and contempt. 

1 have the honour to remain, sir, 

Your jnost obedient humble servant, 

J. TOWNSHEXD.'' 
To the Hmi. G. C. Berkeley, Vice-Admiral 

itf'thc White, and communder-in-ch'uf, 6,-c. 

Halifax, JY. i'. 

The evidence were then withdrawn, and the Right lion. Lord James 
Tosvnshend sworn. 

Q. Relate to the court what comes within your knowledge of the charges 
against the prisoner. r-A. At the time of the prisoner's drsertiijg, I was o;i 
bosird the Mermaid ; on hearing a lire ol musketry kept up from the ship, 
about six o'clock in the evening of the 7 til of ^iarch, I immediately re- 
turned op board; \vhuii Lieutenant Ctirter informed me- that live men Ind 
ro.-e on Mr. Tu.iicr, midshipman, and descried with the jolly-boat. Tne 
next, morninir, I sent Lieutenant Marsters to Norfolk, to acquaint Captain 
Jlollis and the British consul of the desertion of the men ; on his return, he 
reported to me, that he had seen some of them, one in particular, Richard 
Hubert, parading the streets with the American flag, tlitm recruiting for the 
Chesapeake. I then went up mvself to Norfolk, and told the British consul ; 
and lind.iiu; that the men had entered for the Chesapeake, 1 applied to Lieu- 
tenant Sinclair, who was entering men for her; and received for answer, 
that there were no mtn entered for her by the names 1 gave; but if any 
deserters liyd entered, J must apply to the mau.is.tr >tes, which I did through 
the consul, wlio, J believe, applied to the mayor ami civil power. I alsq 
Applied to Captain Decatur, who referred me to Lieutenant Sinclair; but 
I met with no success in recovering the men. I met the prisoner, with, 
Saunders, die boatswain's mate, after my application, and asked them the 
reason they did not return to the ship? Saumlcrs '-aid, he would ; ami im- 
mediately wont with me about twenty yards, when the prisoner laid hold of 
Jiis arm, and said l>e would be d d if he should return to the ship- 
that he wns in the land of liberty that lie would do as he liked and that 
I had no business with him. The prisoner was very abusive j the word:, J 
cjq nut recollect. 



NA.VAL HISTORY OF TUT PJIF.SENT YEAR, 1807. 337 

Q, What answer did lieutenant Sinclair make to you the second time 
you applied to him ? A. 'I Le same as before. 1 offered to point out the 
men, if he would allow me to go into the rendezvous, but to which he re- 
turned no answer. I saw suite ot' the deserters at the rendezvous ; the 
prisoner was not araonu: them. 

Q. Was the pri.-oner abusive to you personally, or was the abuse general? 
A. Chiefly personal. 

Q. (by Prisoner) Did uot you send a gentleman to call me out of the 
house ? A Ve. 

Q. Did I not come out at the same time, and stand at Saunders's back 
all the time yon were calking to him r A. You came into the street about 
four minutes after Saunders. 

The evidence now commenced for the prosecutor; and Lieutenant Tho- 
mas Wren Carter (first) of the Halifax, was sworn. 

Q. Relate what you know respecting the charges against the prisoner. 
A. On the 7t!i of March last, about six o'clock in the cveniuu, being cuin- 
manding officer, I sent the jolly-boat, with .Mr. Turner, midshipman, and 
five men, lo weigh the ked-'e anchor, which had been laid ont for swing- 
ing the ship. They were u long time there. I hailed them once, to know 
what they were about ? They answered, getti ng the tackle on board. A 
short time after, the quarter-master, Douglas, told me he thought they 
were pulling away : believing they were, I ordered a fire of musketry on 
them. That no* having any effect, I directed some great guns to be 
pointed and fired 5 one was, but the boat heing nearly out of sight, owing 
to the dusk, and a tender belonging to the Bellona immediately in her 
wake, I was obliged to desist firing, and saw no more of her. As soon as 
the firing ceased, a muster of the ship's company was made, when I 
found that the prisoner, with the other men named in the charge, had de- 
serted. Two or three days after, .the petty othcer returned, and reported 
he had been runaway with by the -crew. 

The prisoner having no questions to ask, this evidence withdrew ; and 

Mr. Hubert Turner, midshipman of the Halifax, was called in, and 
sworn. 

Q. Relate to the court what you know respecting the charges against 
the prisoner. A. On the evening of the 7th of March I was desired by 
the first lieutenant to go in the jolly-boat and weigh the kcdge anchor ; 
the prisoner was one in the boat, with Hill, North, Hubert, and llenrv 
Saunders ; after we had shoved olV from rtie ship, and got hold of the 
kedge hawser, and the anchor up to the bows, it came on to rain very 
hard, and the weather being thick, the men took the boat from me; when 
I hailed the ship repeatedly, until silenced by Hill, who threatened if I 
hailed the ship any more he would knock my brains out, and heave me 
overboard. Hill said, if it had been Mr. M'Gory in the boat, instead of 
me, he would have tanned his hide, and thrown him overboard. The 
instant the boat landed at Jewel's Point, they nil jumped out, and left me 
in her. Saunders, I think, would have returned, if he had not been threat- 
ened to have his brains knocked out I do not know if by the prisoner ia 
particular : it was amongst them. After landing, I saw nothing of the 
men until Monday, two days after, when I s,w the prisoner at Norfol*. 
with a number of men who had entered into the American service. On 
Tuesday] met Lord Townshend, ;uid informed him of the circumstances; 
shortly after, saw the prisoner and Saunders, Lord Townsliend bpeaki.i^ 
to them, anoT telling them, that if they would return r<> the ship, he would 
forgive them. Saunders was in the act of going down to the British con- 
sul's with me : the prisoner said, if he attempted to return to the ship, 
if he was not able himself, he would get move hauiU to aatiot iu culling 
is blood v guts out, 



338 NATAL HISTORY OF THE PRESENT YEAR, 1807. 

Q. ("By Prosecutor.) Did it not appear to you, that the whole time I 
was in conversation with Saunders and the prisoner, the latter was very 
abusive ? A.' He was. 

Q. Did the deserters cut the boat adrift, and shove her from the shore, 
making you jump out up to your middle in water r A. After landing, I 
was left in the boat, the painter was cut, the boat floated off, and I jumped 
into the water, and waded ashore. 

Q. Did you observe the prisoner assist in rowing the boat, after It was 
taken from you ? A. Yes, I did ; four men were rowing ; Saunders and 
myself were sitting in the stern sheets. 

Q. (By Prisoner.) Did Saunders ge out of the stern sheets to look for 
the kedge buoy ?- A. Me was out of the stern sheets, but I ara not cer- 
tain if he had hold of the hawser or not. 

The prisoner having no further questions to ask, '.lie evidence withdrew. 

Mr. George Tincombe, master's mate of the Melampus, called in, and 
sworn. 

Q. Relate to the court what you know respecting the charges against 
the prisoner, A. I was on board the Leopard on the 22d of June, as a 
passenger, and was ordered on board the Chesapeake, with Lieutenants 
Falcon and Guise, to search for deserters. After the hands were sent on 
deck, [ was onlert-d below to search, and found the prisoner in the coal- 
hole; he was brought on the quarter-fleck, and known by Mr. Preston, 
Purser of the Leopard, <is being discharged from her to the Halifax. 

Q. Did the prisoner deny belonging to the Halifax ? -A. He said he 
was an American, and not belonging to the Halifax. 

Q. On your going on board the Chesapeake, did you hear any conver- 
sation that passed respecting deserters, whether they acknowledged or 
denied having any? A. The captain of her said, he did not know they 
had any deserters on board. 

Q. Did the prisoner stand on the Chcsapcako's books by his present 
name, or by what other? A I think, by the name of Wilson. 

Q. Previously to the action between the Leopard and the American 
frigate, do you know if there was any correspondence by letter, between 
Captain Humphries and the commander of the Chesapeake, to demand 
the deserters then on board ? A. Yes. 

Q. Did you hear any thing that passed after the correspondence be- 
tween Captain Humphries and the commander of the Chesapeake? 
A. I did hear Captain Humphries say, " Commodore Barron, you must be 
aware of the necessity I am under of complying with the orders of my 
commander- in-chief " lie replied, "You may do as you please." 

Q. Did you understand that as a refusal to comply with Captain Ilum- 
jihrics* wishes to have the Knglish deserters given up iroiu tne Chesapc-ake 
to tlifc Leopard ? A. Yes. 

Q. How long was it from the time of first sending the boaf on board the 
Chesapeake, until the action commenced ? A. The boat was on hoard 
the Chesapeake about three quarters of an hour, wiicn the s : gn;>l -A as 
made for her from the Leopard : she returned in about ten minutes aiu-r, 
with a letter, which Captain Humphries took into the cabin, mid read; 
tJieii ordered the guns to be primed, tired one gnu athwart her !>ow, and 
then hailed as before, to which a similar reply WHS made : Captain Hum- 
phries then ordered the fire to commence, beginning with the foremost guu 
n the lower deck, and gave t.cr about three broadsides. 

Q Were the crew of the Chesapeake mustered previous to the finding 
of itatford in the coal-hole? A. No; not. until afterwards. 

Q. Wl-at other deserters were taken out of the American frigate ?- 
A.. Three, bcioiigu.ig to the Melaiupus. 



NAVAr, HISTORY OF THE PRE5EXT YEAR, 1807. 339 

Q. Were there many Englishmen mustered on board her ? A. About 
twelve men and boys. 

Q. Were any of those Englishmen demanded, or any other men de- 
manded, or taken out, except known deserters ? A. No. 

The prisoner having no questions to ask, the evidence withdrew. 

Mr. James Simpson Well's, clerk of the Halifax, was called in and 
sworn. lie produced the complete book of the Halifax; swore to its corr 
redness ; and, by direction of the court, pointed out to the judge advo- 
cate the five men stated by the charge to have deserted, which he did as 
follows : 

Richard Hubert, saihnakcr, born in Liverpool, England, aged CJ?. 

Henry Sounders, yeoman of the sheets, born in (Jrecnock, aged 2G. 

Jenkin itatford, ordinary, born in London, aged 34. 

George North, GAptaill of the main-top, born in Kinsale, aged 27. 

William HiH, able, born at Philadelphia, aged 21; entered at Antigua. 

Q. Do you know the prisoner to be one of the men you have now 
named r A. Yes, I do, by the name of Jenkin Ralford. 

Q. Have you any reason for bel.eving the prisoner to have been boru 
in London ? A. I think I was present when iiis description was taken, 
and hr gave tLe place of his birth, London, himself. 

The prisoner Iriving no questions to ask, the evidence withdrew ; and 

Mr. James I5.iik.ie, secretary to Vice-Admiral Berkeley, swore to the fol- 
lowing letters being copies of those sent to the communder-iu-chief, w hen 
they were read, and are as follow : 

To Jonx EIISKIXE Dour.i.AS, Esq. Captain of his Majesty's ship Bellorn, 
and senior oflicer, &c. &c. Cliesapeak. 

Ilia Mitjt'si;i'i! ship Leopard, at Sea, 
SIR, 'tldJnne, 1807. 

In obedience to your signal this morning, to weigh and reconnoitre S. V,. 
by E. f. have the honour to acquaint you, that having arrived off Capo 
Jlenry, to the distance of about four or live leagues, t bore up, pursuant 
to uvders from the commander in chief, to search for deserters on hoard the 
United States frigate Chesapeake. On arriving within hail, an ofriccr was 
despatched, according to my instructions, to shew the order to her com- 
mander, together with the following note from myself: 

" The captain of his Britannic Majesty's ship Leopard has the honour to 
enclose the captain of the United States frigate Chesapeake, an order from 
the Hon. Vice-Admiral Berkeley, commander i:i chief of his Majesty's ship?, 
on the North American station, respecting some deserters from ships, there- 
in mentioned, under his command, and supposed now to be serving as u 
part of the crew of the Chesapeake. 

" The captain of the Leopard will not presume to say any thing in ad- 
dition to what the o mmanuer in thief lias stated, more thin to express a, 
hope, that every circumstance respecting them may be. adjusted in such a 
manner, that the harmony subsisting between the two countries may remain 
undisturbed." 

The boat, after an absence of three quarters of an hour, returned with 
the follow ing answer : 

" I know of no such men as you describe ; the officers that were on the 
recruiting!; service for this ship, were particularly instructed by the govern- 
ment, through me, not to enter any deserters from his Britannic Majesty's 
ships: nor do I know of any being here. 

" I am also instructed, never to permit the crew of any ship that I com- 
mand to be mustered by any other but her own oiliccrs : ir js my disposition 



340 KATAI. HISTORY F THE PRESENT YEAR, 1807. 

to preserve harmony ; and I hope this answer to your despatch will prove 
satisfactory. 

" JANES BAP.ROX. 
" Commander of the United Statts ship Chesapeake." 

On the receipt of this letter, motives of humanity, nnd an ardent desire 
to prevent bloodshed, induced me, it' possible, to endeavour to make the 
search, without recurring to more serious measures, by repeatedly hailing 
and remonstrating, without effect. I then directed a shot to be fire-d across 
the bow; after \vhich he was a;ain hailed : the answer* a^ain were equally 
evasive. Conceiving, therefore, that my orders would not admit of devia- 
tion, 1 lament to state, that I fck myself under the necessity of enforcing 
them, by firing into the United States ship ; a few shot were returned, but 
none struck this ship. At the cxpiranon of ten minutes from the first shot 
being fired, the pendant and ensign of the Chesapeake were lowered. I 
then gave the necessary directions for her being searched, according to my 
instructions; and herewith send yon a statement of the number and names 
of die deserters found on board. Several other English subjects composed 
part of the crew of the frigate ; but as tiicy did not claim the protection 
of the British flay;, and were not within the limits of my orders from the 
commander in chief, I therefore allowed thttn to remain. 

After the search had been made, and previous to separation, the captain 
sent me the annexed note;* which, with my answer,f I have the honour to 
subjoin; and have the honour to be. Sir. 

Your most obedient humble servant, 

S. P. HUMPHRIES. 

.Sergeant TlichnrdTrodsham, of the royal marines, of his Majesty's ship 
Bellona, called in, and sworn, to truly answer what he knew of the prisoner, 
as also to such questions as the court mi^ht a^k him. lie had heard tl.e 
charges read. 

Q. Do you know any thins of the prisoner? A. Only that he was con- 
fined on board the Bdiona, as a deserter from the Halifax. 

Q. Were you on board his Majesty's ship Chichcbter in the Chesapeake, 
floins; duty as a sergeant of marines r A. Yes : 1 was sent from theBelloiifi 
to his Majesty's ship Chichestor, on the 10th November, 1800, and remained 
there mail the 15th March, 1H07. 

* Copy of a Letter from Commodore IJurron to Captain Humphries. 

" SIR, 

" I consider the frigate Chesapeake as your prize, and am ready to de- 
liver her to uny oih'cer authorised to receive her. By the return of the boat 
I shall expect your answer ; and have the honour to be, Sir, 
Your most obedient humble servant, 

" At Scti t June 22, 1807. " JAMES BARROX." 

+ AXSWER. 

" His Majesty's ship Leopard, (id Sen"), June 22, 1807. 
" sru, 

" Havirg, to the utmost of my power, fulfilled the instructions of my 
commander in chief, I have nothing more to desire; and must, in conse- 
quence, proceed to join the remainder of the squadron, repeating, that I 
am ready to give you every assistance in my power; and do most sincerely 
deplore, that any lives should have been lost in the execution of a service, 
which might have been adjuster! more amicably, not only with respect to 
ourselves, but to the nations to which we respectively belong. 
" 1 have the honour to be, sir, 

" Your moat obedient humble servant, 
" S. P. 



XAYAL HTSTORT OF THE PRESENT YEAR, 1807. 341 

Q. Bo you know of any deserters from Fort Xclson being claimed by the 
American commandant? A. Yes. 

Q. Relate to the court ttie particulars. A. In the early part of February 
last, the Chichester being alongside die what f nt Gosport, in Virginia, I 
aw a party of soldiers under arms, consisting of the commandant of Fort 
Nelson, a sergeant, corporal, and four privates, coming from the fort to 
the wharf alongside which the Chichester was lying. Waving entered tha 
gates, they proceeded to Captain Stopfofs lodgings: when I was sent for 
by him, and asked if there were any deserters on board from the fort ? I an* 
ewered, there \vere not any. The captain said, " There are three, are there* 
apt?'' and directed me to give them up to the person I supposed to he the 
commandant. I, with the assistance of the officers, searched the shift, but 
could not find them, and repmtrd accordingly to the captain, wha thcu 
ordered all hands to be turned up, in order to search more particul'-.j'ly, a* 
lie was determined to give them up. I, with the master, and other officers, 
renewed the search ; and, at the expiration of an hour, two were found 
under the stores in the hold ; the third was found in one of the siore-housesj 
under the sails. Captain Stopford directed Mr. Brookes, one of the mid" 
shipmen of the ship, to be confined, for telling Captain Saunders, that he 
thought it was not rigHft to a,ive up their deserters, when they would not ivo 
up ours. The deserters were then pot in a boar, and taken by the Ameri- 
can captain and guard to the fort. Their names were, William Burn, a 
shoemaker by trade, an Irishman, born in Londonderry ; William Jones a 
weaver by trade, horn at Manchester, in England ; the name or pi ice of 
bin!) of the third person, I do not recollect. 

Q. Do you know of any of the crew, or supernumeraries, deserting from 
the Chichester, and entering into the American military service ? A. Yes : 
convalescents, who came from the regiments, &c. in the West Indies, for re- 
covery of their health. 

Q. Relate the particulars. A. Robert Simpson and Francis Sedgewidr^ 
of the royal artillery ; William Phillips, corporal of royal marines, In-long- 
ing to the Chichester; Benjamin Withers, of the loth regiment <' ' rVot ; 
and John Mahoney, of the 3?th, deserted from the duel. ester, ju.^ie of 
which enlisted in the English uniform, into the American ^nicr. ;'iid were 
afterwards seen by me in the American military uniform. S son and 
Mahoney were Iiishmen, and Wither* and Phillips, ] ;:Jishme ). from the 
county of Lancaster. I do not know \vhat ceHOtrymanr^Sed^ewick wns ; 
but have repeatedly heard them all declare, they were strangers to the . 
United States. 

The evidence withdrew; and 

Captain John Erskinc Douglas, of Lis Majesty's ship Bollona, sworn. 

Q. Were you senior officer of his Majesty's sh'ps in the Gbeanpeake, 
when tl. men, stated by the last witness, deserted from the Chichester? 
A. I was senior officer. 

Q. Did you make any application for those men ? A. I did make appli- 
cation, but they were not given up ; and, to the best of my recollection, 
the answer given was> " If any deserters from the English ju-vire have en- 
tered into the American service, they have hi en sent with a detachment 
info the country. 

The prisoner was now called upon for his defence, having been told, at 
-the examination of each witness, that he might a^k any que.-'i^a he pkased. 
After retiring for a short time with the judte. advocate, iie returned into 
Court, and stated, that the evidence brought against him was so strong, 
there was but Itiile left for him to say in his defence ; but th t the r'.'ason 
wf his hiding in the coal-hole WHS for ftar of the Americans malii:*; him figi.t 
against hi* country, which be declared he wouW hot do on any account; 
tflJt he, with all the men who i!oiru-d from the Halifax, vvert 

. tfferor. SUI.XVlil. Y Y 



312 NAVAI, HISTORY OF THE PRESENT YEAR, 1807. 

by the boatswain to enlcr fur the Ohesagcake, to protect themselves, 
which they did : Lieutenant Sinclair asking them if tliey had not a second 
name. About thirty men went in the lust draft with him to the Chesa- 
peake, when Captain Gordon mustered them ; and they were mustered 
again in Hampton Roads bv the commodore. lie requested leave to call 
one evidence in again, to ask his officers for a character ; and then lie threw 
himself on the mercy of the court. 

Lord James Townshend, and the ptlier officers, stated, that prior to the 
chaises lie had always behaved himself as a quiet steady man. 

The court were of opinion that the charges were proved, and adjudged 
the prisoner to suffer death. 

The sentence of the court martial was carried into effect, at the fore yard- 
arm of his Majesty's sloop of war Halifax, on the Monday following, 
August 31st. 

. Three deserters from the Melampus, who were taken out of the Chesa- 
peake, were also tried, found guilty, and sentenced to receive 500 lashes 
each, but were afterwards pardoned. 

On the 2d of October, a court martial was held on board the Salvador 
del Mundo, in Hnmoaze, Plymouth, on charges exhibited by Captain 
Dilkes, or his Majesty's ship Hazard, against William Berry, first lieutenant 
of the said ship, for a breach of the 2d and 29th articles; the former re- 
specting unclcanness, and the latter the horrid and abominable crime which 
delicacy forbids us to name. 

Thomas Gibbs, a boy belonging to the ship, proved the offence, a"s charg- 
ed to have been committed on the 23d of August, 1807. 

Several other witnesses were called in corroboration ; among whom was 
Klizabeth Bowdcn, a female who has been on board the Hazard these eight 
months. Curiosity had prompted her to look through the key-hole of the 
cabin-door, and it vvas thus she became possessed of the evidence which she 
gave. She appeared in court dressed in a long jacket and blue trowsers. 

The evidence being heard in support of the charges, but the prisoner not 
being prepared to enter iij/on his defence, he begged time, which the court 
readily granted, until ten o'clock the next day, at which hour the court 
assembled again, and having heard what the prisoner had to offer in his de- 
fence, and having maturely and deliberately weighed and considered the 
same, the court were of opinion, "that the charges had been fully proved ; 
and did adjudge the said William Uerry to be handed at the- yard-arm of 
such one of his Majesty's ships, and at such time, as the Right Honourable 
the Commissioners of the Admiralty shall direct. Sir J. T. Duckworth was 
the president. 

The unfortunate prisoner was a native of Lancaster, and only in his 22d 
vear, aboresix feet hi:h, remarkably well made, and us fine and lauidsomfi 
n man as in the British navy. He was to have been married ou his return 
to port. 

The awful sentence of the court martial was carried into execution on 
Monday the IPth of October, on board the Hazard, in Plymouth Sound. 
thr prisoner having been vemoved from the Salvador del Mundo into that 
> f iip which lay alongside a luilk in tlamoa/e. At nine o'clock he appeared, 
and mounted the scaffold with the greatest fortitude. He then requested tu 
ftpeak with the Rev. Mr. Birdwoodon the scnffuld; he said a few words to 
him, but in so low u tone of voice they could not be distinctly heard. The 
fclue *>ap being put over his face, the fatal bow gun was fired, and he was 
nut up to thf starboard fore-yard-arm, with a thirty-two pound shot tied to 
his feet. Unfortim-.i < ly I.'IL; knot had got round under his chin, which 
caused great convulsion*' for u quarter of an hour. After being su*- 
iht 1 ithiial time:, he was luwcred into hi* cuti'm, which wa remlj 



NAVAL HISTORY OF THE PRESENT YEAR, 1807. 343 

It) receive him in a boat immediately under, and conveyed to the Royal 
Hospital, where his friends meant to apply for his body for interment. He 
was dressed in a blue coat, white waistcoat, blue pantaloons, and boats. 
For the last week he seemed penitent, firmly collected, and prepared to 
meet his fate. 

A curious circumstance occurred while the prisoner was in the cabin with 
the clergyman, receiving the sacrament: A woman came alongside tie 
Hazard, and handed up a letter, signed Elizabeth Roberts, to the com- 
manding officer, which stated, that Lieutenant Berry could yet be saved, 
and the person who could do it was alongside: it was by marriage. The 
woman was ordered on board, and put under the care of a centincl. When 
the execution was over, Captain Dilkes, with the clergyman and others, 
questioned the woman. She said, she dreamed a dream the preceding 
night, that if she went on board the Hazard that day, and Lieutenant Bony 
would marry her, he would riot suffer death. She was asked who advised - 
her ? She replied, that the had told her dream to some women, where she 
lived in dock, who recommended her to go, in consequence of her dream. 
She was admonished, and sent on shore. 

On the 10th of October, a court martial was held on board the Salvador 
del Mundo, in Hamoaze, to try Mr. Thomas Forest, master of his .Majes- 
ty's ship I'Aigle, for disobedience and for contempt. Both charges being 
fully proved, the prisoner was sentenced to be dismissed from his situation 
in the navy, and rendered incapable of serving in suoh situation in future; 
and to serve before the mast on board such ship as the commander in chief 
at Plymouth shall please to direct. 

On the 17th, a court martial was held on board the same ship, on Lieu- 
tenant Thomas Beckford liornbrook, of the royal marines, and Mr. Wm. 
Hamilton, surgeon, both of his Majesty's siiip i'Aigle, on a charge of the 
former for pulling the nose of the hitter, and the surgeon using aggravating 
means to induce Lieutenant liornbrook to do so. The court having duly 
Weighed and considered the said charge, sentenced Lieutenant Hornbrook 
to be severely reprimanded, and put at the bottom of the list of first lieu- 
tenants in 1304 ; and Surgeon Hamilton to be dismissed his situation as 
surgeon of his .Majesty's ship I'Aigle. After sentence, Sir J. T. Duck- 
worth admonished the prisoners in an able and very appropriate speech. 



on 

Copied verbatim from the Loxvox GAZETTE. 

ADMIRALTY IT ICE, SEPTEMBER 19, 1807. 

Extract of n Letter from Captain James Tineas Yeo, Commander of his 
Majesty's Sloop theConfiance, dated iff La Guardia, the IQlh August , 
1807, transmitted to this Office by Admiral Lord Gardner. 

~Tf HAVE the pleasure to acquaint you, that in proceeding to Qporto, 
~1*- agreeable to my orders, I received information of a small Spanish lugger 
privateer, being in la Guardia, th.it had been committing great depredations 
on our trade on the coast of Portugal; it being calm, and within a few miles 
of that port, I despatched the boats under the commnnd of Mr. William 
Hovenden Wulkcr, first lieutenant, assisted by Messrs. Herbert (master's 
mate,) and Fordcr, (midshipman,) to cut her out, which they performed in 
a most gallant manner, the two forts and privateer being perfectly prepared 
to receive them, and opened a heavy tire on our boats long before they 
reached the vessel, which was moored under thorn, and from the prisoners' 



344 VAVAL HISTORY OF THE PRESENT YEAR, 1807. 

i 

account mounted four twenty- four-pounders, the other six eighteen-pounders, 
and one hundred and fifty troops : she proves to be the el Ilehrada, of 
Guardia, mounting one twelve and two four-pounders, with thirty men, one 
of which was killed, several wounded, and the rest jumped overboard. I 
atu happy to add it was accomplished without any loss on our side. Lieu- 
tenant Walker speaks in the highest manner of Messrs. Herbert and For- 
der, as also of all the seamen and marines of the party. 

OCTOBER 10. 

A Letter from Captain Mundy to Vice- Admiral Lord Collingwood, of a/hick 
the following is a Copy, has been transmitted to the Secretary of the Admi- 
ralty, by Reai -Admiral Purvis. 

His Majesty's Ship, Hydra, at Sea, 

My LORD, August 7, 181)7. 

I have the honour to relate, that I cliased three armed polaccas into the 
harbour of Begu, on the coast of Catalonia, late last night; and having re- 
onnoitered this morning, deemed an attempt on them practicable, although 
under the close protection of a battery and tower. 

At fifty minutes after noon the ship was anchored, with springs on the 
cables, at the entrance of the port, and began the attacK; a smart lire -was 
returned by the enemy, which however considerably abated after some- 
what more than an hour's action; on perceiving which, I ordered a party of 
iifty seamen a:ul marines, under the command of the second lieutenant, 
{Mr. Drury,) with Lieutenants Hayes and Pengelly, of the marines, Mr. Fin- 
laison, (midshipman,) Mr. Goddard, (clerk,) volunteer, attended by Mr. 
Bailey, assistant surgeon, to laud on the flank of the enemy, and drive: 
them from thciv guns, keeping up a heavy fire from the Hydra, to cover the 
boats, yet, notwithstanding our endeavours to draw the particular attention 
of the battery, the detachments were soon exposed to a cross discharge of 
landgrage from the shipping and fort, as well as musketry from the rocks : 
unshaken, howcver^.tliey advanced ; and having mounted the cliff, which 
was most difh'cuk of access, they attacked the fort with such intrepidity, 
that the enemy did not think proper to await their closing, but spiking the 
guns, rushed out on the one side us our brave fellows entered at the other. 
The battery contained four twenty-six-pouoders. 

This gallant achievement gave me an opportunity of employing the 
broadside solely on the vtssek, from which a constant lire was still kept ou 
our people on shore. 

On gaining the guns, Mr. Drury advanced with the seamen and a few 
marines to the town, leaving Mr. Hayes and his party to retain them, and 
to occupy the heights that commanded the decks of the vessels, and from 
which he could annuy the enemy, who were in great numbers on the oppo- 
site side of the harbour, which is extremely narrow. As soon as the town 
was cleared of the enemy, the crews abandoned -their vessels, but formed in 
groups of musketry among the rocks and bushes, firing on the seamen, who 
had i.ow seized the Loath on the beach, and were boarding the pojaccas, 
while another party of the enemy had gained a height above the marines, 
and kept them continually engaged, notwithstanding borne guns were kept 
playing on them from the Hydra. 

At Is-iif past three, observing Mr. Drury in full possession of the vessels, T 
sent the rest of the boats, under Lieutenant Little, to assist in towing them 
out, raid at four had the satisfaction of seeing them rounding the point, when 
the marines re-embarked under a heavy discharge of musketry, the enemy 
having collected their whole force to harass the retreat. 

When review the circumstances attending the debarkation of this 
handful of men, ami reflect on the many difficulties they had Jw surmount 
ill an attack on u fort strongly defended by nature', us well as art, there 
.0>j*-oi>ed to Jtaore than tly te times their ibrce for two Lows, succeeding if; 



NAVAL HISTORY OF THE . "PRESENT TE^R 1807. 345 



possessing themselves of the vessels, and deliberately laying out hawsers to 
the very rocks that were occupied by the enemy, and warping tlieai out 
gainst a fr^sli breeze, exposed to a galling fire of musketry, 1 feel perfectly 
incapable in' writing a panegyric equal to their merits; but it has not re- 
quired th-i? exploit to stamp these officers with the character of cool judg- 
ment and determined bravery. Duriug the term of four years I have wit- 
nessed frequent instances of the gallantry of Lieutenants Drury and Hayes J 
and Lieutenant Penally, (though not of so long a standing in the Hydra) 
has ever been a volunteer on such services. 

I have ,il>o the greatest pleasure in adding, that tn"e above-mentioned 
officers speak in enthusiastic terms of the behaviour of all employed under 
them : to your lordship's notice and protection, therefore, 1 beg most 
strongly to recommend them. 

The conduct of the re-st of the officers and ship's company fully equalled 
my utmost wishes; to the tremendous fire they kept up I attribute the 
suiallness of our loss ad damage, namely one killed and two wounded 
onboard, and tour wounded of the detachment, the fore anil luiztn top- 
inasts and foretop-sailyard ehot through, a few in the hull, and the rigging 
triilingly cut, is all the damage. 

To Mr. M'Kcnzie, the first lieutenant, who lias served with me the whole 
of the war, I feel much indebted for his assistance throughout this little* 
enterprise. 

A description of the captured vessels, and the names of the killed and 
wounded, f inclose for your lordship's information. The Prince Eugene 
and Caroline wen return;:;^ to Marseilles. 

1 have the honour to be, &c. 

So i he Ri. Hon. Lard Collingwaud, G. MUNDY. 

CGimnander in. (-'h:ej\ $c. 

A List f>f Vessels cc;, tared by His Majesty's Ship, the Hydra, Aug. 7, 1807. 

Volr.ccd ship, Prince F.UL'C-ne, of 16 guns (pierced for CUJ) and 120 men. 
Polacra brig, La Belle Caroline, of 10 guns (pierced for 14) and 40 men. 
i'ojuco.i t.-iig, II Carmen de llosurio, of 4 guns (pierced for 10) and '. J men. 

Names of the killed and wounded Iclongin" to His Majestj/"s S'lip the 

Hi/dra, Angus! 7] 1307, 
Henry Brown, sen;nan, kiHed. 
Mr. G.-.cklart, clerk, slightly wounded; Serjeant Bush, ditto; Charles 

Simpson, <, .Tian, ditto; Jer. M'Carthy, seaman, severely wounded; 

Javncs Snlii .>!), seaman, dangerously wounded; George Salisbury, 

private marine, ditto. 

OCTOBER 10. 
Cnpyofa Letter from Captain Brace, to Vice Admirid Whitshcd, Cornandc^ 

in Chief on lite Cvust of Ireland, and trunsmiittd by hi>u to the Hon. 

If. W.'Vole. 
si a, Virginia, at Sea, September 28, 1807. 

Since my letter of tiie -?5th, which stated the situation of the sloops you 
were pleased to place under my command, I have the honour to acquaint-. 
you, that by availing inyscl:' of your orders, and the information I derived 
from the Mary, of Liverpool, I succeeded in intercepting the Jesus Maria 
Josef, Spanish Lugger privateer, of fourteen twelve-pounders, and one 
hundred and twenty men, when she left St. Sebastian on the 1 ^ instant, 
but only forty-five on board when taken yesterday morniijg, null sxir.e Kng- 
Jiah prisoners. She appears a complete ve?sol of iier description, well 
anmd and appointed, and to have been commanded by a dashing onter- 
pn^ing character, too well acquainted with our coast, hatwg captured thirty-- 
five bail, nine during this crui/e. Through t:u- chance of v\ar he lias 'alien, 
mud was the only pcrsya hurt, his viaic-l nctsurreudcri;-.^ jiuii tne 



346 NAVAL HISTORY Ot THE PRESENT YEAR, 1807. 

had riddled his sails, and the grape-shot brought them down; he expired of 
a musket-hall wound as the surceon went to his assistance. 

I have detached Lieutenant Powell, of this ship, in the prize, to rescue, 
if possible, the captured vessels, and to afford information to the cruisers, 
felying on his exertions. 

On closing my letter, I have the pleasure to add, that I have just recap- 
tured the Commerce, another of the lugger's prizes. 

I have the honour to he, &c. 

(Signed) E. BRACE. 



^Promotions' anU appointments. 

Admirulhi Office, October <2, 1807. 

In pursuance of the King's pleasure, the undermentioned captains were 
this day appointed flag officers of his Majesty's fleet; viz. John Hunter, 
Esq. Francis Fender, Esq. William Albany Otway, Esq. George Lums- 
daine, Esq. Sir Samuel Hood, K.B. Henry Nichols, Esq. Herbert Sawyer, 
Esq. Davidge Gould, Esq. Richard Goodwin Keates, Esq. to be rear-ad- 
mirals of the blue. 

October 6. 

The King has been pleased to appoint William Lechmere, Esq. and 
Thomas Foley, Esq. tt> be colonels of iiis Majesty's royal marine forces ; 
iii the room of Sir Samuel Hood, K.B. and R. G. Keates, Esq. appointed 
flag officers of his Majesty's fleet. 

The Hon. Captain t\ oodhouse, to the Cumberland, 74 guns, recently 
launched at Northfleet. 

Captain Walker, is appointed to the Bedford ; Captain Manby, to the 
Thalia; Thomas Kite, Esq. to be chief clerk to the Admiralty, rice Charles 
Wright, Esq. deceased. 

Captain /ilauchctt, who distinguished himself in the command of a 
division of the boats employed before Copenhagen, has been appointed 
to the command of the Danish frigate Fredericawaern, which was taken 
by the Comus. 

Captain Otter is appointed to command the Proserpine frigate, recently 
fitted at Chatham ; as is Captain Harris to the command of the Barra- 
conta sloop of war, at the same port. 

Mr. Smith, the brother of Sir Sidney, has lately had a pension of 1,5001. 
a year granted him. 

Vice-Admiral Holloway, commander in chief on the Newfoundland sta- 
tion, has made the following appointments : Sub-Lieutenant White, of 
the Adonis cutter, to be lieutenant of the Isis, in the room of Lieutenant 
Haverticld, invalided on account of ill health ; Mr. Si son, masterVmate 
of the Isis, promoted to the rank of lieutenant, and appointed to the 
Avenger, in the room of Lieutenant Forrest, dismissed the service by the 
sentence of a court martial, for abusing the first lieutenant of that ship. 

Captain Bertesworth is appointed to the Tartar; Hon. Captain Cadogan, 
to the Crocodile ; Captain Dunbar, to the Lconidas; Mr. Little, to be 
master-rigger of Portsmouth dock-yard: Mr. Crcsy, to be master-rigger 
of Chatham dock-yard; Lieutenant llencock, to the San Antonio, prison- 
ship at Portsmonth. 

Lieutenant IIolFman, of the Diamond, has been promoted to the com- 
mand of the Favorite, by the death of Captain Nairnc; and Mr. Ailing- 
ton, midshipman of the Diamond, is promoted to be third lieutenant of 
that ship. 

Captain Worsley is appointed to the Intrepid (at Portsmouth) ; Captain 
W. King is promoted to be a post captain ; Captain Clephaue is appointed 
to the Nautilus. 



NAVAL HISTORY OF THE PRESENT YEAR, 1807. 347 

The following captains, who were passed over ia the late promotion 
of admiral*, are placed on the superannuated list of captains, with the 
nominal rank of rear-admirals, viz. Captains J. Boyle, Laird, Goldsbo- 
rongh, Heath, Stow, J. Smith, and Peyton. 

Captain Griffith is appointed to the Sultan, a new 74. 

Captain Malbon, to the Adamant. 

Captain Fyflfe, pro tempore, to the Hebe. 

Captain W. Mitchell, to be paying commissioner afloat at Chatham. 

J. Johnson, Esq. surgeon, is appointed to the Valiant, of 74 guns, 
now in the Baltic, 

BIRTH. 
At Plymouth, the lady of Captain S. H. Linzee, of a daughter. 

MARRIAGE?. 

At Linton, Kent, the Rev. II. W. Nevillie, second son of C. Nevillie, 
Esq. of Wallingore, Lincolnshire, to Miss Amelia Mann, second daughter 
of J. Mann, Esq. 

^t St. George's church, Hanover-square, Captain Bettesworth, of the 
Crocodile frigate, to Lady Hannah Grey, youngest daughter of Earl Grey, 
and sister to Viscount Howick. 

On Sd October, at ft. Hillier's, Jersey, Lieutenant Ivie, of the royal 
navy, to Miss Harriet Dix, late of Exeter. 

Lately, at Newfoundland, Lieutenant J. Blakeney, to Miss M'Gie, 
a young lady possessing a fortune of 10,0001. 

On 28th September, atFalmouth, John Nepean, Esq. lieutenant in the 
royal navy, to Miss Oates, daughter of M. Gates, Esq. of Bellair, near 
Fal mouth. 

At Christchurch, Hants, Captain Stuart, of the royal navy, second soa 
of the late Hon. Sir Charles Stuart, K.B. to Miss Sullivan, eldest daugh- 
ter of the Right Hon. John Sullivan. 

On 25th August, in St. Christopher's, the Right. Hon. Lord Cranstoun, 
to Miss Macnamara, eldest daughter of John Macnamara, Esq. at the 
Retreat, a country residence of the latter. 

On 15th October, at Marylebone Church, Sir John Louis, Bart, captain 
in the royal navy, and son of the late admiral, to Miss Kirkpatrirk, 
eldest daughter of Colonel William Kirkpatrick, of the Bengal establish- 
ment. 

OBITUARY. 

On 1st August, at Antigua, Lord Lavington, governor-general of the 
West India Islands. 

On 19th September, at Brompton, John Robinson, Esq. a super- 
annuated rear-admiral, in the 75th year of his age. 'This gentleman' 
received his commission, as post-captain, in the year 1774: and, in. 
1794, when he became entitled to a flag, by seniority, he was placed 04 
the list of superannuated rear-admirals. 

In Great Russell street, Bloomsbury, S. Gre : g, Esq. commissioner for 
the navy of his Imperial Majesty, the Emperor of Russia, and officiating 
Russian consul-general in Great Britain, aged 29. 

Lately, off Sardinia, Mr. JamesJBruce, purser of his Majesty'* ship 
JEltttra. 



S48 NAVAL UISTOKY OT? THE PRESEXT YEAH, 1S07. 

On 1st October, at his npartments at Greenwich Hospital, Lieutenarit. 
Teter Van Courf, the oldest lieutenant on that establishment, and in hi* 
Majesty's service. Ke was promoted to tiiat rank on the 24th December, 
1747, and was in the S6th year of hife age. 

On 30th May, at Ca'oenda, on board the ship Crescent, Mr. Richard 
Fpencer, aged 20, eldest Jon of the late Captain John Spencer, of Liver-' 
pool, a young man much and deservedly lamented hy his relatives and 
friends. 

On 3 1st August, in her 26th year, at Stowey-house, near Bath, Lady 
"William Stuart, wife of Lord W. Stuart, of the royal navy, son of the 
Marquis of Bute. Her ladyship was daughter of the first Lord Harwar- 
den, of Prior Park, and has left issue one daughter. 

At his house, at Burr's Ash, on the borders of the New Forest, Hamp- 
shire, iu-tbe 49th year of hisage, Thomas Moody, F.sq. one of the oldest 
licuter.auts in the navy, superannuated with the rank of commander. He 
serve'.' as lieutenant in the ship with the late Admiral Sir Charles Knowlcs^ 
in all Ins actions in the West Indies, in the war which ended in 17-J8 i^ 
acd a^ain in the succeeding war, until the admiral struck his flag iu 
i757; after which time he did not again go to sea. 

Lately, at Gibraltar (in consequence of a wound he received in a duel)* 
aged 19, Mr. John Barnes, midshipman of the Reuommie, of 74 guns, 
and son of John Barnes, Esq. of Stamford. 

At Portsea, Mr. Bush, father of Lieutenant Bush, of the royal navy. 

At Cowes, Mr. George Parke, son of Lieutenant Parke, agent for trans- 
ports at Cowes. 

On 29th August, at Brompton, where he went for the recovery of his 
health, Charles Wright, Esq. chief clerk of the Admiralty, in the 74th 
year of his age. He died, as he had lived, respected and lamented, having 
completed a period of more than fifty years ;>s a servant of the public, 
io ?. manner honourable to himself, and gratifying to the recollection of 
bis surviving and disconsolate family. In addition to his long and faith- 
ful discharge of public duty, he had actively contributed, during Iiis lifr, 
to the benefit of various charities, particularly the Asyinm and Gr.y 
Coat Hospital, of both which he wss governor ana treasurer. 

On 1st October, aged 30, Mr. Robert Freer*, lair mnsler of the ship 
Fortitude, of Liverpool. The severe wounds ho received in his gallant, 
but fruitless, attempt to preserve his ship from the grasp of the enemy 
(two French privateers of superior force), oiV Sc. Domingo, on the Hth 
of May last, brought on a fatal illness, which has at length terminated 
his existence, and left his family and friends to lament his loss. 

On 24th July, on the coast of Africa, Captain John Xairne, of his 
Majesty's sloop Favourite. The loss of this voting officer is not greater 
io his friends than to his country ; his natural temper and habits emi- 
nently qualified him to become a distinguished ornnittent to his profession. 
In the company of his friends, he was mild and amiable; in the presence 
of an enemy, he was coo), intrepid generous, and brave $ and in his 
deportment to his ship's company, lie happily formed the difficult com- 
bination of kindness and firmness. Hi respected remains were interred 
ia> Cape Coast Casile, 



319 



NAVAL COMMERCIAL REPORT. 

New Lloyd's Ct&c-Houte, Oct. 26, 1807. 

SIVCE our last Report have arrived au East Indian, the Jamaica, and 
Leeward Island fleets, with large quantities of East and West Indian produce, 
to a market already over supplied for home consumption ; nor can we expect 
it otherwise, until tlie northern ports are open to receive our surplus of 
sugar and coftee, particularly : as to rum and cotton, the chief part of 
these articles are used at home. 

Cargoes of the Harriot, Monarch, Sovereign, and Alexander, from Ben- 
gal ; Lord Castlereagh, Asia, and Bengal, from Bengal, Fort St. George, 
and Colombo; Earl St. Vincent, from Bombay, Anjengo, and Calicut ; Lord 
Nelson, from Bengal and Tellicherry ; Lady Jane Dundas, Walthamstow, 
and Hugh Lnglis, from Bengal and Prince of Wales Island: and lluddart, 
from Bombay: arrived on account or' Ike United Company of Merchants vf 
jSiigtand, trading to the East Indies : * 

Piece'. 

Bengal Goods. Muslins ..... 42,:>12 
Calicoes ..... 1.57,.104 
Prohibited .... 68,739 



Madras Goodt. Muslins, handkerchiefs,") - r . Q 
and calicoes j ' 
Prohibited .... 42,734 
Bombay Goods. Calicoes .... 5,891 
Prohibited .... 101,085 

Ibs. Privilege Go 
Raw sillc .... - 152-a.iO Tnrlion 


odt. 
chests 
bales 
do. 
do. 
chests 
do. 
do. 
bali-s 
No. 

jars 
chests 
do. 
do. 
do. 
bags 
do. 


3,6;M 
1,584 

1,071 
It 

3<J6 
30 
8'i 

36 
30 
39 
174 
30 
600 
SI 


Saltpetre 


47 016 


Cotton-wool 
Privilege goods . . 
Cotton . . . 




7,800 
4,800 
1,618.105 

316 
213,601 
90.853 
302,567 
44,870 

ntnt. 
316 


Cochineal .... 




Gum Tragr.canth . . 
Gum Arabic . . . 
Rhubarb .... 
Raw silk .... 
Bullock hides . . . 
Castor oil, and green 

Safflower .... 
Ciimphirc .... 


Pepper 
Hemp . 


Specimens of copper ore . 
Nutmeg* 


Cloves 


Cinnamon 


JVIace 


Subscription Intest/ 
Bales . 


Gun Animi .... 


Gall nuts .... 



Besides several other parcels of goods, the particulars of which are not 

yrt kntnvn. 

The next sale of tea is declared by the Honourable thn E:ist Fiicha Co<n- 



pany u follows, viz. Bohca 

Congou and Cnmpoi 
Souchong and Pekoe 
Si ndo and Twankay 
Hsonskin . . . 



500.000 tits. 
-J ; 300,000 
200,000 
700,uoo 
100,000 
300,008 



Totul, including private trade C,IO(),OCO 
On Mutiny, the 7 Ik Dcfeailcr, \W7.--Vr-jnipt, 4t/i Irhnh, JS03. 

, C^ron, WoI.XVllI. z / 



350 

The Russian sloop of war, Diana, Captain Golorin, has arrived at Spit- 
hoar!, from St. Petersburg, fitted for a voyage of discoveries iu the North 
Pacific Ocean. She is to touch at the Brazils, from whence she will pro- 
ceed round Cape Horn, to the sea of Kamtschatka. The object is to ex- 
plore that coast and sea more to the southward than the great Capt. Cook 
had done ; where the Russians have lately established several ports. 

From St. Vincent's, we learn the capture of a valuable Dutch East 
Indianmii, from Java, bound to Amsterdam, taken by the ship Dominica 
packet, of and from Liverpool, bound to Trinidad, where she sent her prize; 
she is supposed to be worth 100,000!. sterling, having besides the regular 
cargo, a great quantity of specie on board. 

As, no doubt, the first arrivals from Portugal will confirm that the ports 
of that kingdom were shut against us on the 20th inst. we expect to have, 
at least, the; satisfaction to hear ako, that the British factory, and British 
merchants resident there have trot away from thence, particularly as the 
vessels from Newfoundland with fish had arrived iu time to discharge their 
cargoes, and take freight for England ; by which opportunity, it is 10 be 
hoped, the wines and cotton belonging to our merchants resident at Lisbon 
and Oporto, could be shipped oif. By the last accounts received thc-ncc, 
it appears the greatest bustle prevailed at'all the ports of that country, o;j 
their hearing of the aproachof the French into Portugal. As yet we are 
unacquainted with the situation of the royal family of that country, who, it 
lias been reported, intended going to the Brazils, for which purpose, some of 
their ships of wa'r lay down at Btiim, to carry them thither. \Ve however, 
anxiously wait the arrival of another packet from Lisbon, which we fear 
will be the last from that unfortunate country. With respect to our com- 
merce with Portugal, we shall feel no loss whatever, as the principal part of 
it was confined to & few individuals called " The British factory" all of whom 
were wine merchants and dealers in cotton, fruit, &c. Our importations 
from Portugal, before the additional duty on wine, was nearly 50,000 pipes 
annually into the united kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland ; but since 
that (hity took place, the importation or consumption of ft ntiine port wine 
has decreased upwards of 20,003 pipes annually; last year's shipping off 
of wines from Oporto, not being quite 29,000 pipes ; thus it is, to be sup- 
posed, that the deficiency is made up, by a Bri'ish factory at home, of 
wretched stuff ia imitation of port wine. We cannot help observing, that 
instead of the revenue being benefited by the additional duty on wine, that 
the conhary is the fact, the consumption having so wonderfully decreased 
as above mentioned. \Ve, therclbre, hope the legislature will take this 
into consideration, and reduce the duties to their usual standard, for although 
the ports of Portugal may be shut against us, their wines will readily rind 
their way into our markets. 

The following is a translation of the royal edict published at Lisbon orj 
tho foregoing affair, viz. 

ROYAL EDICT. Lisbon, QdOct. 1807. 

" To Senior Gcraldo Winceslau Bnuuncap de ahneid e Castdlo Branco. 

'.' The Prince regent, our lord, not having been able to prevent the de- 
parture from tiiis court of the ambassador of his Catholic M:tje.-ty, mul tho 
V'hargfcs de.s Afuires of his Majesty the Emperor of the French and Kiiii' of 
Italy, hrisyct well foundi d hopes to expect that their absence will only be " 
temporary, and will not be followed by any act of hostility on the part of 
those powers, with whom his Royal Highness wishes to maintain a <:ood un- 
derstanding, and which hitherto, ?nd until no'v, has piVi - *iied. This wo 
romm!l)icate to your excellency, that it may be made knwn to t!.e royal 
Ciiainhi r of ConimcttV, iu order that the sume may be made known to those 
whoqi it may eoucin. FRANCISCO AHAJUO;' 



331 

With respect to Denmark, ivo have to of>.Tve, that the Crown Prince has issued a proclama- 
tion, by which the principle is asserted, " Unit tree bottoms make free goods and the Danish 
ships 9JT war are therefore strictly ordered and enjoined not to capture, bring in, or detain any* 
ship, either of friendly or neutral nations, let llie cargoes appertain to whom they may, if the 
Ship's papers are found to be regular, and she IK- not loaded with contraband of war, destined foi 
an English fleet." On the other hand " Enciuv's ships are to nnke enemy's goods, unless it 
can be satisfactorily shewn that the cargo is neutral property, and %vas put on board before the 
commencement of hostilities*" 

The manufacturers of Manchester and its neighbourhood begin to fee! severely the want of sale 
for their goods, sent out to South America, in consequence of which some considerable failures 
have already taken place in Lancashire. The cotton trade has been overdone for a considerable 
time past, and speculators in the article are like to suffer serious loss thereby. In the west of 
England our cloth manufactories are in the most flourishing stute, the horns consumption for them 
being always very great, and. the loss of foreign market for this article of little consequence to the 
trade. 



NEW LLOYD'S COFFEE-HOUSE, 26m OCT. 1807. 



or INSURANT};. 



LONDON to 






JAMAICA to 




Thj East Indies 


7 guts. 


per cent. 


Tha Aineric;in States 


15 ?s. withreturns 


Out ar.d home 


12 Ditto 




Qnrbec or Montreal 


12 ditto. 


Jamaica 


8 d.ttO, 


ret. 4!. 


Newfoundland 


12 ditto. 


Leewaj-d Islands 


Difto 




London, Liverpool, Bristol, ? 


.. 


iylu*c]duo ahore - 


KMiitco. 




Dublhi. Cork, &c. S 


to. ^ 


America { their ships! 


4 diu^. 




LEI: WARD ISLANDS to 




Ditto (British thips) 


lo ditto, 


ret. 5!. 


Quebec, Montreal, Newfound- ? 


.. 


Newfoundland 


8 ditto. 




1 md, &c. $ 


1 UlttO* 


Greenland, 'out.ind home) 


lo ditto. 




American States 


lo ditto. 


Southern Fishery ^ditto) 


2o ditto. 




Cork, Waterford, or DuMin 


10 ditto. 


Moiiteri'auean, 


10 ditto, 


ret. $1. 


Biiitol, Chester, Liverpool, 


10 ditto. 


Lisbon and Oporto 


6 ditto, 


ret 3 


NEWFOUNDLAND to 




Stockholm - ., 


5 




American States 


5 guineas. ' 


Coctcnburg - - 


t uncertain 




Jamaica and Leeward Islands 


i 9 ditto. 


Tou::in^':; Neutrals) - 


2 ditto. 




Lisbon or Oporto - - 


1 5 ditto, ret. $1. 


Dublin, Watertord, Cork, 


) , ,. 




Plymouth, Dartmouth, Exeter, &c. 


S ditto, /)!. 


N;wry, or IW.an, 


p 25 ditto. 




Bristol, Liverpool. &c. 


ditto, ditto. 


Lirnferick and Gaiway - 


4 ditto, 


ret. 2!. 


Dublin, Cork, frc. 


ditto, ditto. 


Bristol, Wales Chester, Li- 


? 




Portsmouth, London, &c. 


ditto, ditto. 


verpool, Whitehaven, &c. 
All parts of Scot'and 


? 2 ditto. 
2 ditto. 




WL'.BtC to 
CJreat Britain or Ireland - 


1 2 ditto, ret. 61. 


Hull or Gainsborough 


ij ditto. 




DENMARK. orSWLDUN to 




Guernsey, Jersey, or Al- 
derney 


{ 2 ditto. 




Bengal or China f uncertain. 
Out and nome - i 



ROYAL EXCHANGE, LONDON, C6rn OCT. 1807. 



or EXCHANGE. 



Amsterdam - 
Ditto, at sight - 
Rotterdam - 
Hamburgh - 
Altona - 


- 3? 5 
- 34 9 

112 

34 4 
34 5 


P-ilcrmo 
Leghorn 

Genoa 

V{n;.:e - 
Naples 
Lisbon - 
O|)rto - 
Dublin - 
Cork - 
Agio of the 


bank of Holland 


Bourdeaux - 
Madrid - 
Cadiz 
Bilboa - 


24 10 
40 o 
39 i 
39 i 



92 

5 

1$ 

52 

42 

6z 

62 

10* 

ill 



percent 



PRICES OF Bri.UON. 



Portugal Go'l, Coin and Bars, 

New Dollars 

Silver in Bars, standard 



per 07 

ditto 

d'jtto 



Oa board. 





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.?. 




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CroldJC3,STu>elanefUft Strrtt. 



BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIR OF 

SIR HENRY TROLLOPE, KNIGHT. 

VICE-ADMIUAL OF THE BLUE SQUADUON. 



" Free lords of the ocean \\c steer, 

In commerce supreme, as in \var; 
To the nations \ve speak without tear, 

Let the .Monsieur* contend il' they dare.'' 

OGILVJB. 

|IR HENRY TROLLOPE is the descendant of an 
ancient and distinguished family. Amongst his supposed 
ancestors were, Andrew Trollope, Esq. who signalised himself 
in the French wars, in the time of Henry VI. and was killed at 
the battle of Towton ; and Thomas Trollope, or" Thorleby, Esq. 
who married Margaret Lurnley, a daughter of Eli/abelh Plan- 
tagenet, the daughter of Edward IV. In the 3 car K)'4I, 
Thomas Trollope, Esq. of Lincolnshire, was created a baronet ; 
and, consequently, the subject of this memoir is collaterally, 
though distantly, related to the present Sir John Trollope, 
Baronet. 

Sir Henry is a native of Norwich : and was born about the 
year 1750. Originally intended for the sen, he entered the ser- 
vice at a very early period of lii'e; but, under whose auspices, 
we have not been able to ascertain. 

As far back as the year 1779j> ^e find him, as lieutenant, 
commanding the Kite schooner, of 14 guns. The period to 
which we particularly allude, was, when the combined French 
and Spanish fleets, consisting of sixty-six sail of the line, escaped, 
the vigilance of the British, entered the Channel, and appeared 
before Plymouth, to the great alarm of the inhabitants. Sir 
Charles Hardy, with the Channel fleet, was then cruising in the 
Soundings. Strong easterly winds, which blew for seve:al days, 
forced the enemy out of the Channel, and also prevented Sir 
Charles from entering it ; but, on the 3 1st of August, the wind 
having shifted, the British fleet gained the entrance of thg 
Channel, in sight of the enemy. $ir Charles immediately drew 

. aof.XVIII. 3 4- 



354 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOlft Ot 

up his fleet in (lie order of battle; on which occasion the Kite 
was attached to the centre division. The enemy followed it 
cannot be said that they pursued our fleet, until sun-set ; when, 
being a little to the eastward of Falmouth, they hauled to the 
south-west, and stood out of the Channel. Thus no engagement 
took place. Sir Charles Hardy proceeded off the Edystone, 
where the fleet anchored, to wait the return of the flood tide ; 
and the next morning returned to Spithead. 

Lieutenant Trollope continued some time longer in the Kite ; 
and, in the spring of 1781, proceeded in her, with Vice-Admiral 
Darby's squadron, to the relief of Gibraltar. The squadron 
sailed from Spithead, on the 14th of March ; arrived off 
-Gibraltar on the 12th of April; and, having accomplished its 
object, reached Spithead, on its return, on the 21st of May. 

Some time previously to this, Lieutenant Trollope had been 
made master and commander; and, on the 4th of June, 1781, 
he was promoted to the rank of post captain. 

The first ship to which he was subsequently appointed, was 
the Rainbow frigate, of 44 guns. On the 4th of September, 
1782, having sailed from Plymouth two days before, for the 
purpose of joining Commodore Elliott, in the Channel, the 
Rainbow fell in with, and captured, off the Isle of Bas, la Hebe, 
a French frigate, of 40 guns, and 3(>0 men, commanded by 
M. de Vigny, who was slightly wounded. The Hebe's second 
captain, and four men, were killed, and several wounded ; but 
the Rainbow fortunately lost only one man. 

The following is Captain Trollope's account of the ac- 
tion : 

Extract of a Letter from Captain Trollope^ Commander of his 
Majesty's ship Rainbow, tu 1'ice-Admiral Lord Shuldhaw 9 
dated at Plymouth , September 7, 1782. and transmitted by his 
Lordship to Mr. Stephens. 

tl I beg you will be pleased to acquaint my Lords Commissioner! 
of the Admiralty, that we mailed from Plymouth on the 2d instant 
to join Commodore Elliott, and on the 4th, at four A.M. the Isle 
of Bas bearing south six or seven miles, we discovered a sail to the 
westward, which we immediate! y gave cbaie to ; at six perceived 
i 



tIR HEXRT TROLLOPS, KKT* 35& t 

her t'Q be a. frigate ; at seven, having got within gun-shot, began 
firing our bow-chasers ; at half-past seven she hoisted a French 
ensign, and began firing her stern chase guns ; at half- past eight, 
being within hail, they luffed up, gave us a broadside, and struck 
their ensign : found her to be the Hebe, French king's frigate, 
mounting 40 guns, 28 of which were French eighteen-poundcrs, 
aud 360 men ; had sailed from St. Malo the day before with a con- 
voy for Brest, which, during the chase, they being close in shore, 
got into Morlaix. She was commanded by Monsieur de Vigny, 
Capitainc dc Vaisseau, and of the Order of St. Louis, who is 
slightly wounded ; their second captain and four men killed ; their 
wheel shot away, and foremast badly wounded, which is the only 
damage -she received: she is completely rigged, and well provided 
with stores of all kinds ; was the first time of her having been at 
sea. We fortunately have received no other damage than one man 
killed. 

The utmost praise is due to Mr. Lessley, the first lieutenant, for 
his attention and activity; and also to the officers and ship's com- 
p any, for their exertions during the chase ; and I flatter myself 
they would have distinguished themselves, had an opportunity 
offered. I have the honour to be, &c. 

"II. TROLLOPE." 

The Hebe was aftersvards purchased by government, and 
added to the royal navy by the same name. 

Captain Trollope continued in the Rainbow till the peace of 
1783, when he retired on half-pay. 

He had been some time married to a very amiable young 
lady, whose maiden name was Best , and, being partial to the 
country, and to the enjoyments of domestic life, lie purchased 
the lease of a castle in Wales, not far from the sea-shore. His 
hospitality at that place was bounded only by the limits of his 
fortune ; and, throughout his life, he has been distinguished for 
benevolence and liberality. One instance of his humanity, and 
generous attention to the distressed, in which his lady most 
amiably participated, is already upon record in the NAVAL 
CHRONICLE.* This was in the case of the shipwreck of 
1'Aimable Marthe, a French ship, which was lost upon the 
Welch coast, near the residence of Captain Trollope, in the; 

* /,' 'Vol. XVII. page 59. 



356 fttOCUAPHICAL MEMOIR Of 

year 1786. L'Aimable Marthe was returning to France, from 
Africa, with M. Durand, the former governor of Isle St. Louis; 
on board, as a passenger. After a long and dangerous passage 
from Senegal, the French captain lost his reckoning ; and, 
instead of being off Havre,, he found himself in the British 
Channel. L'Aimable Marthe was at length driven on shore; 
and M. Durand and the crew, having effected their escape, 
made their way, as chance directed them, in a dark rainy night, 
to the mansion of Captain Trollope; who not only administered 
to their immediate necessities, but entertained them for some 
days, and then furnished them with letters of recommendation 
to Bath, Bristol, and London. In justice to M. Durand, it 
should be .added, that, when he afterwards published an account 
of his voyage, he paid an appropriate tribute of gratitude to his 
generous benefactor. 

At the period of the Spanish armament, in 1790, Captain 
Trolbpe was appointed to command la Prudente, of 38 guns ; 
but, as we have repeatedly had occasion to state, the differences 
\vith Spain were amicably adjusted ; and la Prudente, with 
most of the other ships which had been commissioned, was 
paid off. 

In the following year, Captain Trollope commanded the 
Hussar, of 08 guns, under Vice-Admiral Peyton, in the Medi- 
terranean; from which period, until the year 1795, we believe 
he was again upon half-pay.* 

In that year, owing to the alarming aspect of public affairs, 
the greatest exertions were made in every department of govern- 
ment, and several additional ships were taken up. To one of 
those the Glatton, of 54 guns, which had been built for the 
India service, with iron banging knees, and had performed two 
voyages Captain Trollope was appointed. In the winter of 
179-5, and in the spring of 1796, he was employed, under 
Admiral Duncan, in cruising off the Texel. On the 1.5th of 
July, in the latter year, he sailed from Yarmouth Roads, in the 



* In 1792, Captain George (the present commissioner, Sir ilupcrt 
went in the Husbar to North America. 



SIR HENRY TROLLOPS, R*T. 

Glatton, to join the squadron which was then off the Texcl, 
under the command of the present Vice-Admiral Savage. On 
the 16th he fell in with a French squadron, consisting of six fri- 
gates, a brig, and a cutter. The astonishing bravery and skill 
with which Captain Trollope engaged this immense superiority 
of force, have never been surpassed. It will be seen, from his 
own account of the action, which we shall subjoin, that, from 
the furious cannonade which was kept up by the Glatton, 
engaging on both sides, so near that her yard-arms nearly 
touched those of the Frenchmen, the enemy, in twenty minutes, 
began to sheer eff; and, had it not been for the great injury 
which the Glatton sustained in her rigging, a most decisive vic- 
tory would have been obtained. What is farther very remarkable 
in this engagement, the Glatton had not a single man killed, and 
only two wounded. 

The following is Captain Trollope's account : 

Admiralty Office, July 22, 179(5. 

Extract of a Letter from Captain Trollopc, of his Majesty's ship 
the Glutton^ to Vice- Admiral Macbridc, commanding his 
Majesty's ship.? and iw.vt'/.v in Yarmouth Roads, dated the 2l.y 
instant. (Transmitted to J/r. Nejpeaa 3 by Vice -Admiral 
Macbridc.) 

" I beg leave to inform yon, that, in pursuance of your order, 
I sailed in his Majesty's ship Glatton, on the 15th of July, from 
Yarmouth Roads, in order to join Captain Savage, and a squadron 
under his command ; and on the 16th, at one P.M. we observed a 
squadron about four or live leagues oil Ilelvoct. Owing to light 
Avinds and calms, it was seven P.M. before we were near enough 
to discover the squadron to consist of six frigates, one of which, 
the commodore's ship, appeared to mount near fifty guns; two 
others appeared about thirty-six guns, remarkably fine long 
frigates ; and the other three smaller, and might mount about 
twenty-eight guns each. There were also a very line brig and 
cutter with them. We soon suspected, from their signals, and 
their not answering our private signs, that they wcro enemies, 
and immediately cleared for action, and bore down to them. 
From their manuMivring it was ten at night before we got close 
alongside the third ship in the enemy's line, which from her sizo 
we supposed to be the commodore^; when, after huiling her, and 



BIOS-RAPHlCAt MEMOIR OF 

finding them to be a French squadron, I ordered him to strike his 
colours, which he returned with a broadside, and I believe was 
well repaid by one from the Glatton within twenty yards ; after 
which the action became general with the enemy's squadron, the 
f xvo headmost of which had tacked, and one of the largest had 
placed herself alongside, and another on our weather bow, and the 
sternmost had placed themselves on our lee quarter and stern. In 
this manner we were engaged on both sides for a few minutes, 
with our yard-arms nearly touching those of the enemy on each 
side ; but I am happy to acquaint you, that in less than twenty 
minutes the weight of our fire had beat them off on all sides, but 
when we attempted to follow them, we, much to our regret, found 
it impossible. I have no doubt, from the apparent confusion the 
enemy were in, we should hare gained a decisive victory, but 
unfortunately in attempting to wear, we found every part of our 
rigging totally cut to pieces, and the major part of our standing 
rigging, every stay, except the mizcn, either cut or badly wounded, 
and our masts and yards considerably damaged. In this situation, 
although every, officer and man exerted themselves to the utmost 
the whole night, it was seven in the morning before the ship was in 
tolerable order to have renewed the action. The enemy, who 
appeared in the morning in a close line, seemed to hare suffered 
very little in their rigging, although I am certain they must have 
had much damage in their hulls, at which the whole of our fire was 
drrected, as they did not choose to come near us again, although 
they must plainly have seen our disabled state, but made the best 
of their way for Flushing, and we followed them as close as we 
could till the 17th, at nine A.M. when they were within three 
leagues of that port, with the hopes of meeting with some 
assistance to enable me to destroy them ; but it coining on to 
blow hard at west, in the disabled state the ship was in, we were 
forced to haul off the shore; but although we were not able to 
take any of them, I trust you will think the officers and men, 
whom I have the honour to command in the Glatton, to whom 1 
have reason to give every merit for their steady, gallant, and cool 
behaviour in the attack, have done their utmost, and also some 
good, in driving so very superior a force into port to refit, that 
Blight have done very considerable damage to our trade had they 
got to sea. I cannot conclude this, without recommending to your 
notice in the strongest manner, Lieutenant Robert Williams (2d), 
my first lieutenant, who gave me every assistance in his power on 
the upper deck ; and also Lieutenant Sdioruberg, second lieutenant ; 



SIR HENRY TROLLOPS, K^t. 359 

and Lieutenant Pringle, third lieutenant, who commanded on th* 
lower deck : and also Captain Strangeways, of the marines, whe 
I am sorry to acquaint you, has received a bad wound from a mus- 
ket ball in his thigh, which is not yet extracted, who, after he had 
received it, and had a tourniquet on, insisted on coming on dock, 
to his quarters again, where he remained encouraging his men, 
till he was faint with loss of blood, and I was under the necessity 
of ordering him to be carried down again ; and all the warrant 
officers, and petty officers, and ship's company, behaved as English 
sailors always do on such occasions. And\I am particularly happy 
in acquainting you, that I have not lost one liie iu so warm a 
action, and only one wounded, besides Captain Strangeways, viz. 
William Hull, the corporal of marines, who also received a musket 
ball through his thigh bone; the ball passed out on the other side. 
Our small loss can only be attributed to their firing totally at our 
rigging to disable us, in which they too well succeeded; and his 
Majesty's ship Glatton being unfit to keep the sea, from the 
damage she had received in her masts, yards, and rigging, I have 
thought fit, for the good of his Majesty's service, to come to Yar- 
mouth Roads to refit. 

It is much to be regretted, that the gallantry of Captain 
Strangeways cost him his life; as he soon afterwards died of his 
\\ound. 

That Captain Trollope was highly satisfied with his ship, is 
obvious, from the letter which he subsequently addressed to 
Mr. Wells, who had been employed to fil her out. " I have 
the pleasure of telling you," says he, " the Giatton sails as well 
as the line of battle ships in general do, and in every other 
respect is a perfect man of war. We found her in the late 
engagement very strong, and the firing of her guns did not hurl 
her in the least. We have tried her last winter well, in as hard 
gales of wind as ever I encountered. She is remarkably tight, and, 
take her altogether, in every respect is the best ship I ever was in. 

" I sincerely hope, 

in our next cruise, we may meet with a 74 in the Glatton, and 
I can venture to say now, that I think she would either take or 
sink her in twenty minutes." 

For this distinguished action, his Majesty conferred the dig- 
nity of knighthood upon Captain Trollope; and the mere-hunts 



360 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIR OT 

of London presented him w ith a piece of plate, of the value of 
a hundred guineas, in testimony of the high sense which they 
entertained of his conduct, and of the protection which he had 
proved himself capable of affording to the commerce of the 
country. 

In June, 1797, Sir Henry Trollope was sent, with the 
Glutton, to join Admiral Duncan, in the North Sea; shortly 
after which, he was removed into the Russell, of 74 guns. 
Admiral Duncan blocked up the Texel, during the whole of the 
summer, the Dutch having a considerable fleet there, ready for 
sea, under the command of Admiral de Winter. Early in 
October, however, the British fleet being in want of some 
repairs, Admiral Duncan put into Yarmouth Roads; leaving 
the following squadron of observation, under the command of 
Sir Henry Trollope: 

Ships. Guns. Commanders. 

Russell ........ 74 Captain Sir H. Trollope. 

Jsis .......... 50 . -- William Mitchell. 

Bcaulicu ...... 40 - Francis Fayerman. 

Circe ........ 28 - P. Halket. 

ft! artin ........ 16 - Hon. C. Paget. 

The Dutch availed themselves of this opportunity, to put to 
sea; but, by the vigilance of Sir Henry Trollope, Admiral 
Duncan was immediately apprised of their sailing ; and, getting 
under weigh, bore up, gave the signal for a general chase, and 
soon came within sight of the enemy, who were forming in a 
line, on the larboard tack, to receive him. The service of Sir 
Henry, upon this occasion, was thus acknowledged by the com- 
mander in chief: " Captain Trollope's exertions, and active 
good conduct, in keeping sight of the enemy's fleet until I came 
up, have been truly meritorious, and I trust will meet a just 
reward." 

In the battle which succeeded, Sir Henry Trollope had 
the honour of bearing a part ; but, as we have already given 
the particulars of that event, in our memoir of the life of Lord 
Duncan,* it 'is unnecessary, in this place, again to enlarge upon 



* Vide NAVA.L CuiiOMf.LK, Vol. IV. page 104, et t?j. 



SIR HENUY TROLLOPE, KXT. 361 

the subject. It is sufficient to state, that the glorious victory 
off Camperdown, by which nine ships of the line and two 
frigates of the enemy fell into our possession, was achieved, 
after an unremitting contest of something more than three 
hours. 

Sir Henry Trollope, in common with his brother officers, 
who shared in the conflict, received the thanks of both houses 
of parliament ; and was presented with a gold medal, to be 
worn in the same manner as those which were given in comme- 
moration of Earl Howe's victory. 

An additional honour awaited this gallant officer. On the 
30th of October, about three weeks after the engagement, his 
Majesty embarked at Greenwich, on board the Royal Charlotte 
yacht, for the purpose of visiting his fleet at the Nore, under 
Admiral Duncan, and to thank them in person for their 
valorous exertions. On this occasion, the Royal Charlotte was 
steered by Sir Henry Trollope ; his Majesty being attended by 
Earl Spencer, Lord Hugh Seymour, Admiral Gambier, and 
Mr. Marsden, of the Board of Admiralty,- and by Sir Andrew 
Snape Hamond, Comptroller of the Navy, and other com- 
missioners. The vessels which formed the royal procession, 
if it may be so termed, were arranged in the following 
order : 



An armed brig. 



THE ROYAL CHARLOTTE, 
Captain Sir II. Trcllope; 

THE PRINCESS AUGUSTA, 
Captain E. Itiou ; 

THE MARY, 

Captain Phillips. 



An armed brig'. 



The wind proving contrary, and blowing hard, the yachts 
were unable to reach the Nore until the following day ; when, 
the wind continuing adverse, and increasing much in violence, 
it was found utterly impracticable to proceed ; and, on account 
of important business, which required his Majesty's presence in 
town, it was at length determined to return to London, without 
accomplishing the object of the royal excursion. Accordingly, 
at ten in the morning, on the 1st of November, his Majesty and 

3 u 



305 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIR O? 

suite landed at Greenwich ; and, after breakfasting with Lord 
Hood, the governor of the Royal Hospital, returned to town. 

It should be mentioned, that, before his Majesty left the 
Royal Charlotte, he created Sir Henrj Trollope a knight 
banneret; but, in consequence of some peculiarities in the 
nature of the order, it was afterwards settled by the privy 
council, that a knight banneret could only be made in tli 
field, where a battle had ac